NASA Human Health_ Life Support and Habitation Systems Technology

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NASA Human Health_ Life Support and Habitation Systems Technology Powered By Docstoc
					National Aeronautics and Space Administration

        DRAFT HumAn HeAlTH, liFe SuppoRT AnD
        HAbiTATion SySTemS
        Technology Area 06

        Kathryn Hurlbert, Chair
        Bob Bagdigian
        Carol Carroll
        Antony Jeevarajan
        Mark Kliss
        Bhim Singh

      November • 2010
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Table of Contents
Executive Summary                                                                   TA06-1
1. General Overview                                                                 TA06-2
 1.1. Technical Approach                                                            TA06-2
 1.2. Benefits                                                                      TA06-2
 1.3. Applicability/Traceability to NASA Strategic Goals, AMPM, DRMs, DRAs          TA06-2
 1.4. Top Technical Challenges                                                      TA06-5
2. Detailed Portfolio Discussion                                                    TA06-6
 2.1. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and Habitation Systems TA06-7
   2.1.1. Approach and Major Challenges                                             TA06-7
 2.2. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Systems                                       TA06-10
   2.2.1. Approach and Major Challenges                                            TA06-11
 2.3. Human Health and Performance (HHP)                                           TA06-12
   2.3.1. Approach and Major Challenges                                            TA06-14
 2.4. Environmental Monitoring, Safety, and Emergency Response (EMSER)             TA06-16
   2.4.1. Approach and Major Challenges                                            TA06-17
 2.5. Radiation                                                                    TA06-17
   2.5.1. Major Approach and Challenges                                            TA06-19
3. Interdependency with Other Technology Areas                                     TA06-21
4. Possible Benefits to Other National Needs                                       TA06-21
Acronyms                                                                           TA06-24
Acknowledgements                                                                   TA06-24

NASA’s integrated technology roadmap, including both technology pull and technology push strategies,
considers a wide range of pathways to advance the nation’s current capabilities. The present state of this effort
is documented in NASA’s DRAFT Space Technology Roadmap, an integrated set of fourteen technology
area roadmaps, recommending the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization of NASA’s
space technology activities. This document presents the DRAFT Technology Area 06 input: Human Health,
Life Support and Habitation Systems. NASA developed this DRAFT Space Technology Roadmap for use by
the National Research Council (NRC) as an initial point of departure. Through an open process of community
engagement, the NRC will gather input, integrate it within the Space Technology Roadmap and provide NASA
with recommendations on potential future technology investments. Because it is difficult to predict the wide
range of future advances possible in these areas, NASA plans updates to its integrated technology roadmap on
a regular basis.

exeCuTive Summary                                       lieve that each activity or milestone represented in
  This roadmap provides a summary of key capa-          the TASR does indeed have a technology solution
bilities in the domain of TA06, Human Health,           to pursue at the present time, or will have within
Life Support and Habitation Systems (HLHS),             the timeframe shown. Each sub-TA portion of the
necessary to achieve national and agency goals in       roadmap is detailed in Section 2, providing fur-
human space exploration over the next few de-           ther explanation of the sub-TA as well as a sum-
cades. As an example, crewed missions venturing         mary table of the priority technologies and/or sys-
beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require tech-         tem functional areas of interest, the current SOA,
nologies with improved reliability, reduced mass,       the major challenges for advancement, and the
self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an    recommended milestones/activities to advance to
emergency or quick-return option will not be fea-       a TRL-6 or beyond (i.e., demonstration in a rele-
sible. The sub-technology areas (sub-TAs) includ-       vant mission environment or simulation thereof ),
ed in the roadmap are Environmental Control             which correlates with the TASR content. Section
and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and Habita-            2 also provides some example technological solu-
tion Systems; Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Sys-       tions, but these should not be considered all-in-
tems; Human Health and Performance (HHP);               clusive or decisive without rigorous survey of SOA
Environmental Monitoring, Safety, and Emergen-          and proposed technologies and further review/
cy Response (EMSER); and Radiation.                     study. Some major technical challenges identified
  Shown on the next page is an overview road-           for each sub-TA are presented in Section 1.4, for
map (called the Technology Area Strategic Road-         periods spanning the next two decades.
map (TASR)), which includes planned, predict-              As can be seen in the TASR, milestones are
ed, and new proposed missions and milestones            aligned to minimize the number of necessary
at the top. Examples of the planned and predict-        flights to progress the technologies and maximize
ed missions are human missions to LEO (e.g., In-        the use of integrated ground tests/demonstrations
ternational Space Station (ISS)) and Near-Earth         of new technologies for reduced risk. The ‘flight
Objects (NEOs). More detail on these “pull” mis-        campaigns’ serve as validation beacons to project
sions and milestones is given in Section 1.3. In        managers of future missions. It is recognized that
addition, new “push” missions and milestones are        validation to TRL-6 should occur by the Prelim-
proposed, and represent key events that would ad-       inary Design Reviews (PDRs) of these missions;
vance or validate technologies to a point where         PDR is targeted for no later than three years be-
they would be available to implement into future        fore launch readiness, and more often desired five
missions at low risk. An example “push” mission is      to six years before human missions.
the extension of ISS operations beyond 2020, to            The primary benefit of investment in technolo-
allow for continued and sustained testing and ad-       gy development for the HLHS domain is the abil-
vancements related to space-environment effects         ity to successfully achieve human space missions
on humans.                                              to LEO and well beyond, as described in Section
  The lower portion of the TASR is populated            1.2. At the same time, significant potential exists
with technology milestones and activities for each      for improvements in the quality of life here on
of the sub-TAs, as recommended to allow signif-         Earth and for benefits of national and global inter-
icant advancements to support the missions and          est. Section 4 provides an extensive description of
milestones identified. The icons are designated         how investment in HLHS can provide technolo-
in the legend at the bottom, and distinguish be-        gies for climate change mitigation, emergency re-
tween “pull” that directly tie to a mission, activity   sponse, defense operations, human health, biolog-
or milestone, versus “push” where there is no di-       ical breakthroughs, and more.
rect link but a recommendation/path to support             The OCT Roadmapping activity is intended to
future needs. Also, distinction is made for ground      identify overlaps across TAs, and for the topical
versus flight activities, and cross-cutting technol-    areas of TA06, HLHS, many such overlaps exist.
ogies are identified. Notably, some technologies        Notably, the greatest overlap occurs with TA07,
in the roadmap are currently at a low Technology        Human Exploration and Development of Space
Readiness Level (TRL), but could provide signifi-       (HEDS). Delineation exists in that the focus of
cant advancement in the current State-of-the-Art        HLHS is specific to the human element, includ-
(SOA) and/or drive new approaches or techniques         ing technologies that directly affect crew needs for
in accomplishing mission implementation. The            survival, human consumption, crew health and
subject matter experts authoring this roadmap be-       well-being, and the environment and/or interfaces

                                                 DRAFT                                               TA06-1
to which the crew is exposed. Alternately, HEDS        proposed technologies as well as associated mile-
focuses on the global architecture and overall in-     stones and missions correlating to the TASR.
frastructure capabilities to enable a sustained hu-    Also, the TASR milestones are aligned to mini-
man presence for exploration destinations. More        mize the number of necessary flights to progress
detail on HLHS relationships to the other TAs is       the technologies and maximize the use of integrat-
included in Sections 2.0 and 3.0.                      ed ground tests/demonstrations for reduced risk.
                                                       The ‘flight campaigns’ serve as validation beacons
1. General overview                                    to project managers of future missions. It is rec-
                                                       ognized that validation to TRL-6 should occur by
1.1. Technical approach                                the Preliminary Design Reviews of these missions;
   This roadmap provides a summary of key ca-          PDR is targeted for no later than three years be-
pabilities, including game-changing or break-          fore launch readiness, and more often desired five
through items, within the domain of TA06,              to six years before human missions.
HLHS, necessary to achieve predicted national
and agency goals in space over the next few de-        1.2. Benefits
cades. As an example, crewed missions venturing          The primary benefit of significant technology
beyond LEO will require technologies for high re-      development for the HLHS domain is the abili-
liability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and min-    ty to successfully achieve affordable human space
imal logistical needs, as an emergency or quick-       missions to LEO and well beyond. Continued ISS
return option will not be feasible. Human space        operation and missions will directly contribute to
missions include other critical elements such as       the knowledge base and advancements in HLHS
1) EVA systems to provide crew members protec-         in the coming decade, as a unique human-tended
tion from exposure to the space environment dur-       test platform within the space environment. Ei-
ing planned and contingency/emergency opera-           ther extension of ISS operations, or using an al-
tions; 2) crew health care to address physiological,   ternative permanent or semi-permanent in-space
psychological, performance and other needs in-si-      facility would facilitate sustained research/testing
tu; 3) monitoring, safety, and emergency response      and associated advancements into the following
systems such as fire protection and recovery, envi-    decade as well, in preparation for missions beyond
ronmental monitoring sensors, and environmen-          LEO. In-space test beds will be crucial to the de-
tal remediation technologies; and 4) systems to        velopment and validation of technologies needed
address radiation health and performance risks,        for those bold space missions, such as a NEO, cur-
and shielding and other mitigations.                   rently under consideration.
   The TASR provides a top-level overview of the         The proposed roadmap includes many suggest-
roadmap content herein. The missions shown in-         ed in-flight and ground test activities for pre-flight
clude those to LEO (e.g., ISS) and other poten-        evaluation and augmented research/testing of rec-
tial destinations beyond (e.g., NEO). In addition,     ommended technologies, which will regularly and
“push” missions and milestones are recommended         efficiently provide advancements during the de-
for consideration, which represent key events for      velopment phases. More details on the benefits
advancement or validation of technologies and/         for each entry are defined in subsequent sub-TA
or a point where the technologies could be avail-      sections. Additionally, Section 4 provides an ex-
able to implement for future missions. An exam-        tensive description of how investment in HLHS
ple “push” mission is the extension of ISS oper-       technologies can lead to improvements in the
ations beyond 2020 to allow for continued and          quality of life here on Earth and create benefits
sustained testing and advancements related to          of national and global interest. Examples include,
space-environment effects on humans. Notably,          but are not limited to, technologies related to cli-
some technologies in the roadmap are currently at      mate change mitigation, emergency response, mil-
a low TRL, but could provide significant advance-      itary operations, human health, and biological sci-
ment in the SOA and/or drive new approaches or         ence breakthroughs.
techniques in accomplishing mission implemen-          1.3. applicability/Traceability to naSa
tation.                                                       Strategic Goals, amPm, drms, dras
   The HLHS sub-TAs detailed in the roadmap              The process to develop the TASR included 1)
content herein are ECLSS and Habitation Sys-           initial consideration of the overall agency goals,
tems; EVA Systems; HHP; EMSER; and Radi-               outcomes, and objectives as “pull” missions for the
ation. Section 2 details each sub-TA, including        technology content and milestones; and 2) incor-

TA06-2                                          DRAFT
Figure 1: Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems Roadmap

                                                                      DRAFT   TA06–3/4
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poration of the NASA Mission Directorate and                                      this technology area (TA) exists; however, the dis-
NASA Centers needs and focus within the sub-                                      tinction is that TA06, HLHS, is specific to the
TAs. While the strategic plan for the agency, and                                 human element, including technologies that di-
therefore its strategic goals, specific missions, etc.,                           rectly affect crew needs for survival, human con-
is currently being finalized, the top portion of the                              sumption, crew health and well-being, and the en-
roadmap does include the proposed agency-level                                    vironment and/or interfaces to which the crew is
major missions and milestones derived from the                                    exposed. For the TA06, HLHS, drafted roadmap
drafted FY11 Agency Mission Planning Manifest                                     herein, some “push” missions and milestones are
(AMPM) ; an example is the planned ISS opera-
                                                                                  also recommended for consideration, like extend-
tions through 2020. In addition, some content re-                                 ed operation of the ISS. It should be noted that
lated to Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were                                    alternative platforms might serve this purpose as
based on Design Reference Architectures (DRAs)                                    well, such as commercial or joint space stations/
evaluated as a part of the Human Exploration                                      vehicles, if available and appropriate for the pro-
Framework Team (HEFT) activity ; an exam-               2
                                                                                  posed technologies.
ple is the assumed human missions beyond LEO,                                       The proposed roadmap provides time phasing
such as the mission to a NEO/Near-Earth Aster-                                    that would allow infusion of technologies or ca-
oid (NEA), within the 2025 timeframe. An at-                                      pabilities to support planned, predicted, and new
tempt was also made to consider the relevant mis-                                 proposed agency missions and/or milestones.
sions and milestones included on TA07, Human                                      Once the agency direction and authorization for
Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS),                                      FY11 and beyond is finalized, the roadmap should
Roadmap, as considerable potential overlap with                                   be re-evaluated.
1	        Agency	Mission	Planning	Manifest.	Draft	internal	NASA	                  1.4. Top Technical Challenges
document.	2011.
2	        Human	Exploration	Framework	Team	(HEFT)	DRM	Re-
                                                                                    The table below summarizes some major techni-
view	-	Phase	1	Closeout,	September	2,	2010.                                       cal challenges that will be faced in the continua-
Table 1. Major Technical Challenges
                                                                        Present – 2016
 Integrate fundamental research results on radiation environment biological effects, and including other effects from space exposure, into damage/risk
 model(s) and consolidate and interpret databases of major signaling pathways causative of cancer from space exposure and other damage
 Stabilize liquid and solid wastes to recover water and to control pathogens, biological growth and gas/odor production
 Achieve high reliability and reduce dependence on expendables over existing SOA systems that recover O2 from CO2 and H2O from humidity condensate
 and urine
 Develop advanced screening technologies, to detect and/or predict subclinical malignancies, subclinical cataracts, individual susceptibility levels to space
 exposure (e.g., radiation) and carbon dioxide exposures, osteoporosis, oxidative stress, renal stone formation, anxiety, and depression
 Demonstrate EVA technologies that could be used to extend EVA capability on ISS beyond 2020. These technologies include advances for on-back regener-
 able CO2 and humidity control, advanced suit materials, and more capable avionics
 Demonstrate real time airborne particle monitoring on the ISS
                                                                         2017 – 2022
 Develop radiation risk model(s) as a predictive systems biology model approach for space radiation, including development of experimental methods/
 techniques and models to verify integrated risk and understand synergistic effects of other spaceflight stressors (microgravity, reduced immune system
 response, etc.) combined with radiation
 Validate physiological and psychological countermeasures for long-duration missions, which can include any combination of exercise, non-exercise (e.g.,
 pharmacological) and/or advanced techniques (e.g., Virtual Reality technologies such as a “Holodeck”, artificial gravity)
 Close high-reliability ECLSS more fully, with >95% O2 and H2O recovery from an integrated mission perspective
 Implement bulk food processing in-flight and augmentation of food supply with plants
 Advanced EVA technologies to enable missions to NEOs, which includes suits that incorporate advanced materials and component demonstrations of life
 support technologies that reduce consumables
 Complete development of a distributed hybrid fire-detection system for space missions
                                                                         2023 – 2028
 Demonstrate hybrid physical/chemical and biological ECLSS with >95% recovery of O2 and H2O with bulk food production
 Develop and validate a non-ionizing, full body, dynamic, 3-D imaging with in-situ diagnosis and treatment capabilities (e.g., renal stone ablation)
 Validate real-time monitoring and forecasting space weather model(s), to include prediction of onset and evolution of Solar Particle Events (SPEs) as well as
 all clear periods
 Flight demonstration of an advanced EVA system, including suits that utilize multifunctional materials, a portable life-support system (PLSS) with no con-
 sumables, on-suit power generation, and avionics that enable the crew to operate autonomously
 Complete integrated system testing of portable, non-solvent-based microbial remediation on ISS

                                                                         DRAFT                                                                         TA06-5
tion and progression of human spaceflight, espe-       2. deTailed PorTFolio
cially for crewed missions beyond LEO. The listing        diSCuSSion
was determined by reviewing the recommended              This document provides a summary of key ca-
content for each sub-TA for the time period spec-      pabilities in the TA06, HLHS, domain, recom-
ified, and selecting one or two technologies and/      mended to achieve predicted national and agen-
or priority system functions within that domain        cy goals in space over the next few decades. The
for a balanced representation of HLHS. The table       sub-TAs, illustrated in Figure 2, are described in
specifies technologies that are a low TRL and re-      more detail in subsequent sections. Notably, for
quire extended development time to be ready for        TA06, HLHS, the greatest TA interdependen-
future missions, those that may significantly im-      cy is with TA07, HEDS. Substantial delineation
pact mission implementation (e.g., high reliabil-      between the two TA scopes does exist. HLHS
ity, reduced logistics, decreased mass, high effi-     concentrates specifically on the human element,
ciency power systems, etc.), and/or those that are     whereas HEDS focuses on the global architecture
critical to human safety and well-being. An exam-      and overall infrastructure capabilities to enable a
ple is that top priorities for ECLSS include matur-    sustained human presence for exploration desti-
ing technologies for high reliability and reduced      nations. The HLHS domain includes technol-
logistics, as supported by the recent HEFT activ-      ogies that directly affect crew needs for survival,
ity . The recommended activities and milestones
                                                       human consumption, crew health and well-being,
related to the challenges listed below, and those in   and the environment and/or interfaces to which
the Section 2 tables for each sub-TA, are direct-      the crew is exposed. An example is water technol-
ly correlated to the TASR content. The TASR also       ogies, which are needed for direct human water
shows when the milestones and activities related       intake, but also for hygiene and humidity control.
to the challenges are intended to be met.              This is distinguished from HEDS, for which the
                                                       water focus is on extraction from in-situ materials
3	       Ibid.                                         for use in vehicle systems, or optimal placement
                                                       of storage tanks to maximize radiation shielding

Figure 2. Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS)
TA06-6                                          DRAFT
without affecting the functional architecture. An-      venting or de-orbiting in spent resupply vehicles.
other example is that for HLHS, the EVA systems         Longer-duration missions demand that reusable
are those that directly interface to the human and      water be recovered from wastewater in order to
provide the life support, such as the suit itself and   reduce or eliminate the need for Earth-based re-
the support systems. Conversely, in HEDS, for           supply. Short- and long-duration missions typical-
the EVA systems include the mobility technolo-          ly also require some degree of wastewater stabili-
gies needed to interface to the vehicles/systems at     zation to protect equipment and facilitate potable
the exploration site(s) and to the components, in       water disinfection for storage.
order to conduct human mission operations; ex-             Waste Management – The objective of this el-
amples include a suitport and/or suitlocks, rovers,     ement is to safeguard crew health, increase safety
tools and translation aids. Another area of poten-      and performance, recover resources, and protect
tial overlap for both TAs is food preparation and       planetary surfaces, all while decreasing mission
production, but this too has been resolved: for         costs. Key technology gaps to be addressed for
HLHS, food is a critical consumable for humans          future missions include waste/trash volume re-
and provides a future interface to the life support     duction and stabilization, water recovery from
system for carbon dioxide scrubbing. For HEDS,          wastes, and ultimately a high-percentage recovery
the primary concentration is on production and          of H2O, O2, N2, CO2, and minerals. Additional
preservation of food for in-transit space and desti-    technology gaps include waste collection, disposal
nations, to minimize human-specific logistics and,      and containment technologies, and source odor/
therefore, support self-sufficiency for remote mis-     contaminant control.
sions beyond LEO. Overlaps with other TAs are              Habitation – This area focuses on habitation
described briefly in Section 3.                         functions that closely interface with life support
2.1. environmental Control and life                     systems, including food preparation and produc-
       Support Systems (eClSS) and                      tion, hygiene, metabolic waste collection, cloth-
       Habitation Systems                               ing/laundry, and the conversion of logistics trash
  The main objective of spacecraft life support and     to resources. Other habitation functions such as
habitation systems is to maintain an environment        deployable crew volumes, habitation analogs,
suitable for sustaining human life throughout the       lighting, housekeeping tools, and noise mitigation
duration of a mission. The ECLSS and Habitation         are addressed in TA07, HEDS.
System includes four functions, each of which is        2.1.1.	 Approach	and	Major	Challenges
described below.                                           The basic human metabolic spacecraft require-
  Air Revitalization – The overarching function         ments of oxygen, water, and food have been well
of this element is to maintain a safe and habitable     characterized, and these requirements have largely
atmosphere within a spacecraft, surface vehicle,        been met for short-duration missions (from Proj-
or habitat. This is achieved through the remov-         ect Mercury to the Space Shuttle) with open-loop
al of carbon dioxide, trace volatile organic com-       life support systems using expendables.
pounds, and particulates that are released into the        For the ISS, continual operational costs of a
atmosphere from crew member and vehicle sourc-          conventional open-loop system are prohibitive.
es. Oxygen and nitrogen are added to the atmo-          Accordingly, the ISS life support systems process
sphere in controlled manners to maintain cabin          condensate and urine into potable water. An up-
pressures and composition, and to make-up for           coming technology demonstration will also enable
metabolic consumption and loss. Ventilation mix-        recovery of half of the oxygen available in carbon
es atmospheric constituents and transports sensi-       dioxide. This approach is a significant advance
ble and latent heat loads to rejection devices. In      over previous systems, but many of the technical
long-duration missions, oxygen and carbon can be        solutions to human life support for the ISS de-
recovered from carbon dioxide and recycled to re-       pend upon reliable system operation and timely
duce mission life-cycle costs and upmass.               logistical support from Earth.
  Water Recovery and Management – This ele-                As NASA looks toward human missions be-
ment provides a safe and reliable supply of pota-       yond LEO, two key distinctions exist from all
ble water to meet crew consumption and opera-           crewed space missions to date: 1) human beings
tional needs. Short-duration missions often can be      will spend significantly longer periods of time far-
executed by using launched water supplies com-          ther from reliable logistics depots, and 2) an emer-
bined with disposing wastewater via overboard           gency quick-return option will not be feasible.

                                                 DRAFT                                               TA06-7
Accordingly, to sustain life on long-duration mis-      pabilities with the optimal combination of mass,
sions beyond LEO, high reliability will become an       size, reliability, logistics, and loop closure charac-
increasingly dominant design driver. Therefore,         teristics that will best support the given mission
the ECLSS and Habitation Systems technical area         scenario.
must develop and mature technologies that em-             In maturing these technologies, life support and
phasize 1) high-reliability processes and integrated    habitation systems for missions beyond LEO will
systems that employ autonomous monitoring and           need to address both the technological shortcom-
control systems and that are easily maintained by       ings and the functional integration inefficiencies
the crew; 2) increased self-sufficiency, enabled by     of existing systems. Further reduction of life-cy-
highly reliable means of recovering life-supporting     cle costs and closure of life support systems is par-
commodities such as oxygen, water, and food; and        amount, including focus on the key challenges
3) minimized logistics supply to diminish overall       summarized in Table 2.
mass of spares, maintenance equipment, clothing,          Air revitalization is typically achieved by the
food containers, and other items requiring stow-        combined operation of many individual equip-
age mass and volume.                                    ment items, each optimized to perform one or two
  Reliability, logistics, and loop closure all con-     functions . Utilization of multifunctional materi-

tribute to overall mission life-cycle costs. As ca-     als and processes can reduce system size and oper-
pabilities to recover and produce life support con-     ational complexity, regardless of mission duration.
sumables (O2, H2O, food) are added to a launch          Such multifunctional systems must be developed
vehicle, initial mass may be increased for addition-    to avoid burdensome maintenance or repair. Al-
al system hardware, spare parts, and expendable         though air revitalization life-cycle costs for long-
supplies. Depending on the mission duration and         duration missions are dominated by the degree
operations concept, these initial penalties need to     of oxygen recovery, system reliability and utiliza-
be justified by the resultant long-term consum-         tion of expendables also contribute substantially
ables savings. Architectural trades uncover which       to mission economics and probability of success.
combinations of capabilities yield the lowest life-     Reliability drivers include dynamic electrome-
cycle cost for a given mission duration and con-        chanical devices (valves and valve position indi-
cept. A representative break-even comparison of         cators, compressors, etc.) as well as components
this type is shown in Figure 3. The goal of life sup-   often considered “static” due to material attrition
port and habitation architecture is to select the ca-   and loss of critical properties over time (sorbents,
                                                        heat exchanger coatings, membranes, etc.). Oper-
                                                        ating equipment and airflows produce substantial
                                                        acoustic emissions that dominate the cabin envi-
                                                        ronment and require system size increases to ac-
                                                        commodate marginally-effective acoustic treat-
                                                        ments. Overboard venting of process gases as well
                                                        as residual atmosphere constituents during airlock
                                                        operations may require substantially greater con-
                                                        trols on planetary surfaces than has been histori-
                                                        cally required in LEO in order to meet planetary
                                                        protection requirements. Mission concepts that
                                                        require the recharge of oxygen accumulators drive
                                                        the need to reliably generate or compress gaseous
                                                        oxygen to high pressures or liquefy it to achieve
                                                        high storage densities.
                                                          Similar to air revitalization, life-cycle costs for
                                                        water recovery and management are dominated
                                                        by the degree of water recovery, system reliabili-
                                                        ty, and utilization of expendables. As in air revi-
                                                        talization, reliability drivers include both dynamic
Figure 3. Representative Comparison of Life-Cycle       4	         Perry,	J.,	Bagdigian,	R.,	and	Carrasquillo,	R.,	2010,	“Trade	
   Mass Predictions, Candidate ECLSS Architec-          Spaces	in	Crewed	Spacecraft	Atmosphere	Revitalization	System	Devel-
                                                        opment.”	Paper	presented	at	40th	International	Conference	on	Environ-
   tural Approaches                                     mental	Systems,	Barcelona,	Spain,	July	11-15.

TA06-8                                           DRAFT
Table 2. ECLS and Habitation Technical Area Details
Function             Current Soa/Practice                               major Challenge(s)                                   milestones/activities to ad-
                                                                                                                             vance to Trl-6 or beyond
Air Revitalization   CO2 removal via expendable lithium hydroxide       Attain high reliability                              2011-14: 75% O2 recovery
                     and regenerable molecular sieves [TRL-9] and
                     amines [TRL-6]                                     Reduce utilization of expendables                    2011-14: Variable cabin pressure
                     O2 supply via compressed gas delivery, scav-       Reduce power and equipment mass and
                     enging of cryogenic fuel cell reactant boil-off,   volume                                               2015-19: 100% O2 recovery
                     consumption of expendable perchlorate
                     candles, and water electrolysis                    Increase recovery of O2 from CO2                     2020-24: O2 recovery augmented
                                                                                                                             by crop systems and life-support-
                     50% O2 recovery from CO2 [Sabatier TRL-7]          Reduce acoustic emissions                            ing materials

                     Trace contaminant removal via catalytic oxida-     Control environmental mass exchanges to              2025-29: O2 recovery principally
                     tion and expendable sorbents                       ensure planetary protection                          provided by crop systems and life
                                                                                                                             supporting materials
                     Particulate filtration                             System impacts of cabin atmospheres with
                                                                        reduced total pressures and elevated oxygen
                     Ducted fans                                        concentrations

                     Air/liquid heat exchangers (condensing, non-       Develop and validate complex models and
                     condensing)                                        simulations (e.g., Computational Fluid Dynam-
                                                                        ics (CFD), human metabolic models, chemical
                                                                        and microbial processes)
Water Recovery       H2O recovery from humidity condensate and          Attain high reliability                              2011-14: 40-55% H2O recovery
and Manage-          urine only (representing only 15-20% of the                                                             (condensate, urine, hygiene)
ment                 anticipated wastewater load for exploration        Reduce utilization of expendables
                     missions)                                                                                               2015-19: 98% H2O recovery (con-
                                                                        Reduce power and equipment mass and                  densate, urine, hygiene, laundry,
                                                                        volume                                               waste)

                                                                        Reduce acoustic emissions                            2020-24: 98% H2O recovery
                                                                                                                             augmented by biological systems
                                                                        Recover water from additional sources, includ-       (condensate, urine, hygiene,
                                                                        ing hygiene and laundry                              laundry, waste, In-Situ Resource
                                                                                                                             Utilization (ISRU)-derived)
                                                                        Increase overall water recovery percentage
                                                                                                                             2025-29: 98% H2O recovery
                                                                        Stabilize wastewater from multiple sources in        principally provided by biological
                                                                        manners that are compatible with processing          systems

                                                                        Disinfect and maintain microbial control of po-
                                                                        table water by means that protect crew health
                                                                        and provide reliable monitoring
Waste Manage-        Single-use supplies and return of all wastes to    Attain high reliability                              2011-14: Waste stabilization and
ment                 Earth for disposal                                                                                      volume reduction
                                                                        Reduce utilization of expendables
                                                                                                                             2015-19: H2O recovery from
                                                                        Reduce power and equipment mass and                  wastes
                                                                                                                             2020-24: Waste mineralization
                                                                        Stabilize wastes to control pathogens, biologi-
                                                                        cal growth, and gas/odor production                  2025-29: >95% waste resource
                                                                        Resource Recovery – recover H2O and other re-
                                                                        sources (O2, CO2, N2, minerals, clothing radiation
                                                                        shielding, and fuel)
                                                                        Planetary Protection compatibility
Habitation           Limited clothing reuse prior to disposal (0.38     Odor/microbial control for multiple uses – limit-    2011-14: Long-wear clothing; 50%
                     kg/crew-day) – no in-flight laundry capability     ing impact on wastewater processor                   less food packaging
                     All ISS food requires ground resupply – zero-g
                     plant growth demonstrated                          Simplified bulk food preparation and continu-        2015-19: Reusable clothing; fresh
                                                                        ous low-energy and low-volume food produc-           food augmentation
                                                                                                                             2020-24: Bulk food processing
                                                                        Laundry systems
                                                                                                                             2025-29: Bulk food production

                                                                                                                             2025-29: Biological engineering
                                                                                                                             for food production

electromechanical devices (valves, pumps, centrif-                                gaseous contaminant release (e.g., ammonia). Re-
ugal gas/liquid separators, etc.) and “static” ma-                                covered potable water must be disinfected to en-
terials (sorbents, catalysts, membranes, etc). The                                sure safe storage with biocides that don’t pose
physical, chemical, and microbiological complex-                                  long-term crew member health risks. The capa-
ity and variability of wastewaters necessitate that                               bility to recover water from a wider range of po-
they be stabilized to protect equipment from bi-                                  tential wastewater sources can contribute to low-
ological and chemical fouling-induced failure and                                 er life-cycle costs, particularly by enabling clothes

                                                                         DRAFT                                                                          TA06-9
laundering and reducing dependence on expend-            food packaging via new materials, bulk food prep-
able wipes for crew hygiene.                             aration, and on-orbit food production capabilities
   Solid waste management systems for missions to        is also required for future missions. Advances in
date have been limited to a “cradle-to-grave” ap-        biology have the potential to revolutionize food
proach, consisting of a one-time use of supplies         production in space through genetic engineering
followed by storage and return to Earth. Beyond          of plants to increase harvest index, protein and vi-
hand compression of trash prior to containment,          tamin content, and growth rate, and create short-
no processing is conducted. Biological growth and        er, more volume-efficient crops. A key challenge
concomitant odor production continue during              for food production will be developing energy-ef-
storage, and are managed using closed or vented          ficient lighting technologies, including electrical-
storage containment. While this strategy has suf-        ly driven devices such as Light-Emitting Diodes
ficed for past missions, including frequent down-        (LEDs) or the use of captured solar light.
mass return to Earth, it will not satisfy the require-     Hygiene systems include partial-body cleaning
ments of future long-duration missions.                  (hand washing, wipes), full-body cleansing (show-
   Enabling long-duration missions will require es-      ers), and metabolic waste collection interfaces (fe-
tablishing an integrated “cradle-to-cradle” strat-       cal, urine, menstrual, emesis). Urine pretreatment
egy that employs resource retrieval and reuse via        and hygiene cleansers/chemicals must be com-
water recovery, air revitalization, and other sub-       patible with water recovery technologies, and the
systems. Further gains can be realized by deliber-       human waste collection interface must facilitate
ate selection of mission consumables, packaging          processing and stabilization of feces. Necessary
plastics, and spacecraft materials that facilitate di-   housekeeping improvements include trash/de-
rect reuse or serve as feedstock for in-situ man-        bris collection, surface cleaning systems, advanced
ufacturing of valuable products such as radiation        consumables stowage (packaging material devel-
protection, spares and fuel. Such processing will,       opment), antimicrobial/antiseptic recovery con-
by default, 1) provide mass and volume savings;          trol, and post-fire cleanup.
2) enhance mission sustainability; and 3) reduce           Deep-space missions will require the ability to
the amount of waste that requires safe handling,         launder clothing in space. Both body hygiene and
storage and disposal. Extensive waste reuse also         laundry typically utilize water and a cleaning sur-
decreases the amount of waste that requires pro-         factant to remove salts, body oils, and dander. Re-
cessing to satisfy potentially restrictive planetary     covery of this high Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
protection requirements. Widespread use of spe-          wastewater is important to closing the water bal-
cifically-designed biodegradable materials, includ-      ance. A laundry system that requires minimal sur-
ing bioplastics, can dramatically increase resource      factants to clean clothing is desirable. Addition-
recovery and reduce residue proportions.                 al key challenges include developing light-weight,
   Habitation engineering is a distinct TA directly      quick-dry fabrics for crew clothing and repeated-
applicable to vehicle success, but an area that his-     use antimicrobial wipes that require only negligi-
torically has been inadequately addressed in initial     ble cleaning.
vehicle system design. Current habitation capabil-         Re-purposing of stowage containers has been
ities were designed for LEO missions and are not         proposed to minimize mass and allow reuse via
optimized for resupply, reliability, mass, volume,       conversion into crew items and acoustic/radiation
and autonomy requirements which will be design           blankets. Alternate approaches include reduction
drivers for deep-space missions.                         in volume for disposal, or conversion to solid plas-
   Habitation cleaning, clothing, and consumables        tic bricks by heat melt compaction for use as radi-
are currently all open-loop systems, and portions        ation shielding.
of the loops must be closed for long-duration mis-         The major challenges of each sub-element, as
sions beyond LEO. Several habitation systems             well as efforts required to overcome the challeng-
have considerable interface with Air Revitaliza-         es to develop and demonstrate the technology to
tion, Waste Management, and Water Recovery               TRL-6, are listed in Table 2.
systems, and require improved capabilities as stat-      2.2. extra-vehicular activity (eva)
ed in the paragraphs below. Other habitation sys-               Systems
tems are detailed in TA07, HEDS.                           EVA systems are critical to every foreseeable hu-
   Improved means of food preparation, rehydra-          man exploration mission for in-space microgravity
tion, water dispensing, and galley architecture          EVA and for planetary surface exploration. In ad-
concepts are needed. A significant reduction of

TA06-10                                           DRAFT
dition, a Launch, Entry and Abort (LEA) suit sys-                             tems to supply data to enable crew members to
tem is needed to protect the crew during launch,                              perform their tasks with more autonomy and ef-
landing and cabin contamination/depressuriza-                                 ficiency.
tion events. An EVA system includes software and                              2.2.1.	 Approach	and	Major	Challenges
hardware that spans multiple assets in a given mis-                             The current suit development process is ham-
sion architecture and interfaces with many vehicle                            pered by a lack of analytical modeling to predict
systems, such as life support, power, communica-                              combined body-suit dynamics, effects of body pa-
tions, avionics, robotics, materials, pressure sys-                           rameters, and suit size. A high-fidelity integrat-
tems, and thermal systems. AIAA publications ,                        5,6,7

                                                                              ed model will allow computer simulations lead-
provide further details of the current SOA of the                             ing to decreased development time and cost while
EVA technology and challenges necessary to ad-                                providing better-performing suits. This capability
vance this TA to conduct NASA’s planned mis-                                  could also potentially lead to preventing crew in-
sions safely, affordably, and sustainably. The com-                           jury during mission phases that require suited op-
plete EVA system includes three functions, each of                            erations.
which is described below.                                                       Extending these capabilities to include the abili-
  Pressure Garment – The suit, or pressure gar-                               ty to model the LEA suit-seat interface and predict
ment, is the set of components a crew member                                  crew injuries during vehicle landing will enhance
wears and uses. It includes the torso, arms, legs,                            crew safety and survivability. New suit materi-
gloves, joint bearings, helmet, and boots. The suit                           als could potentially perform multiple functions
employs a complex system of soft-goods mobility                               that may include power generation, heat rejec-
elements in the shoulders, arms, hips, legs, torso,                           tion, communication, dust protection, injury pro-
boots, and gloves to optimize performance while                               tection, reduced risk of electrical shock hazards
pressurized without inhibiting unpressurized op-                              (e.g., due to plasma charging), radiation protec-
erations. The LEA suit also contains provisions to                            tion, and enhanced crew survivability. New mate-
protect the crew member from both the nominal                                 rials should continually be identified, evaluated in
and off-nominal environments (e.g., gravitational,                            coupon-level testing, and then integrated into suit
sound, chemical) encountered during launch, en-                               components. Once they have been proven as a via-
try and landing.                                                              ble, effective suit component via a pressurized suit
  Portable Life Support System (PLSS) – The                                   test in a relevant environment, they will be con-
PLSS performs functions required to keep a crew                               sidered TRL-6. Advanced suit tests in the Neu-
member alive during an EVA. These functions in-                               tral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at JSC are an ap-
clude maintaining thermal control of the astro-                               propriate environment for microgravity mobility
naut, providing a pressurized oxygen environ-                                 evaluations. Other reduced-gravity testing simula-
ment, and removing products of metabolic output                               tors exist and can be used when appropriate. Vac-
such as CO2 and H2O.                                                          uum chamber tests may also be relevant environ-
  Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) – The                                   ments for suit demonstrations of concepts that use
PAS system is responsible for power supply and                                advanced materials. These innovations should lead
distribution for the EVA system, collecting and                               to game-changing suit configurations and archi-
transferring several types of data to and from oth-                           tectures with decreased mass, improved mobility,
er mission assets, providing avionics hardware to                             self-sizing capabilities, and/or increased life. Im-
perform numerous data display and in-suit pro-                                proved materials may also lead to advances in mo-
cessing functions, and furnishing information sys-                            bility elements such as gloves, shoulders, bearings,
5	         Chullen,	C.,	and	Westheimer,	David	T.,	2010,	“Extravehic-          and other joints.
ular	Activity	Technology	Needs.”	Paper	presented	at	AIAA	Space	2010	            LEA suits could benefit from many of these
Conference,	Anaheim,	California,	August	30-September	2.                       types of advances in suit materials. They could
6	         Conger,	 B.,	 Chullen,	 C.,	 Barnes,	 B.,	 Leavitt,	 G.,	 2010,	   be donned extremely quickly in the event of an
“Proposed	 Schematic	 for	 an	 Advanced	 Development	 Lunar	 Portable	        emergency, which could provide crew protection
Life	Support	System	(AIAA-2010-6038).”	Paper	presented	at	40th	In-            for more vehicle failure scenarios. Integrated crew-
ternational	Conference	on	Environmental	Systems,	Barcelona,	Spain,	
July	11-15.
                                                                              escape or crew-survival hardware would be benefi-
7	         Malarik,	 D.,	 Carek,	 D.,	 Manzo,	 M.,	 Camperchioli,	 W.,	       cial as well. New designs that better integrate the
Hunter,	 G.,	 Lichter,	 M.	 and	 Downey,	 A.,	 2006,	 “Concepts	 for	 Ad-     suit, restraints, supports, and the vehicle seat could
vanced	Extravehicular	Activity	Systems	to	Support	NASA's	Vision	for	          greatly increase the safety of crew members. Tech-
Space	Exploration	(AIAA-2006-348).”	Paper	presented	at	44th	AIAA	             nology solutions to enable long-duration suited
Aerospace	Sciences	Meeting	and	Exhibit,	Reno,	Nevada,	January	9-12.

                                                                     DRAFT                                                  TA06-11
operations, as in the case of a cabin depressuriza-     of an integrated PLSS on ISS provides the ulti-
tion event, could resolve technical challenges as-      mate validation of a microgravity suit.
sociated with long-duration waste management,             PAS has significant opportunities to realize dra-
provision of food and water, and administering          matic increases in capabilities over the current
medication. Emergency breathing systems incor-          SOA. Key hardware constraints include mass,
porating oxygen generation, rebreathers, or filtra-     power, volume, and performance of existing ra-
tion systems would be beneficial for emergency          diation-hardened electronics. As such, there are
scenarios with smoke or the release of toxic chem-      many dependencies on other TASRs. For example,
icals.                                                  significantly increased bandwidth and processing
  The PLSS is a prime candidate for infusion of         requirements will exist for communications sys-
new technologies to significantly reduce consum-        tems. These will include a radio with networking
ables, improve reliability, and increase crew per-      capabilities and data rates that support the trans-
formance. Regenerable technologies for removing         mission of high-definition (HD) video. Integrat-
moisture and CO2 from the suit lead to reduced          ing speakers and microphones into the suit will
consumables and mass requirements. Amine swing          improve crew comfort and the reliability of the
bed technology, currently being developed, can be       communications system. Information systems and
proven via a test on ISS in the 2016 timeframe.         displays have tremendous possibilities for greatly
Additional advances could include the ability to        improving crew autonomy and efficiency, and ad-
capture CO2 and moisture from the suit, and de-         vancing the SOA. The future caution and warning
liver them back to the vehicle without incurring        system will have to obtain, process, and visually
significant mass, volume, or power penalties. This      display the affected crew member’s individual cau-
would help close the loop for water and oxygen          tion and warning telemetry, and that of other crew
on a mission level. These advances could be made        members. An integrated sensor suite including
with technologies such as zeolites, nano-porous         crew health diagnostics, coupled with advanced
beds, or wash-coated foams. The crew member             informatics, speech recognition, voice command-
is cooled using a water loop that passes through        ing, computing and display systems, can offer a
a liquid cooling garment and also an evaporative        wealth of information on crew state, external en-
cooling device that vents to a space vacuum. Inno-      vironment, mission tasks, and other mission-crit-
vations to make this water loop robust to chem-         ical information to maximize crew performance
ical, particulate, or microbial contamination are       and safety. Also, dramatic increases in the specif-
critical to providing reliable, long-lasting systems.   ic energy of future power systems are needed. PAS
In addition, non-venting heat rejection technol-        system demonstrations should be performed to
ogies would lead to significant reduction in mis-       mature selected technologies. An initial demon-
sion consumables. Compact, low-mass, reliable,          stration needs to be performed around 2016 to
and efficient technologies need to be developed         support EVA flight demonstrations and validate
that can reject heat to the spectrum of thermal         the maturity of technologies that could be used
environments of expected exploration missions. A        to support future ISS EVA activities. Additional
variable set-point oxygen pressure regulator would      demonstrations on ISS in the 2020-25 timeframe
provide new capabilities to decrease pre-breathe        need to be performed to show that technologies
time, treat in-suit decompression sickness, and in-     can provide the crew with the autonomy needed
terface with a wide number of vehicles that may         to perform missions farther and farther away from
operate at different atmospheric pressures. Opti-       Earth.
mization of inhalation/exhalation/ventilation ar-         The major technical challenges for each sub-el-
chitecture could provide potential benefits for         ement, as well as efforts required to overcome the
umbilical-based EVA scenarios. Because the PLSS         challenges to develop and demonstrate the tech-
is such a highly integrated system, it is necessary     nology to TRL-6, are listed in the following text
to perform system demonstrations to evaluate the        and summarized in Table 3.
combined performance of advanced technolo-              2.3. Human Health and Performance
gies. A PLSS human vacuum chamber test will be                 (HHP)
needed to bring technologies to a maturity level          The main objective of the HHP technologies is
that allows for a flight demonstration in the 2016      to maintain the health of the crew and support
time frame. Another PLSS vacuum chamber test            optimal and sustained performance throughout
should be performed to evaluate the technologies        the duration of a mission. The HHP domain in-
developed to reduce PLSS consumables. Testing

TA06-12                                          DRAFT
Table 3. EVA Systems Technical Area Details
                   Technology                Current Soa/Practice                        major Challenge(s)                                 recommended milestones/
                                                                                                                                            activities to advance to
                                                                                                                                            Trl-6 or beyond

                   Multifunctional suit      Suits comprised of multiple layers of       Materials that can serve multiple functions        2013: coupon-level demo
                   materials development     materials that independently provide        including eliminating suit-induced injury,
                                             functions such as structural support,       protecting from electric shock, saving mass,       2020: suit-level capability
                                             thermal insulation, or atmosphere           and improving suit mobility
                                             containment                                                                                    2025: multifunctional materi-
                                                                                                                                            als with increased capabilities
                   Suit modeling tool        No integrated modeling capability           Optimize suit design using combined body           2013: initial capability
                   development               exists to evaluate suit sizing, mobility,   and suit modeling to predict dynamic inter-
                                             or human-suit kinetics                      actions between the limbs and the suit             2018: validated model

                                             Tests with human subjects and their         Provide capability to evaluate multiple suit
                                             qualitative assessment is used              architectures prior to finalizing design and
Pressure Garment

                   Improved suit-seat        Crew members are restrained in their        Develop options for restraining and protect-       2015: Integrated suit-seat
                   interface design          seats with a harness that is applied        ing crew members during violently dynamic          demo
                                             over the suit                               mission events

                                             Personal aviation and auto racing
                                             industry advances have not yet been
                                             incorporated into space applications
                   On-back regener-          Suits use Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH),         In–situ regenerable technologies that will         2014: TRL-6 component
                   able CO2 and humidity     which is not regenerable, or Metal          allow on-back regeneration and enable              demo
                   control                                                               sustained EVA
                                             Oxides, which are heavy and require a                                                          2020: CO2/H2O capture for
                                             power intensive bake-out                                                                       in-vehicle recovery
                   Closed-loop heat rejec-   Water evaporation is vented to space        Heat rejection systems with no consumables         2020: component ground
                   tion system with zero     – for missions with many EVAs this is       to eliminate water loss for cooling and            demo
                   consumables               a significant impact to the vehicle life    decrease total mission mass
                                             support system                                                                                 2025: PLSS demo
                   Variable Set-point Oxy-   Suit pressure regulators have two           Capability to treat decompression sickness         2015: component ground
                   gen Pressure Regulator    mechanically-controlled set points          in the suit, allow for rapid vehicle egress,       demo
                                                                                         and provide flexibility for interfacing the suit

                                                                                         with multiple vehicles that may operate at
                                                                                         different pressures
                   Miniaturized Electronic   Suits use limited electronics               New techniques to miniaturize electronics          2015: subsystem capability
                   Components Demon-                                                     that enable decreased on-back mass while
                   strated                                                               increasing the performance of suit avionics        2020: system capability demo

                                                                                         Components need to be radiation-hardened
                                                                                         or radiation-tolerant and cost-effective to
                   Advanced Displays and     Laminated data sheets and voice com-        Enhanced on-suit displays, tactile data entry,     2020: helmet display
                   Enhanced Information      munications from the ground or IVA          voice commanding, integrated sensors suite,
                   Systems                   crew members                                and on-suit systems to optimize crew perfor-       2025: information system
                                                                                         mance, mission planning, and system control
                                                                                         based on telemetry
                   On-suit Power Systems     The silver-zinc battery provides ap-        Low-mass, high-capacity energy storage to          2016: battery demo
                                             proximately 70 Wh/kg                        meet EVA power and mass budgets (1,100
                                                                                         Wh with less than 5 kg of mass ( > 220 Wh/         2025: advanced power

                                                                                         kg))                                               system

cludes four functional focus areas as shown below.                                           Behavioral Health and Performance – The ob-
  Medical Diagnosis/Prognosis – The objective                                              jective in this topical area is to provide technol-
of this functional area is to provide advanced med-                                        ogies to reduce the risk associated with extend-
ical screening technologies for individuals select-                                        ed space travel and return to Earth. Technology
ed to the astronaut corps and prior to crew selec-                                         advancements are needed for assessment, over-
tions for specific missions; this is a primary and                                         all prevention, and treatment to preclude and/or
resource-effective means to ensure crew health.                                            manage deleterious outcomes as mission duration
  Long-Duration Health – The focus here is pro-                                            extends beyond six months.
viding validated technologies for medical practice                                           Human Factors and Performance – This el-
to address the effects of the space environment on                                         ement focuses on technologies to support the
human systems. Critical elements include research                                          crew’s ability to effectively, reliably and safely in-
and testing, including innovative use of test plat-                                        teract within the mission environments. Elements
forms such as Biosentinels and micro and nano                                              here include user interfaces, physical and cogni-
satellites, and the development of countermea-                                             tive augmentation, training, and Human-Systems
sures for many body systems.                                                               Integration (HSI) tools, metrics, methods and
                                                                                    DRAFT                                                                         TA06-13
2.3.1.	 Approach	and	Major	Challenges                  and nano satellites (Edison) and Commercial or
  Future human spaceflight exploration objectives      International collaborative missions such as Bions.
will present significant new challenges to crew          Missions beyond LEO will pose significant chal-
health, including hazards created by traversing the    lenges to astronauts’ psychological health, includ-
terrain of planetary surfaces during exploration       ing confined living quarters with a small crew,
and the physiological effects of variable gravity      delayed communications, no view of Earth, and
environments. The limited communications with          separation from loved ones. Potential deleteri-
ground-based personnel for diagnosis and con-          ous outcomes associated with these risk factors
sultation of medical events will create addition-      increase as mission duration extends beyond six
al challenges. Providing healthcare capabilities for   months; nonetheless, some missions may last up
exploration missions will require definition of new    to three years. Additional technologies are need-
medical requirements and development of tech-          ed to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce
nologies; these capabilities will help to ensure Ex-   BHP risks associated with space travel, explora-
ploration mission safety and success before, dur-      tion, and return to terrestrial life. These technol-
ing, and after flight.                                 ogies include 1) prevention technologies like reli-
  Medical systems for Exploration missions will        able, unobtrusive tools that detect biomarkers of
be pursued based on spaceflight medical evidence       vulnerabilities and/or resiliencies to help inform
generated to date, as well as research and analog      selection recommendations; 2) assessment tech-
populations. For each Exploration DRM, a list of       nologies for in-flight conditions such as high CO2
medical conditions that have high likelihood and/      levels, high air pressure, noise, microgravity, and
or high crew health consequences to mission suc-       radiation that may exacerbate risk; and 3) counter-
cess will be generated. Astronauts currently un-       measures aimed to prevent behavioral health dec-
dergo medical screening before they are selected       rements, psychosocial maladaptation, and sleep
to the astronaut corps and before they are chosen      and performance decrements; also, countermea-
for specific missions. This is currently the prima-    sures aimed to treat if decrements are manifested.
ry, and most resource-effective, means to ensure         A successful human spaceflight program heavily
crew health.                                           depends on the crew’s ability to effectively, reliably
  The on-going progress made in the field of ge-       and safely interact with their environments. HFP
nomics, proteomics (protein), metabolomics (me-        represents a commitment to effective, efficient, us-
tabolites), imaging, advanced computing and in-        able, adaptable, and evolvable systems to achieve
terfaces, microfluidics, intracellular Nanobots for    mission success, based on fundamental advances
diagnosis and treatment, materials, and other rel-     in understanding human performance (percep-
evant technologies will significantly enhance ad-      tion, cognition, action) and human capabilities
dressing the medical needs of the human system.        and constraints in context. The most critical el-
  Maintenance of HHP will require research be-         ements of the HFP roadmap are 1) user interfac-
fore and during flight. A number of proposed           es such as multimodal interfaces and advanced vi-
technologies align with today’s Medical Progno-        sualization technologies; 2) physical and cognitive
sis Team items and can be transitioned to medi-        augmentation such as adaptive automation based
cal practice once they have been fully validated.      on in-situ monitoring of work activity; 3) training
Other cross-cutting technologies provide signifi-      methods/interfaces; and 4) Human-Systems Inte-
cant value to other discipline teams – one exam-       gration (HSI) tools, metrics, methods and stan-
ple is artificial gravity, which is seen as a poten-   dards, such as those being developed by other gov-
tial game-changing technology. Aside from being        ernment agencies, NASA HSI assessment tools,
a promising countermeasure for many body sys-          and human performance tools such as the devel-
tems, development would require a new approach         opment of human readiness level and related con-
to vehicle design and potentially revolutionize the    cepts for fitness-for-duty.
way we explore space. The effect of microgravi-          Table 4 identifies the essential function/technol-
ty and radiation on human systems will be ascer-       ogy relevant to the four sub-elements identified,
tained using model systems (Biosentinels) such as      current SOA/practice for the near-term planned
cells, 3D-tissue, micro-organisms and small ani-       missions, major challenges to mature the technol-
mals and these model systems will be evaluated         ogy and the potential development activity need-
using robotic precursor missions with platforms        ed for future missions and the time-line to elevate
(including altered-gravity capabilities) planned at    the potential technology, as envisioned today, to
ISS, free-flyer-hosted payloads including micro        TRL-6.

TA06-14                                         DRAFT
Table 4. Human Health and Performance Technical Area Details
Technology                 Current Soa/Practice           major Challenge(s)                              recommended milestones/activities to advance
                                                                                                          to Trl-6 or beyond
Condition Specific         Astronauts are screened        Conditions exist that current medical           2012-20: Early screening technologies for dental
Screening Technology       for physical and psycho-       technology cannot detect far enough in          emergencies, subclinical medical conditions includ-
                           logical conditions             advance                                         ing malignancies, cataracts, individual susceptibility
                                                                                                          levels to radiation and carbon dioxide exposures,
                                                                                                          osteoporosis, oxidative stress and renal stone for-
                                                                                                          mation, sleep disorder, anxiety and depression. In a
                                                                                                          phased-fashion, the development in the identified
                                                                                                          areas will be implemented
Genetic/Phenotypic         Not in practice for selec-     Ethically acceptable screening technolo-        2015-25: Screening technologies to personalize
Screening                  tions                          gies                                            in-flight medical planning and care
Autonomous Medical         Screen-shots of paper          Lack of standards in data output from vari-     2012-20: Handheld, smart device that integrates
Decision                   procedures                     ous medical instrumentation                     with vehicle, hardware, patient, care giver and Mis-
                                                                                                          sion Control
Integrated Biomedical      Separate systems that do       Integrated standards                            2012-20: Integrated electronic medical records,
Informatics                not seamlessly interface                                                       medical devices, inventory management system,
                                                                                                          procedures and utilizes a medical hardware com-
                                                                                                          munication standard
Virtual Reality Patient    Does not exist for space-      Modular embedding of the technology             2015-25: Capability for crew members to practice
Simulator and Trainer      flight                                                                         just-in-time medical training on a system that accu-
                                                                                                          rately represents a patient’s body in microgravity
Medical Assist Robotics    Does not exist for space-      Automated laproscopic surgery; advise           2015-25: Capability to develop Medical Assist
                           flight                         physician of treatment options                  Robotics
Biomedical Sensors         Wet-electrodes; multiple       Interference from multiple systems; Signal      2012-20: Minimally-invasive diagnostic sensor suite
                           systems for EVA, exercise      sensitivity                                     that is easily donned/doffed (e.g. shirt). Systems to
                           and medical                                                                    assess the physiology of the eye, skin, and brain
Advanced Scanner           Ultrasound with guidance       Size, sensitivity and comprehensive nature      2015-25: Non-ionizing, full body, dynamic, three-
                           from the ground                                                                dimensional (3-D) imaging with in-situ diagnosis
                                                                                                          and treatment capabilities (e.g., renal stone abla-
Surgical Suite             Does not exist for space-      Logistics                                       2015-25: Sterile, closed-loop fluid and ventilation
                           flight                                                                         systems for trauma and other surgeries
Artificial Gravity         Does not exist for space-      Establishing ground analog study; Cost          2015-20: Prescribed exposure to artificial gravity
                           flight                         impact to develop space-flight systems          that may reduce or eliminate the chronic effects of
                                                                                                          2020: Ground Demo
Novel Drug Delivery        Pills, injections, ointments   In-situ synthetic biology capability for less   2015-20: Drug and Biomaterials manufacturing
Mode                                                      invasive and more efficient drug delivery       using synthetic biology
Portable In-flight Bio-    Dry chemical strips,           Biological sample collection; research-         2012-16: Miniaturized Analyzer
sample Analysis            portable clinical blood        grade water; sample and reagent storage;        2014: Research Grade Water
                           analyzer                       integrated, portable, hand-held, in-flight      2016: Miniaturized Microscopy Unit
                                                          bio-sample analysis (micro-fluidic flow         2018: Sample Processing and Storage
                           Samples returned to            cytometry; gene expression and proteomic        2014-19: In-flight proteomic analysis
                           ground for analysis in labs    analysis; microscopy; spectrophotometry/        2016-21: Mass spectrometry
                                                          fluorometry, mass spectrometry); real-time
                                                          feedback on crew health status
Cell/tissue Culture,       Limited, primarily Experi-     Small, autonomous, pioneering explora-          2013/2016: Bion M2/M3; 2012-2021 (ISS Annual):
animal Models              ment-Unique Equipment          tion satellites using cells or small animal     2018 Biosentinels Flight Demo
                           (EUE)                          models to assess impacts of long duration       2012-2018: Biosentinels – small, autonomous,
                                                          exposure of microgravity and radiation to       pioneering exploration satellites using cells or small
                                                          living organisms                                animal models to assess impacts of long duration
                                                                                                          exposure of microgravity and radiation to living
                                                                                                          organisms prior to or in conjunction with human
Induced Pluripotent Stem   Does not exist for space-      Individualized IPS based Stem cell replace-     2012-16: Individualized stem cell replacement tool
Cells (IPS)                flight                         ment to enable longer mission duration          kit for specific DRMs
                                                                                                          2016-21: IPS for anti-radiation therapies
                                                          Cost effective breakthroughs in anti-
                                                          radiation therapies
Exercise Equipment and     Uses large vehicle             Small, robust equipment. High efficacy          2012-2019: Development of concepts and proto-
Methods                    resources                      with high return for long duration missions     types for integrated exercise-based countermea-
                           High crew time                                                                 sure systems
Non-exercise counter-      Limited countermeasures        Robust, efficient and validated nutritional,    2012-19: Pharmaceutical countermeasures
measures                                                  radio-protective, and pharmacological           2012-15: Nutritional countermeasures
                                                          countermeasures                                 2015-23: Radio-protective countermeasures
Separation and isolation   Crew members call home,        Individual variation in response                2023: Virtual Reality technologies (i.e., “Holodeck”)
from home                  photograph Earth from                                                          to provide “back-home” connection; Earth-like
                           ISS                                                                            scenery

                                                                        DRAFT                                                                        TA06-15
 Technology                   Current Soa/Practice           major Challenge(s)                             recommended milestones/activities to advance
                                                                                                            to Trl-6 or beyond
 Lack of environmental        No continuous monitor-         Passive monitoring of crew health and per-     2015: Sleep Monitoring detection system
 control; stress/sleep loss   ing                            formance (e.g., vital signs, exercise, waste   2015-2019: Interfaces with other measures to per-
                                                             products, sleep, exercise work-load)           sonalize aspects of habitat/vehicle such as lighting,
                                                                                                            noise, temperature
 Depression, conflict,        Sleep medications, con-        Identification of early symptoms               2015-19: Next-generation “Virtual Therapist” for
 insomnia                     ference with Flight Sur-                                                      autonomous missions to treat behavioral health,
                              geon and/or Psychiatrist                                                      team cohesion, and sleep decrements and provide
                                                                                                            crew with surgeon’s care
 Advanced User Interface      Interactive visualization,     Selection/ development of interfaces           2011-14: Seamless human system interaction for
 (UI) Concepts                multimodal technologies        for unique spacecraft environment (e.g.,       NEO missions; Smart habitat interface concepts;
                              (haptic, auditory, visual),    high-g, low-g, zero-g, high vibration, pres-   Adaptive Habitat Design Tool for Human-in-the-
 Displays and Controls        intuitive wireless controls,   surized and unpressurized suited)              Loop (HITL) evaluation; Proof-of-concept (PoC) for
 (D&C) Smart Habitats         HRI, smart habitats                                                           advanced HRI (robotic arm, rover)
 Human-Robotic Interac-                                      Effective, low cost/mass/volume/power          2015-18: Advanced UI for planetary; PoC for
 tion (HRI)                                                  integrated systems for human spaceflight       advanced HRI for aerial; Population analysis /Biome-
                                                                                                            chanical countermeasures
                                                             Scalability to real-time scientific and        2020-29: Advanced HRI in-flight demo; Implemen-
                                                             engineering data                               tation (spin-offs) and augmentation as necessary
                                                                                                            augmented by crop systems
 Physical, Cognitive and      Radio Frequency Iden-          Effective, low cost/mass/volume/power          2011-15: Wearable computing in-flight demo; Cog-
 Behavior Augmentation        tification (RFID), motion      integrated systems for human spaceflight       nitive aids/adaptive automation in-flight demo; PoC
 (including Training and      tracking, wireless com-                                                       tools for remote collaboration; just-in-time training
 Maintainability)             munication                                                                    2012-16: (NEO) / 2017-19 (planetary): Physical
                                                                                                            augmentation/ countermeasure technologies;
 Tele-operations, remote      Wearable computing,                                                           Technology for sensorimotor augmentation, Habit-
 operations                   adaptive training and                                                         ability Rating Tool
                              decision support systems,                                                     2020-29: Implementation (spin-offs) and augmen-
                              tele-operations                                                               tation as needed
 Human System Integra-        Other Governmental             Effective transfer/ evolution of other         2011-12: HSI Scorecard Prototype for HSI cost &
 tion (HSI) Tools, Methods,   Agencies’ activities           governmental agencies’ approaches to a         benefit assessment
 Standards                                                   model effective to NASA environment and        2015: HSI implementation and augmentation as
                              NASA HSI Score Card; HSI       culture.                                       needed within human spaceflight technology
                              Standards                                                                     development programs/projects
                                                             Direct application of commercial tools and
                                                             methods in space environment.

2.4. environmental monitoring, Safety,                                              biological environments of the crew living areas
       and emergency response (emSer)                                               and their environmental control systems. Exist-
   The goals of the EMSER effort are to develop                                     ing technologies will not meet the needs of future
technologies to ensure crew health and safety by                                    exploration for LEO and beyond, for which lo-
protecting against spacecraft hazards, and for ef-                                  gistical resupply will be impractical and mission
fective response should an accident occur. This                                     lengths will be far greater, necessitating greater in-
area includes four functions, which are further di-                                 dependence from Earth. Crew time spent moni-
vided into sub-elements, as described below.                                        toring and controlling the spacecraft environment
   Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression                                      must be reduced. Related technologies in physi-
– The goal of spacecraft fire safety is to develop                                  cal, chemical, and biological monitoring and ad-
technologies to ensure crew health and safety by                                    vanced control must be assembled and must be
reducing the likelihood of a fire, or, if one does oc-                              tied synergistically to provide necessary technol-
cur, minimizing the risk to the crew, mission, and/                                 ogies for future human space exploration. NASA
or system. This is accomplished by addressing the                                   and NRC documentation , , provide more de-

areas of materials flammability in low- and partial-
gravity, fire detection, fire suppression, and post-                                8	         Committee	 for	 the	 Decadal	 Survey	 on	 Biological	 and	
fire cleanup. These topics will be even more criti-                                 Physical	Sciences	in	Space,	Aeronautics	and	Space	Engineering	Board	
cal for long-duration exploration missions as rapid                                 (ASEB),	 Division	 on	 Engineering	 and	 Physical	 Sciences	 (DEPS),	
return to Earth is not an option and the ability                                    National	Research	Council	of	the	National	Academies	(NRC),	2010,	
                                                                                    “Life	and	Physical	Sciences	Research	for	a	New	Era	of	Space	Explora-
to safely continue the mission will substantially                                   tion,	An	Interim	Report,”	Washington,	D.C.:	The	National	Academies	
increase the probability of mission success. This                                   Press.
must be accomplished without adding complexity                                      9	         Committee	 to	 Review	 NASA’s	 Exploration	 Technol-
to the fire response process or increasing required                                 ogy	Development	Program,	Aeronautics	and	Space	Engineering	Board	
consumables.                                                                        (ASEB),	 Division	 on	 Engineering	 and	 Physical	 Sciences	 (DEPS),	
   Sensors – The focus of the sensors task is to                                    National	Research	Council	of	the	National	Academies	(NRC),	2008,	
provide future spacecraft with advanced, micro-                                     “A	Constrained	Space	Exploration	Technology	Program:	A	Review	of	
miniaturized networks of integrated sensors to                                      NASA's	Exploration	Technology	Development	Program,”	Washington,	
monitor environmental health and accurately de-                                     D.C.:	The	National	Academies	Press.
                                                                                    10	        “Life	 Support	 and	 Habitations	 Systems	 (LSHS)	 Project	
termine and control the physical, chemical, and                                     Plan,”	Draft	2010.

TA06-16                                                                    DRAFT
tails of sensor technology and challenges necessary     exist with the space science instrument commu-
to advance this technology area.                        nity. Challenges in the sensor area may be met by
  Protective Clothing / Breathing – The focus           a combination of technologies. Differential Mo-
here is to provide crew sufficient capability to ad-    bility Spectrometry (DMS) and miniaturized ion-
dress off-nominal situations within the habitable       trap mass spectrometry can potentially serve as the
compartments of spacecraft. Off-nominal events          basis for environmental monitoring instrumenta-
include fire, chemical release, microbial contam-       tion. Because of their small size, low power require-
ination, and unexpected depressurization. Exist-        ments, and broad applicability, so-called “hyphen-
ing technologies will not meet the needs of future      ated analytical techniques”, such as DMS-MS,
exploration, which requires greater independence        electro-spray ionization (ESI)-MS, and even ESI-
from Earth, in which logistical resupply is not         DMS-MS, can be realized for space applications.
practical. Advancements are needed to reduce            With a properly designed sample preparation/in-
weight and cost, yet still provide effective protec-    let system coupled to any one of these “hyphen-
tive clothing and breathing capabilities that may       ated analytical techniques”, it is highly possible to
be deployed when needed.                                create a single “suite” of sensors applicable to at-
  Remediation – The focus of remediation is             mospheric, water, and microbial monitoring. In
to provide crew the ability to clean the habit-         all cases, space needs are more constraining than
able environment of the spacecraft in the event         terrestrial needs in terms of mass/volume and long
of an off-nominal situation. Off-nominal events         term reliability, including the need to stay in cal-
would include fire, an inadvertent chemical re-         ibration.
lease, or microbial contamination. Advancements           The SOA in protective clothing/breathing and
are needed to reduce weight and cost over current       remediation technologies for in-flight off-nomi-
methods, yet still provide effective remediation ca-    nal events relies heavily on the ability to resup-
pabilities that may be deployed when needed.            ply. Since resupply is highly unlikely, protective
                                                        clothing/breathing and remediation technologies
2.4.1.	 Approach	and	Major	Challenges                   must be effective, regenerable (if applicable), and
  The major challenge for fire research is predict-     be able to be deployed by crew in various off-nom-
ing flammability in low-pressure and partial-g en-      inal situations. Typically, methods to regenerate
vironments, as materials can burn at lower oxygen       current materials employ heat to desorb contam-
concentrations than they do in normal gravity.          inants from the surface, thereby increasing power
This means that materials that are non-flammable        requirements. Metallocenes and hybrid organic-
in normal gravity in certain configurations may         inorganic catalysts have been shown to immo-
actually allow a flame to propagate in low- or par-     bilize contaminants. Combining this capturing
tial-gravity in those same configurations. Early fire   ability with the ability to undergo light-induced
detection improvements to minimize false alarms         conformational changes in the geometry of the
require both particulate and gaseous species detec-     catalyst, regenerable remediation technology may
tion, as well as distributed sensors. Reduced size      be possible with very low power requirements. Al-
and power consumption of both particulate and           though these technologies are at the research lev-
gaseous species sensors, as well as increased infor-    el, they are representative of the type of develop-
mation content and sensor lifetime, are also re-        ment required for future missions. Improvements
quired for this capability to be realized. Potential-   are needed to evolve coveralls and gloves that are
ly, these fire detection systems could be combined      resistant to fire, chemicals, and microbes.
with sensors to monitor post-fire cleanup, there-         The major challenges of each sub-element, as
by reducing mass and simplifying crew emergen-          well as efforts required to overcome the challeng-
cy operations.                                          es to develop and demonstrate the technology to
  The approach to environmental monitoring sen-         TRL-6, are listed in Table 5.
sor technology development is to leverage the rap-
idly advancing communities in microelectronics,         2.5. radiation
biotechnology, and chem/bio terrorism defense.            The radiation area is focused on developing
The focus will be on adapting for reliable long-        knowledge and technologies to understand and
term operation in the space environment, as well        quantify radiation health and performance risks,
as reducing size and mass without sacrificing capa-     to develop mitigation countermeasures, and to
bility. In some cases, NASA-unique needs will re-       minimize exposures through the use of material
quire unique solutions. Leverage and overlap will       shielding systems. Possible other improvements

                                                 DRAFT                                               TA06-17
Table 5. Environmental Monitoring, Safety and Emergency Response Technical Area Details
Technology                 Current Soa/Practice                              major Challenge(s)                             recommended milestones/ac-
                                                                                                                            tivities to advance to Trl-6 or
Development of a pre-      Assessment of material flammability in            A low-g analog test and predictive             2019: Predictive ground-based
dictive technology for     normal-gravity at highest operational             capability must be defined and verified        low-g tests and modeling to evalu-
low- and partial-gravity   oxygen concentration                                                                             ate material characteristics that lead
material flammability                                                        Verification of the flammability limit         to increased flammability hazards in
                                                                             at length and time scales relevant for         low- and partial-gravity
                                                                                                                            2022: Verification of the
                                                                                                                            development and propagation of
                                                                                                                            relevant-scale low-g fires
Hybrid gaseous             Non-discriminate particulate detection;           Development of small, low-power gas            2016: Assessment of smoke and
and particulate fire       smoke filtering and dedicated instrument to       and particulate sensors for fire detection     gaseous fire signatures from low-g
detection and post-fire    monitor CO, CO2, and HX during clean-up                                                          fires
monitoring                                                                   Realistic-scale fire scenarios and post-fire
                           Realistic spacecraft fire and post-fire chal-     challenge for spacecraft                       2021: Development of a distributed
                           lenge does not exist                                                                             hybrid fire detection system

                                                                                                                            2022: Verification of the develop-
                                                                                                                            ment and propagation of
                                                                                                                            relevant-scale low-g fires
Autonomous 2-kg air        55-kg Major Constituent Analyzer                  Need ability to analyze complex mixtures       2020: Flight test on ISS
Monitor for Trace Gases                                                      capable of handling unknowns
and Major Constituents     25 kg Vehicle Cabin Air Monitor (VCAM)
                                                                             Need system to perform sample analysis
                           Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry              and data analysis routinely, alerting crew
                           experiment)                                       only when necessary

                           3-kg Air                                          Size about 2 kg (i.e., 70-80% size
                           Quality Monitor (gas chromatography-dif-          reduction beyond SOA; life tested for
                           ferential mobility spectrometry, trace gases      Mars mission
                           only, ISS Detailed Test Objectives (DTO)),
                           ground analysis of returned samples
Airborne Particle          Ground analysis: 0.01 mg/m3, integrated           Real-time monitors with binning                2020: Flight test on ISS
Monitoring                 mass measurement for 0.3-10 micron                capability for fine (300 nm-10 microns)
                           particles                                         and ultrafine (30 nm-1 micron)                 2030: Next Gen Tech Demo
Multi-analyte Technol-     Cannot perform analysis in flight; cur-           Need sample processing and analysis            (2020): Non-chromatographic
ogy for Stand-Alone        rently perform Ground analysis of returned        system to extract, concentrate, and            method to speciate analytes
Water Quality Mea-         samples                                           aerosolize samples and analyze complex
surements and TOC                                                            unknown mixtures and alert crew only           (2020): Complementary non-mass
Monitoring                                                                   when necessary                                 spectrometric analysis capability

                                                                             Need low mass, low power, and no               2030: Flight test on ISS
Microbial Detection for    Flight analysis: Microbial Air, Water, and Sur-   <12 hour results equivalent to current         2020: Flight test on ISS – include
Air, Water, and Surface    face Sampler Kits: Plate culture enumeration      culture methods; identify key organisms;       sample preparation and molecular
                           only (2-7 days), coliform test (2 days)           lower mass; decreased crew time                identification technology

                           Ground analysis of returned samples               Need sample processing system for
                                                                             automated sampling and culturing
Multi-Use/Multi-Func-      Ammonia / Fire Respirator                         Need respirator for first response to fire     2021: Flight tests on ISS of candidate
tion Respirator System                                                       and chemical emergencies with                  technology
and Mask                   Portable Breathing Apparatus delivering           communications and ability to plug into
                           100% O2 for 15 minutes                            air source.

                                                                             Need multipurpose, regenerable, car-
                                                                             tridge for fire and chemical response

                                                                             Need air masks with portable air supply
Portable,                  Activated Charcoal filters, High-Efficiency       Need for portable, regenerable                 2019: Integrated Regeneration
Regenerable Air            Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, and fan units     remediation system with high                   system testing in flight like
Remediation                                                                  throughput                                     conditions
Microbial Remediation      Benzalkonium chloride wipes                       Need for contingency, remediation              2025: Integrated system testing of
Technology                                                                   method to ensure all affected areas are        portable, non-solvent-based
                                                                             sufficiently cleaned                           microbial remediation system on ISS
Post-Fire Remediation      LiOH cartridges; Ambient Temperature Cata-        Need for portable, regenerable                 2020: Verification of post-fire
and Recovery               lytic Oxidizer; fan assembly; wipes; Monitor      remediation system that can remove,            challenge
                           CO, CO2, and HX (combustion products)             combustion products and fire
                                                                             extinguishing material                         2023: Test of spacecraft post-fire
                                                                                                                            environment and cleanup
                                                                             Identification and characterization of a       procedures at relevant scales
                                                                             relevant partial-g post-fire challenge
                                                                                                                            (2025): Test a “beyond LEO” fire
                                                                             Identification of gaseous and particulate      recovery system (separate from
                                                                             species to monitor for post-fire cleanup       ECLSS)

TA06-18                                                                    DRAFT
include combining shielding with biological                      flight data, radiation mitigation measures, space
countermeasures for enhanced effectiveness, de-                  weather forecasting, radiation protection, and ra-
velopment of higher-fidelity space radiation mon-                diation monitoring. NASA has developed and
itoring capabilities in the form of miniaturized                 operates the NASA Space Radiation Laborato-
active personal dosimetry, and to aid in crew se-                ry (NSRL) at Brookhaven to simulate GCR and
lection and operations for long-duration, human                  SPEs. Without accurate risk projection models,
missions beyond LEO.                                             the effectiveness of shielding materials for GCR,
   Exposure to the space radiation environment                   mitigation measures, and crew selection criteria
poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health                are poorly defined. The accuracy of risk models
and safety that have clinically-relevant, lifelong               must improve as the level of risk increases from
implications. The major health and performance                   ISS to NEO to Mars in order to achieve neces-
risks from radiation exposure include radiation                  sary technologies and to ensure crew safety fac-
carcinogenesis, acute syndromes, acute and late                  tors. NASA and NRC documentation , provide            12, 13, 14

central nervous system (CNS) effects, and degen-                 more details of the Radiation technology and chal-
erative tissue (e.g., cardiac, gastro-intestinal, circu-         lenges necessary to advance this technology area.
latory) effects. The major technical challenge for               2.5.1.	 Major	Approach	and	Challenges
future human exploration is determining the best                    A major challenge for radiation will be to acquire
way to protect humans from the high-charge and                   sufficient ground and flight data on living systems
high-energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) per-                 exposed to the relevant space environment, in or-
meating interplanetary space. With our current                   der to develop models to accurately predict radi-
knowledge base, the need to proactively provide                  ation risks, identify genetic selection factors, and
mitigation technologies (such as biological coun-                develop mitigation measures for remaining risks.
termeasures and/or shielding) against GCR occurs                 A major advance is required to reduce the biolog-
beyond LEO for missions greater than ~90 to 100                  ical uncertainties associated with Radiation Risk
days to remain below Space Radiation Permissi-                   Projection Models for both NEO and Mars mis-
ble Exposure Limits (PELs) . Exposure estimates

                                                                 sions so that an optimum use of shielding de-
for both short-stay (600 days) and long-stay (900                signs, mission length, crew selection and mitiga-
days) Mars missions are estimated at about three                 tion measures, such as biological countermeasures
to five times above PELs. This technical challenge               (BCM) can be developed. Research is on-go-
is extremely difficult because 1) GCR-heavy ions                 ing today and likely needs to continue for two
cause damage at the cellular and tissue levels that              more decades to gather sufficient data to develop
is largely different from the damage caused by ter-              these models with acceptable uncertainty levels.
restrial radiation (such as x-rays or gamma rays), as            New molecular/genetic based systems biology ap-
it has significantly higher ionizing power and large             proaches will be needed to achieve the uncertain-
associated uncertainties exist in quantifying bio-               ty levels required for a Mars mission. Understand-
logical response; and 2) shielding GCR is much                   ing the genetic/epigenetic factors for major risks
more difficult than shielding terrestrial radiation,             such as lung cancer could substantially lower mis-
due to severe mass constraints and GCR ability                   sion costs through crew selection or BCM design
to penetrate shielding material (high-charge and                 reducing shielding mass requirements. Significant
high-energy).                                                    advances are required to integrate fundamental re-
   Shielding from solar particle events (SPEs) is
much easier than shielding from GCR. Protect-                    12	        Committee	 for	 the	 Decadal	 Survey	 on	 Biological	 and	
ing humans from SPEs may be a solvable problem                   Physical	Sciences	in	Space,	Aeronautics	and	Space	Engineering	Board	
in the near-term through technology maturation                   (ASEB),	 Division	 on	 Engineering	 and	 Physical	 Sciences	 (DEPS),	
                                                                 National	Research	Council	of	the	National	Academies	(NRC),	2010,	
of identified shielding solutions, through design                “Life	and	Physical	Sciences	Research	for	a	New	Era	of	Space	Explora-
and configuration. However, mission operational                  tion,	An	Interim	Report,”	Washington,	D.C.:	The	National	Academies	
planning has a major knowledge gap of forecast-                  Press.
ing the occurrence and magnitude, as well as all-                13	        Committee	 on	 the	 Evaluation	 of	 Radiation	 Shielding	 for	
clear periods, of SPEs.                                          Space	Exploration,	Aeronautics	and	Space	Engineering	Board	(ASEB),	
   Primary radiation technologies requiring ad-                  Division	on	Engineering	and	Physical	Sciences	(DEPS),	National	Re-
vancement include those related to radiation risk                search	Council	of	the	National	Academies	(NRC),	2008,	“Managing	
projection models using validated ground and                     Space	Radiation	Risk	in	the	New	Era	of	Space	Exploration,”	Washing-
                                                                 ton,	D.C.:	The	National	Academies	Press.
11	       “NASA-STD-3001,	 NASA	 Space	 Flight	 Human	 System	   14	        NASA	Office	of	Program	Analysis	and	Evaluation,	2006,	
Standard	-	Volume	1:	Crew	Health,”	2007.                         “Report	of	the	Radiation	Study	Team.”

                                                         DRAFT                                                                      TA06-19
search on the cell, molecular, and tissue damage                              will be need to be developed for long-duration
caused by space radiation into modeling of major                              missions. Further advancements in the design and
signaling pathways causative of cancer, CNS, and                              development of miniaturized personal dosimeters
degenerative diseases.                                                        for crew and small low-power active radiation in-
  Advancements in the design of integrated radi-                              strumentation and advanced warning systems for
ation protection systems will be needed and the                               spacecraft will also be needed to minimize and
goal is to optimize systems to achieve a 20% re-                              monitor exposures during operations. Also, in-
duction in exposure to GCR. The types of materi-                              sufficient knowledge exists about the amount of
als that protect humans against radiation are well                            protection provided by the Mars atmosphere. The
known but mission designers will need to take a                               Mars radiation environment may be more severe
cross-disciplinary, integrated systems approach to                            than previously estimated due to the production
develop lightweight, cost effective multifunction-                            and transport of neutrons, mesons, muons, and
al materials/structures that can minimize GCR ex-                             electromagnetic cascades. Effects of a mixed field
posure while providing other functionalities like                             environment (neutrons and charged particles) on
thermal insulation and/or Micro-Meteoroid Or-                                 radiobiological risks are unknown. Updates to
bital Debris (MMOD) protection. It is generally                               transport codes and in-situ pre-cursor data are re-
accepted that shielding cannot completely protect                             quired to validate environmental models.
against GCR and that biological countermeasures                                 The major challenges of each sub-element, as
Table 6. Radiation Technical Area Details
Technology           Current Soa/Practice                major Challenge(s)                                     recommended milestones/activities
                                                                                                                to advance to Trl-6 or beyond
Radiation Risk As-   Cancer models developed to          Transition basis of radiation risk modeling from       2020: Utilize the ISS for groundbreaking
sessment Modeling    date have 3.5-fold uncertainty      one based on terrestrial exposures (current SOA) to    studies on the whether the effects of
                                                         a predictive systems biology model approach for        radiation modified by microgravity on
                     No computational models exist       long-duration missions                                 cellular and metabolic activities within
                     to quantify CNS or degenerative                                                            relevant higher order biological organ-
                     tissue health and performance       Need to reduce cancer uncertainty projections          isms or systems
                     risks. No integrated mortality      for NEO mission to 100% and for Mars to 50%
                     risk projection model exists.       uncertainty                                            2020: Perform ground based radiation
                     Relationship between radiation                                                             biology research to develop and validate
                     and other space stresses needs      Integrate fundamental research on space radiation      risk models
                     to be further clarified             biological effects into model and data bases of
                                                         major signaling pathways causative of cancer and       2030: Identify need for countermea-
                     Current models predict organ        other damage                                           sures and/or selection of crew based on
                     exposures to +15% accuracy                                                                 individual sensitivity
                                                         Need to develop new molecular/genetics-based sys-
                                                         tems biology approach to achieve <50% uncertainty      2025: Flight demo to validate under-
                                                         levels required for a Mars mission                     standing of synergistic effect of space-
                                                                                                                flight on integrated risk projections),
                                                         Ground radiation facilities do not duplicate space     including experiments on ISS and
                                                         radiation environment in terms of combination of       partnering on international flight
                                                         energies and duration of exposure which indicates      opportunities such as 2013/2016: Bion
                                                         that flight tests are required to validate data        M2/M3; 2012-2021 (iSS annual): 2018
                                                                                                                Biosentinels Flight Demo
                                                         Develop experimental methods/techniques and
                                                         models to verify integrated risk and to Understand
                                                         synergistic effects of other spaceflight stressors
                                                         (microgravity, reduced immune system response,
                                                         etc.) combined with radiation
Radiation Mitiga-    Radiation exposures exceed the      Need detailed understanding of the mechanisms          2035: Perform tests for a range of radia-
tion/Biological      NASA PELs by three to five times    that cause damage                                      tion qualities and mixed fields represen-
Countermeasures      for 1,000-day Mars missions, and                                                           tative of GCR and SPE for sufficient
                     are exceeded for most NEO mis-      Need to develop breakthrough biological/pharma-        number of biological models to
                     sions as well                       ceutical radio protective agents                       extrapolate to humans

                     Some agents exist to protect        Need to verify extrapolation from models to            2035: Drug discovery research
                     against acute low LET radiation     humans
                                                                                                                2035: Develop databases and computer
                     No countermeasures exist for        Need to develop an individual sensitivity toolkit to   models to determine genetic sensitivity
                     chronic GCR or intermediate SPE     optimize BCM and enable longer missions                to radiation risks based on animal testing
                     dose rates                                                                                 and modeling and extrapolate to crew
                                                         Need to understand interaction/impact of one BCM       selection and BCM optimization
                                                         on other spaceflight risks
                                                                                                                2035: Research individualized stem cell
                                                                                                                replacement therapies
Space Weather        No ability to predict onset and     Ensure data streams needed as input for forecasting    2030: Development of real-time moni-
Prediction           evolution of SPE                    models are provided                                    toring and forecasting space weather
                                                                                                                model(s), to include prediction of onset
                     Real–time monitoring should be      Application of SPE research and transition of          and evolution of Solar Particle Event as
                     adequate for large events since     research models to real-time operational decision-     well as all clear periods
                     doses are small in first one hour   making tools
                     for 99% of historical SPEs                                                                 2030: Develop forecasting tools to
                                                                                                                define ‘all-clear’ periods for EVAs
                     Data sets exist but need to                                                                and < 1 AU trajectories for missions
                     develop forecasting models

TA06-20                                                              DRAFT
 Technology          Current Soa/Practice                 major Challenge(s)                                    recommended milestones/activities
                                                                                                                to advance to Trl-6 or beyond
 Radiation Protec-   Radiation shielding systems must     Optimize multifunctional shielding system to          2014: Development of an integrated
 tion Systems        be developed to minimize mass        achieve a 20%-30% reduction in GCR exposure           systems approach to radiation shielding
                     for SPE and GCR shielding                                                                  systems that implements a smooth
                                                          Integrated Systems approach to mass efficient SPE     transition from research to operations
                     Shielding alone will not com-        shielding                                             and lays the groundwork for an ‘end-to-
                     pletely protect against GCR for                                                            end’ solution to radiation shielding
                     long-duration missions               Ultimate value of shielding material types and
                                                          amounts require accurate risk projection models       2016: Development of miniaturized
                                                                                                                active personal dosimetry permitting
                                                                                                                measurement as a function of charge
                                                                                                                and energy

                                                                                                                2017: NSRL validation data for GCR

                                                                                                                2017: Characterize the interior environ-
                                                                                                                ment of habitat on Inflatable flagship
                                                                                                                mission technology demonstration

                                                                                                                2025: Continue development of material
                                                                                                                systems to provide maximum shielding
 Monitoring          Pre-flight and EVA crew exposure     Active Personal Dosimetry and Monitoring for IVA      ETDD Flight Demo for testing of minia-
 Technology and      projections (passive detectors for   and EVA operations. Miniaturization of electronics    turized personal dosimeters
 Validation          individual astronaut dosimetry)      and sensor technologies required for compact, low
                                                          power radiation dosimeters/monitors                   2017: Inflatables Flagship Mission for
                     Comprehensive crew exposure                                                                testing of charged particle and neutron
                     modeling capability                  Compact, low power, charged particle and neutron      spectrometers and in situ warning
                                                          spectrometers that can used on missions beyond        dosimetry systems
                     Evaluation of radiological safety    LEO. Ruggedization, redundancy, and fail safe
                     with respect to exposure to          performance. Fail safe data storage and transmis-     Development of measurement package
                     isotopes and radiation produc-       sion for long term use without resupply or repair     to be used on robotic precursors mission
                     ing equipment carried on the         during missions                                       to NEO, Moon, Mars
                                                          In situ active warning and monitoring dosimetry,      ETDD Flight Demo for testing of miniatur-
                     Large mass/volume instru-            and passive, wherever there is a human presence       ized in-flight biodosimeters technologies
                     ments using to characterize and      beyond LEO. Improved battery technology for
                     quantify the space radiation         personal dosimeters that allow long wear periods
                     environment that utilize continu-    without recharging
                     ous vehicle power
                                                          Compact biological dosimetry technologies that
                     Laboratory based cytogenetic         can be used in-flight on long duration missions.
                     evaluations (chromosome aber-        Novel techniques to determine energy and charge
                     rations) post flight                 of incident radiation fields in compact form factor

                                                          Determination of relevant biomarkers/biodosim-
                                                          eters (HRP) for early and late radiation effects

well as efforts required to overcome the challeng- 4. PoSSiBle BeneFiTS To
es to develop and demonstrate the technology to          oTHer naTional needS
TRL-6, are listed in Table 6.                           Many of the proposed technologies identified
                                                      in the roadmap can lead to improvements in the
3. inTerdePendenCy wiTH                               quality of life here on Earth, creating benefits of
   oTHer TeCHnoloGy areaS                             national and global interest. First, life support and
  The OCT Roadmapping activity is intended habitation technologies focus on developing reli-
to identify overlaps with other TAs, and for the able, closed-loop systems to minimize resources
topical areas of TA06, HLHS, many such over- and energy use while maximizing self-sufficiency.
laps exist. Notably, the greatest overlap occurs These systems provide significant opportunity for
with TA07, HEDS, and the reader is referred to knowledge transfer in numerous terrestrial areas
the start of Section 2 for a detailed delineation be- including: climate change mitigation, emergen-
tween these TAs. The other priority crossover is cy response, military operations, energy efficient
with TA12, Materials, Structural and Mechanical buildings and “cradle-to-cradle” manufacturing.
Systems, and Manufacturing, as advanced mate- One example is the potential for complete waste-
rials for radiation protection, spacesuits, etc., are water recovery to potable standards for military,
addressed there. Notably, it is a critical area for remote and water-scarce regions, and disaster re-
collaboration to ensure an integrated systems ap- lief, with the potential for simultaneous ener-
proach for radiation shielding and other HLHS gy production. Additionally, technologies iden-
technology developments and for their successful tified may provide 1) efficient methods for CO2
implementation. Further discussion and/or col- capture, conversion, sequestration, and advanced
laboration across the TAs is recommended.             contaminant removal/destruction and particulate

                                                                      DRAFT                                                                    TA06-21
Table 7. Technical Area Interdependencies
 Technology area                       overlapping Technology descriptions
 TA02: In-Space Propulsion Systems     Tanks for high pressure gas storage and/or cryogenics; if tanks are “shared” then purity is an issue for ECLSS use

                                       For cryogenics, issues include zero-g or low-g management/boil-off control (*also overlap with TA03 and TA14)
 TA03: Space Power and Energy Stor-    Tanks for high pressure gas storage and/or cryogenics; see description under TA2 (*also overlap with TA14)
 age Systems
                                       Low mass, high efficiency, long life, high reliability, etc. batteries for EVA/suits and/or human habitat/vehicle
                                       power systems

                                       High efficiency electrolyzers for production of O2 and/or potable water
 TA04: Robotics, Tele-robotics and     Human factors (e.g., immersive visualization) and human/robot interaction and automation systems
 Autonomous Systems                    (e.g., human-robot interfaces for remote operations)

                                       Medical-assist robotics

                                       Human safety enhancement (e.g., robotic surveying and remote operations)
 TA5: Communication and Navigation     Very high bandwidth communication systems (e.g., telemedicine, software uploads)
 TA07: Human Exploration Destination   Manufacture of components, tools, soft goods (e.g., o-rings, seals) etc/3D model Printing; see description
 Systems (HEDS)                        under TA12

                                       Research grade water production/recycle/reuse for research platforms/needs

                                       Integrated Habitat Systems (e.g., lighting, acoustics, advanced habitat materials)

                                       EVA mobility (e.g., rovers), interfaces (e.g., suitport/lock), and tools

                                       Virtual reality/Holodeck (e.g. STAR TREK) technologies for training, etc.

                                       Radiation protection materials and/or structures/architecture using in-situ resources (*also overlap with TA12)

                                       Contamination control and housekeeping (e.g., dust)

                                       Artificial gravity devices/architecture (e.g., rotating vehicle, centrifuge chair)

                                       In- situ or remote food production and processing
 TA10: Nanotechnology                  Nano-systems/sensors for non-invasive physiological monitoring of crew and/or medical treatment

                                       Advanced batteries for EVA suits (*also overlap with TA3)

                                       Nanoporous and/or other advanced nano-engineered materials/structures for ECLSS and/or other human-related
                                       applications (e.g., CO2 removal, water filtration, radiation protection, environmental and/or constituent sensors)
 TA11: Modeling, Simulation,           Human, environmental, subsystem and overall vehicle monitoring and data management systems
 Information Technology and
 Processing                            Models and simulations/simulators for human and systems performance
 TA12: Materials, Structural and       Materials compatible with future ECLS environment of 8 psi (reduced pressure) and 32% O2 (enriched oxygen)
 Mechanical Systems, and
 Manufacturing                         Multifunctional materials and/or structures, including combined structural and radiation protection, microbial
                                       control (e.g., materials and/or coatings), and other examples:
                                        • The “water wall” concept envisions incorporating water required for life support into the vehicle structure
                                          to eliminate the extra mass of water tanks and provide additional radiation shielding in specific locations
                                          (e.g., crew quarters, storm shelter)
                                        • The idea is to build spacecraft internal structures (struts, secondary structure, avionics boxes, seat cushions,
                                          etc) out of materials that can, for example, absorb CO2. If enough of the materials could be incorporated
                                          into the spacecraft and preserved throughout ground processing (or “regenerate” its capacity prior to
                                          launch), then for short missions the spacecraft structures could absorb all the CO2 from the atmosphere

                                       Manufacture of components, tools, soft goods (e.g., o-rings, seals) etc./3D model printing; in space for increased
                                       reliability, to reduce spares, etc., similar to a STAR TREK replicator (*also overlap with TA7)

                                       Materials Flammability associated with advanced materials testing, and update(s) to MSFC-HDBK-527, Materials
                                       Selection List for Space Hardware Systems
TA14: Thermal Management Systems       High-efficiency, non-degradable condensing heat exchangers and lightweight radiators

                                       Non-venting, closed heat rejection system with no consumables for EVA/suits

                                       Tanks for high pressure consumables and/or cryogenics, including issues include zero-g or low-g management/
                                       boil-off control (*also overlap with TA02 and TA03)

management for climate change mitigation, mine                                   ployments, disaster response, and temporary re-
safety, enclosed spaces, military applications and                               mote science lab operations; and 4) advanced
synthetic fuel production; 2) advanced controlled                                strategies for waste minimization, “cradle-to-cra-
agriculture systems, which minimize energy, water                                dle” manufacturing and reuse, hazard reduction
use and growing area, can contribute significantly                               and energy recovery to decrease use of natural re-
to future global food production needs; 3) light-                                sources and landfills
weight, deployable, inflatable, interior structures                                Previous and recent space suit technologies have
provide rapid shelter construction for military de-                              provided materials and manufacturing techniques
TA06-22                                                                 DRAFT
that have led to significant improvements in com-
mercial products, like athletic shoes, and special-
ized items that benefit many, like efficient man-
ufacture of pharmaceuticals. Other examples
include therapeutic suits for people with medi-
cal needs, protective suits like those for race car
drivers and firefighters, life-saving gas and chemi-
cal masks, lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles. It is an-
ticipated that the spacesuit technologies identified
herein could have similar impacts as well.
   Technologies for HHP may lead to smaller por-
table analysis and imaging units that could be
used in austere/harsh environments, or even in
rural settings without access to large medical fa-
cilities. Also, countermeasures developed for space
are likely to impact clinical practice by providing a
better understanding of how the body works, and
new tools to influence both wellness, and treat-
ment of diseases. Technologies for enhanced crew
interfaces and autonomy will have the potential
for use in extreme environments.
   Any biological innovations or breakthroughs
would also be of interest to the National Institute
of Health (NIH), having the potential to signifi-
cantly improve life on Earth. Technologies for ra-
diation may help cancer patients suffering from
radiation treatments, and increase understand-
ing of early onset of diseases of old age and pro-
vide preventive measures to delay or block their
   Other example benefits are for environmental
monitoring, where technological advances can im-
prove fire detection and are relevant to homeland
security for detection of hazardous aerosols. Also,
the development of microbial and chemical sen-
sors can easily translate to multiple applications,
such as analysis of water sources for potability in
remote locations (such as rural America), medical
analysis of military personnel and the general pub-
lic, submarine air/water monitors, and rapid iden-
tification of bio-terrorist attacks on the military
and general public.

                                                 DRAFT   TA06-23
aCronymS                                          PLSS   Portable Life Support System
3-D	  Three	Dimensional                           PoC    Proof-of-concept
AMPM	 Agency	Mission	Planning	Manifest            RFID   Radio Frequency Identification
ANC	 Active	Noise	Control                         SOA    State-of-the-Art
BCM	 Biological	Countermeasures                   SPE    Solar Particle Events
BHP	 Behavioral	Health	and	Performance            TA     Technology Area
CFD	 Computational	Fluid	Dynamics                 TABS   Technology Area Breakdown Structure
CNS	 Central	Nervous	System                       TOC    Total Organic Carbon
D&C	 Display	and	Controls                         TRL    Technology Readiness Level
DMS	 Differential	mobility	spectrometry           UI     User Interface
DRA	 Design	Reference	Architecture                VCAM   Vehicle Cabin Air Monitor
DRM	 Design	Reference	Mission
DTO	 Detailed	Test	Objective                      aCknowledGemenTS
ECLSS	Environmental	Control	and		                   The NASA technology area draft roadmaps were
	     Life	Support	Systems
EHS	 Environmental	Health	System
                                                  developed with the support and guidance from
ER	   Environmental	Monitoring,	Safety,	and	
                                                  the Office of the Chief Technologist. In addition
	     Emergency	Response                          to the primary authors, major contributors for the
ESI	  Electro-spray	ionization                    TA06 roadmap included the OCT TA06 Road-
EUE	 Experiment-Unique	Equipment                  mapping POC, Howard Ross; the reviewers pro-
EVA	 Extra-Vehicular	Activity                     vided by the NASA Center Chief Technologists
GCR	 Galactic	Cosmic	Radiation                    and NASA Mission Directorate representatives,
HD	   High-Definition                             and the following individuals: Audrey Burge,
HEDS	 Human	Exploration	and	Development		         Jeannie Corte, Karen Spears, Rilla Wolf.
	     of	Space
HEPA	 High	Efficiency	Particulate	Air
HFP	 Human	Factors	and	Performance
HHP	 Human	Health	and	Performance
HITL	 Human-in-the-Loop
HLHS	 Human	Health,	Life	Support,	and		
	     Habitation	Systems
HRI	  Human-Robotic	Interaction
HIS	  Human	System	Integration
IPS	  Induced	Pluripotent	Stem	Cells
ISRU	 In-Situ	Resource	Utilization
ISS	  International	Space	Station
JSC   Johnson Space Center
KSC   Kennedy Space Center
LEA   Launch, Entry, and Abort
LED   Light-Emitting Diode
LEO   Low-Earth Orbit
LST   Life Support Technologies
LTA   Lighter-than-Air
MMOD Micro-Meteoroid Orbital Debris
MS    Mass spectrometry
MSFC Marshall Spaceflight Center
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Admin.
NBL   Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory
NEA   Near-Earth Asteroid
NEO   Near-Earth Objects
NIH   National Institute of Health
NSRL NASA Space Radiation Laboratory
OCT   Office of Chief Technologist
PAS   Power, Avionics, and Software
PEL   Permissible Exposure Limits

TA06-24                                        DRAFT
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              DRAFT                     TA06-25
November 2010

National Aeronautics and
Space Administration

NASA Headquarters
Washington, DC 20546
TA06-26                    DRAFT

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