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					         Example Business Decision Situations, Corresponding
           Research Hypotheses, and Variable Descriptions




CBEB2105                                                       1
Business Research
                      (In)dependent Variables

    Dependent variable (DV)
         – Is of primary interest to the researcher. The goal of the research
           project is to understand, predict or explain the variability of this
           variable.


    Independent variable (IV)
         – Influences the DV in either positive or negative way. The variance
           in the DV is accounted for by the IV.


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Business Research
                    Example




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Business Research
           Writing Research Objectives and
                      Questions
     Research Questions
         – Express the research objectives in terms of questions that can
           be addressed by research.
         – Help to develop well-formulated, specific hypotheses that can be
           empirically tested.
         – Help the researcher design a study that will produce useful
           results.



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          Clarity in Research Questions and
                      Hypotheses
     Research Questions
         – The researcher’s translation of the problem into a specific
           inquiry.
               • Provide input that can be used as a standard for selecting from among
                 alternative solutions.
     Hypotheses
         – Statements that can be empirically tested.
               • State what is expected to be found through the study.
     Managerial Action Standard
         – A specific performance criterion upon which a decision can be
           based.
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                     Research Propositions and
                           Hypotheses
       Propositions
           – Statements explaining the logical linkage among certain
             concepts by asserting a universal connection between
             concepts.
                    • Example: Treating employees better will make them more loyal
                      employees.
       Hypothesis
           – Formal statement of an unproven proposition that is
             empirically testable.
                    • Example: Giving employees one Friday off each month will result in
                      lower employee turnover.
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                    Hypotheses Are the Empirical
                    Counterparts of Propositions
       Empirical Testing
           – Examining a research hypothesis against reality using data.
       Variables
           – Anything that may assume different numerical values.
           – The empirical assessment of a concept.
       Operationalizing
           – The process of identifying the actual measurement scales to
             asses the variables of interest.


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                                 Hypothesis
           A proposition that is empirically testable. It is an empirical
            statement concerned with the relationship among
            variables.
           Good hypothesis:
        –      Must be adequate for its purpose
        –      Must be testable
        –      Must be better than its rivals
           Can be:
        –      Directional
        –      Non-directional

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           Statement of Hypotheses: formats
          Hypotheses can be set either as propositions or in the
           form of if-then statements.

          Example:

       –      Employees who are more healthy will take sick leave less
              frequently

       OR

       –      If employees are more healthy, then they will take sick leave
              less frequently
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                    Directional and nondirectional
                             hypotheses
          Directional hypotheses: the direction of the relationship
           between the variables (positive / negative) is indicated

          Example:

       –      The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job
              satisfaction of employees
       –      Women are more motivated than men




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                    Directional and nondirectional
                             hypotheses
          Nondirectional hypotheses: the direction of the
           relationship between the variables is not indicated

          Example:

       –      There is a relationship between age and job satisfaction
       –      There is a difference between the work ethic values of European
              and Asian employees




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                           Exercise
    Create diagrams to illustrate the following relationships:

   1) A manager believes that good supervision and training
      will increase the production level of the workers
   2) A marketing manager believes that selecting
      physically attractive spokespersons and models to
      endorse their products increases the persuasiveness
      of a message
   3) A store manager feels that lucrative wage during
      festive seasons will make the employees happy
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Business Research

				
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posted:9/29/2011
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