• Florida, R. L. (2003). The rise of the creative class: And how it’s transforming work,
leisure, community and everyday life. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.
• Florida, R. L. (2005). The world is spiky. The Atlantic Monthly, 296(3), 48-51.
• Folkestad, J. E., & Banning, J. (2008). Ecology of the computer lab. Journal of
Educational Technology, 5, 38-48.
• Friedman, T. L. (2007). The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century.
New York, NY: Picador.
• Griffith, R., Huergo, E., & Peters, B. (2005). Innovation and productivity across four
European countries. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 22, 438-498.
• Hamel, G. (2006). The why, what, and how of management innovation. Harvard
Business Review, 84, 72-84.
Example of literature review
reference writing styles…
Innovation positively contribute to the survival of the firm in dynamic business
environments . Generally, firms with higher innovation rates sustain higher
profitability over the long-term . However, as Downs and Mohr  pointed out,
there are two aspects of organizational innovation studies. The first dealt with
phenomena related to the adoption and diffusion of new innovations; in the IT area,
examples include Moore and Benbasat , Fichman , and Swanson and Ramiller
•  E. Danneels, The dynamics of product innovation and firm competences,
Strategic Management Journal 23, 2002, pp. 1095–1121.
•  D.L. Deadrick, N. Bennett, C.J. Russell, Using hierarchical linear modeling to
examine dynamic performance criteria over time, Journal of Management 23
(November–December (6)), 1997, pp. 745–757.
•  G.W. Downs Jr., L.B. Mohr, Conceptual issues in the study of innovation,
Administrative Science Quarterly 21 (December), 1976, pp. 700–714.
• Previous research?
• Strength weaknesses?
• Facts vs opinion?
• Value & relevance?
• Justify own ideas?
• New insight is needed? Inconsistencies, bias/omission, further testing, lack of
evidence, contradictory, limited
• Referencing correctly published research?
Structure of the literature review
Three common structures
A single chapter
A series of chapters
Throughout the report
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The key to a critical literature review
Demonstrate that you have read, understood and evaluated
Link the different ideas to form a cohesive and coherent
Make clear connections to your research objectives and the
subsequent empirical material
Saunders et al. (2009)
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Categories of Literature Sources
Primary (published and unpublished)
Detailed in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 Saunders et al. (2009)
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Literature sources available
CBEB2105 Saunders et al. (2009)
Figure 3.2 Literature sources available 8
Academic and professional journals
Reports of government departments and corporations
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The literature search strategy (1)
parameters of your search
key words and search terms to be used
databases and search engines to be used
criteria for selection of relevant and useful studies
Discuss these with a tutor (if possible)
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The literature search strategy (2)
Define the research parameters
Generate key words
Discuss your research
Construct Relevance trees - use computer software
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Conducting a literature search (1)
Approaches can include
Searching tertiary literature sources
Obtaining relevant literature
Scanning and browsing secondary literature
Searching using the Internet
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Conducting a literature search (2)
Searching using tertiary literature
Ensure key words match controlled index language
Search appropriate printed and database sources
Note precise details used – including search strings
Note the FULL reference of each search found
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Conducting a literature search (3)
Databases – use of Boolean logic and free text
searching (Table 3.3)
Scanning and browsing
Searching the Internet (Tables 3.4 and 3.5)
Saunders et al. (2009)
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Conducting a literature search (4)
Searching the Internet
Saunders et al. (2003)
Figure 3.3 Searching the Internet 15
Conducting a literature search (5)
Searching the Internet
CBEB2105 Saunders et al. (2003)
Figure 3.3 Searching the Internet (Continued) 16
Evaluating the literature
Define the scope of your review
Assess relevance and value
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Recording the literature
Make notes for each item you read
Brief summary of content
Sharp et al. (2002)
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Four common forms
Stealing material from another source
Submitting material written by another
Copying material without quotation marks
Paraphrasing material without documentation
Adapted from Park (2003), cited in Easterby-Smith et al. (2008)
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