Docstoc

23

Document Sample
23 Powered By Docstoc
					                    Gaining access to data (2)
                             Points to consider

     Access as an iterative process

     Obtaining consent from managers and participants

     Obtaining cognitive access

     The nature and extent of the required access

     Obtaining sufficient scope to answer the research question

CBEB2105                                                           1
Business Research
                    Gaining access to data (3)
               Virtual access - four types of online community

     Bulletin boards for particular products or services

     Independent web pages

     Themed email lists

     Multiuser chat rooms

                                           Adapted from Kozinets (2002)

CBEB2105                                                                  2
Business Research
                    Gaining access to data (4)
                            Checklist Box 6.8


                     Complete the Checklist in Box 6.8
                         to help you gain access




                                                Saunders et al. (2009, p. 183)

CBEB2105                                                                     3
Business Research
                    Strategies to gain access (1)
                        Areas for consideration

     Ensuring familiarity and understanding

     Allowing sufficient time

     Using existing contacts and developing new ones

     Giving a clear account of purpose

CBEB2105                                                4
Business Research
                    Strategies to gain access (2)
                        Areas for consideration

     Overcoming organisational concerns

     Identifying possible organisational benefits

     Appropriate forms of communication

     Incremental access

     Establishing researcher credibility
CBEB2105                                             5
Business Research
                        Research Ethics (1)
                                 Definition

                  ‗The appropriateness of your behaviour in
                relation to the rights of those who become the
                    subject of or are affected by your work‘




                                          Adapted from Saunders et al. (2009)

CBEB2105                                                                    6
Business Research
                            Research Ethics (2)
                    Ethical issues at different stages of research




                                                       Source: Saunders et al. (2009)
CBEB2105 6.1 Ethical issues at different stages of research (part 1)
   Figure                                                                           7
Business Research
                            Research Ethics (3)
                    Ethical issues at different stages of research




                                                       Source: Saunders et al. (2009)
CBEB2105 6.1 Ethical issues at different stages of research (part 2)
   Figure                                                                           8
Business Research
                        Research Ethics (4)
                    Research conduct is affected by

     Code of ethics

     Research ethics committees

     General ethical issues

     Netiquette
CBEB2105                                              9
Business Research
                           Research Ethics (5)
                    Issues during design and gaining access

     Obtaining consent - implied and informed

     Using participant information sheets

     Consent for observation and online observation




CBEB2105                                                      10
Business Research
                       Research Ethics (6)
                   The nature of participant consent




                                                 Source: Saunders et al. (2009)
CBEB2105 6.2 The nature of participant consent
     Figure                                                                  11
Business Research
                      Research Ethics (7)
                    Issues during data collection

     General issues applying to techniques

     Awareness of participant‘s rights

     Keeping to the project aims

     Safety of the researcher


CBEB2105                                            12
Business Research
                      Research Ethics (8)
                    Issues during data collection

     Maintaining objectivity, confidentiality and anonymity

     Appropriate interview behaviour

     Use of observation techniques

     Undertaking a covert study

CBEB2105                                                       13
Business Research
                    Data processing and storage
                        Personal data must be

     Processed fairly and lawfully

     Obtained for specified purposes

     Adequate and relevant

     Accurate, updated and kept securely


                                        Adapted from Saunders et al. (2009)
CBEB2105                                                                      14
Business Research
                    Data analysis and reporting
                           Related issues

     Sensitive personal data

     Confidentiality and anonymity

     Protection of research participants

     Ethical use of data analysis and conclusions


CBEB2105                                             15
Business Research
                    Dealing with ethical issues

                            Checklist Box 6.18

                      Complete the Checklist in Box 6.18
                      to help you anticipate and deal with
                                 ethical issues


                                                  Saunders et al. (2009, p. 201)


CBEB2105                                                                       16
Business Research
           Ethical Issues in Business Research

       Business ethics
         – The application of morals to behavior related to the exchange
           environment.
       Moral standards
         – Principles that reflect beliefs about what is ethical and what is
           unethical.
       Ethical dilemma
         – A situation in which one chooses from alternative courses of
           actions, each with different ethical implications.


CBEB2105                                                                  17
Business Research
           Ethical Issues in Business Research
                          (cont‘d)
      Relativism
        – A term that reflects the degree to which one rejects moral
          standards in favor of the acceptability of some action.
        – This way of thinking rejects absolute principles in favor of
          situation-based evaluations.
      Idealism
        – A term that reflects the degree to which one bases one‘s
          morality on moral standards.
               • example: the Golden Rule


CBEB2105                                                                 18
Business Research
              General Rights and Obligations of
                    Concerned Parties
     Everyone involved in research can face an ethical dilemma:
       – The people actually performing the research—the ―doers.‖
       – The research client, sponsor, or the management team
          requesting the research—the ―users.‖
       – The research participants—the actual research respondents or
          subjects.
     Each party has certain rights and obligations toward the other
      parties.


CBEB2105                                                            19
Business Research
                    EXHIBIT 5.7   Interaction of Rights and Obligations




CBEB2105                                                                  20
Business Research
              Rights and Obligations: Research
                         Participant
       Rights:                     Informed Consent
           – To be informed            – The individual understands
           – To privacy                  what the researcher wants
           – Protected from harm         him/her to do and consents to
                                         the research study.
       Obligations:
                                    Confidentiality
           – To be truthful
                                       – The information involved in the
                                         research will not be shared
                                         with others.




CBEB2105                                                              21
Business Research
       Deception in Research Designs And the
               Right To Be Informed
     Experimental Designs
         – Placebo
               • A false experimental effect used to create the perception of a true effect.
         – Debriefing
               • Research subjects are fully informed and provided with a chance to ask
                 any questions they may have about the experiment.




CBEB2105                                                                                 22
Business Research
                      Protection from Harm
      Questions to ask to help avoid harming a research participant:
           – Has the research subject provided consent to participate in
             an experiment?
           – Is the research subject subjected to substantial physical or
             psychological trauma?
           – Can the research subject be easily returned to his or her
             initial state?
      Human subjects review committee
           – Reviews proposed research designs to ensure that no harm
             can come to any research participant.
CBEB2105                                                                    23
Business Research
                Rights and Obligations of the
                        Researcher
       The researcher should:
           – Understand that the purpose of research is research (no
             sales pitch to research participants)
           – Maintain objectivity
           – Not misrepresent research
           – Be honest in reporting errors
           – Protect the confidentiality of both subjects and clients



CBEB2105                                                                24
Business Research
               Research That Isn‘t Research
       Pseudo-research
           – Conducted not to gather information for decisions but to
             bolster a point of view and satisfy other needs.
       Push poll
           – Telemarketing under guise of research.
       Service monitoring
           – Contacting customers about their experience with a product,
             there is no selling attempt.


CBEB2105                                                                25
Business Research
                EXHIBIT 5.9   How Results Can Be Misrepresented in a Report or Presentation



                                                         A) Researcher points to a “large”
                                                            difference in quality ratings. Men
                                                            report much higher quality service
                                                            than do women. In contrast, women
                                                            report only “slightly” less satisfaction
                                                            than do men.




                                                         B) The researcher points to a “trivial”
                                                            difference in quality perceptions
                                                            between men and women. There is
                                                            no difference in the satisfaction
                                                            ratings of men and women.



CBEB2105                                                                                       26
Business Research
        Rights and Obligations of the Client
                 Sponsor (User)
     Issues in the client-researcher relationship
         – Ethical behavior between buyer and seller
         – An open relationship with research suppliers
         – An open relationship with interested parties
               • Advocacy research—research undertaken to support a specific claim in a
                 legal action or represent some advocacy group.
         – Privacy rights of research participants



CBEB2105                                                                            27
Business Research
                    Privacy on the Internet
      Controversial issue
      Many researchers argue that they don‘t need to know
       who the user is, but they do want to know certain things
       (e.g., demographics, product usage) associated with an
       anonymous profile.
      Researchers should not disclose private information
       without permission from consumers who provided that
       information.


CBEB2105                                                      28
Business Research
                             Summary
     Access and ethics are critical aspects of research

     Access may be physical, cognitive or continuing

     Feasibility is an important determinant

     Potential ethical issues should be recognised



CBEB2105                                                   29
Business Research
                              Summary
     Ethical concerns can occur throughout the research

     Both qualitative and quantitative research have associated
      ethical issues

     Use of the Internet and email for data generation raises specific
      ethical issues

     Data protection legislation requires researchers to comply with
      legal requirements

CBEB2105                                                            30
Business Research

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:9/29/2011
language:English
pages:30