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									                                 Bibliography

    • Florida, R. L. (2003). The rise of the creative class: And how it’s transforming work,
      leisure, community and everyday life. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.
    • Florida, R. L. (2005). The world is spiky. The Atlantic Monthly, 296(3), 48-51.
    • Folkestad, J. E., & Banning, J. (2008). Ecology of the computer lab. Journal of
      Educational Technology, 5, 38-48.
    • Friedman, T. L. (2007). The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century.
      New York, NY: Picador.
    • Griffith, R., Huergo, E., & Peters, B. (2005). Innovation and productivity across four
      European countries. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 22, 438-498.
    • Hamel, G. (2006). The why, what, and how of management innovation. Harvard
      Business Review, 84, 72-84.

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                    Example of literature review
                     reference writing styles…
    Innovation positively contribute to the survival of the firm in dynamic business
    environments [22]. Generally, firms with higher innovation rates sustain higher
    profitability over the long-term [59]. However, as Downs and Mohr [24] pointed out,
    there are two aspects of organizational innovation studies. The first dealt with
    phenomena related to the adoption and diffusion of new innovations; in the IT area,
    examples include Moore and Benbasat [50], Fichman [27], and Swanson and Ramiller
    [63].




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                                 Bibliography

    • [22] E. Danneels, The dynamics of product innovation and firm competences,
      Strategic Management Journal 23, 2002, pp. 1095–1121.
    • [23] D.L. Deadrick, N. Bennett, C.J. Russell, Using hierarchical linear modeling to
      examine dynamic performance criteria over time, Journal of Management 23
      (November–December (6)), 1997, pp. 745–757.
    • [24] G.W. Downs Jr., L.B. Mohr, Conceptual issues in the study of innovation,
      Administrative Science Quarterly 21 (December), 1976, pp. 700–714.




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                                Checklist 3.3

    • Previous research?
    • Strength weaknesses?
    • Objectivity?
    • Facts vs opinion?
    • Value & relevance?
    • Justify own ideas?
    • New insight is needed? Inconsistencies, bias/omission, further testing, lack of
      evidence, contradictory, limited
    • Referencing correctly published research?



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                    Structure of the literature review

                      Three common structures

     A single chapter

     A series of chapters

     Throughout the report



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            The key to a critical literature review
     Demonstrate that you have read, understood and evaluated
      your material

     Link the different ideas to form a cohesive and coherent
      argument

     Make clear connections to your research objectives and the
      subsequent empirical material

                                                 Saunders et al. (2009)
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               Categories of Literature Sources
     Primary (published and unpublished)

     Secondary

     Tertiary

                    Detailed in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 Saunders et al. (2009)




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                  Literature sources available




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     Figure 3.2 Literature sources available                        8
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                         Data sources
         Textbooks
         Academic and professional journals
         Theses
         Conference proceedings
         Unpublished manuscripts
         Reports of government departments and corporations
         Newspapers
         The Internet
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                The literature search strategy (1)
                                 Write down
       parameters of your search
       key words and search terms to be used
       databases and search engines to be used
       criteria for selection of relevant and useful studies


                                     And
                    Discuss these with a tutor (if possible)


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               The literature search strategy (2)
     Define the research parameters

     Generate key words

     Discuss your research

     Brainstorm ideas

     Construct Relevance trees - use computer software

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              Conducting a literature search (1)
                     Approaches can include

     Searching tertiary literature sources

     Obtaining relevant literature

     Scanning and browsing secondary literature

     Searching using the Internet
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              Conducting a literature search (2)
                    Searching using tertiary literature

     Ensure key words match controlled index language

     Search appropriate printed and database sources

     Note precise details used – including search strings

     Note the FULL reference of each search found
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              Conducting a literature search (3)
     Printed sources

     Databases – use of Boolean logic and free text
      searching (Table 3.3)

     Scanning and browsing

     Searching the Internet (Tables 3.4 and 3.5)
                                             Saunders et al. (2009)

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            Conducting a literature search (4)
                            Searching the Internet




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                                                     Saunders et al. (2003)
     Figure 3.3 Searching the Internet                                   15
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            Conducting a literature search (5)
                           Searching the Internet




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     Figure 3.3 Searching the Internet (Continued)                       16
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                    Evaluating the literature

         Define the scope of your review

         Assess relevance and value

         Assess sufficiency




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                     Recording the literature
                    Make notes for each item you read

        Record –

         Biographic details

         Brief summary of content

         Supplementary information
                                                 Sharp et al. (2002)
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                                 Plagiarism
                            Four common forms

         Stealing material from another source

         Submitting material written by another

         Copying material without quotation marks

         Paraphrasing material without documentation

                    Adapted from Park (2003), cited in Easterby-Smith et al. (2008)
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