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									                    Writing research questions
                      Write research questions that are

       •   Consistent with expected standards
       •   Able to produce clear conclusions
       •   At the right level ( not too difficult )
       •   Not too descriptive
       •   Use the „Goldilocks Test‟ (too big, too small, too hot, just right)

                                                  Clough and Nutbrown (2002)

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                    The Broad Problem Area
       Examples of broad problem areas that a manager could
        observe at the workplace:

           – Training programs are not as effective as anticipated.
           – The sales volume of a product is not picking up.
           – Minority group members are not advancing in their careers.
           – The newly installed information system is not being used by
             the managers for whom it was primarily designed.
           – The introduction of flexible work hours has created more
             problems than it has solved in many companies.

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                      The Broad Problem Area

           – To what extent has the new advertising campaign been successful in
             creating the high-quality, customer-centered corporate image that it was
             intended to produce?
           – How has the new packaging affected the sales of the product?
           – What are the effects of downsizing on the long-range growth patterns of
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                      Literature Review
       The selection of available documents (published &
        unpublished) on the topic which contain information,
        ideas, data and evidence written from a particular
        standpoint to fulfil certain aims or express certain views
        on the nature of the topic and how it is to be
        investigated, and the effective evaluation of these
        documents in relation to the research being proposed.

                                                      (Hart, 1998)

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        Reasons for reviewing the literature
       To conduct a „preliminary‟ search of existing material

       To organise valuable ideas and findings

       To identify other research that may be in progress

       To generate research ideas

       To develop a critical perspective

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                The literature review process

                                        Saunders et al. (2003)

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                         Literature Review
       A good literature survey:
           – Ensures that important variables are not left out of the study.
           – Helps the development of the theoretical framework and
             hypotheses for testing.
           – Ensures that the problem statement is precise and clear.
           – Enhances testability and replicability of the findings.
           – Reduces the risk of “reinventing the wheel”.
           – Confirms that the problem is perceived as relevant and

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                    Searching for Literature
       Most libraries have the following electronic resources at
        their disposal:
           –   Electronic journals
           –   Full-text databases
           –   Bibliographic databases
           –   Abstract databases

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                       The Critical Review
                                 Key purposes

         To further refine research questions and objectives
         To discover recommendations for further research
         To avoid repeating work already undertaken
         To provide insights into strategies and techniques appropriate to
          your research objectives

                                                Based on Gall et al. (2006)

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               Adopting a critical perspective
                         Skills for effective reading

       Previewing – looking for text

       Annotating – conducting a dialogue with yourself, author, ideas &

       Summarising – state your points in your own words

       Comparing and contrasting – how your thinking have changed,
        affect your responses to issues & themes
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               Adopting a critical perspective
                        The most important skills are

       The capacity to evaluate what you read

       The capacity to relate what you read to other information

                                                      Wallace and Wray (2006)

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               Adopting a critical perspective
                           Questions to ask yourself

      Why am I reading this?

      What is the author trying to do in writing this?

      How convincing is is this?

      What use can I make of this reading?

                                              Adapted from Wallace and Wray (2006)
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                    Content of the critical review
                                You will need to

       Include key academic theories

       Demonstrate current knowledge of the area

       Use clear referencing for the reader to find the original cited

       Acknowledge the research of others
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                    Questions LR can answer
                                                        What are the key
                                                       theories, concepts
                                                          and ideas?           What are the
                                 What are the key                              epistemological &
                                   sources?                                    ontological
                                                                               grounds for the

                          What are the              search &                          What are the main
                                                                                         questions &
                         major issues &
                        debates about the
                                                    review of                         problems to have
                                                                                       been addressed

                                                    your topic

                                                                            How is knowledge
                                   What are the                             on the topic
                                      political                             structured &
                                   standpoints?       What are the          organised?
                                                         origins &
                                                     definitions of the

        How have approaches to these questions increased our understanding &
                                                           (Hart, 1998)
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                    Is your LR critical?

       Complete the Checklists Box 3.2 and Box 3.3
            to evaluate your literature review!

                         Refer to Saunders et al. (2009, p. 64 - 65)

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                    Checklist 3.2 (coverage)

      •   Clearly relates to research questions & objectives?
      •   Most relevant & significant theories covered?
      •   Most relevant & significant literature?
      •   Up-to-date literature?
      •   Literature reference style?

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                    Example of literature review
                     reference writing styles…
    Globalization is an ongoing process that is bearing witness to unprecedented change.
    As Friedman (2007) explained, many forces are coming together to cause a flattening
    or leveling effect of the world‟s workforce. This has allowed many skilled workers from
    emerging nations to enter the workplace and compete for jobs that were traditionally
    held by only a few wealthy industrial nations. Global communication, international
    workflow, and connected knowledge sharing and learning are converging to realign
    power, wealth, and work (Folkestad & Banning, 2008).

       If more than two authors are cited for example, Mohd-Any, Ennew and Winklhofer
    (2009), you can also write it as Mohd-Any et al. (2011). Et al. simply means „and others‟

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    • Florida, R. L. (2003). The rise of the creative class: And how it’s transforming work,
      leisure, community and everyday life. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.
    • Florida, R. L. (2005). The world is spiky. The Atlantic Monthly, 296(3), 48-51.
    • Folkestad, J. E., & Banning, J. (2008). Ecology of the computer lab. Journal of
      Educational Technology, 5, 38-48.
    • Friedman, T. L. (2007). The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century.
      New York, NY: Picador.
    • Griffith, R., Huergo, E., & Peters, B. (2005). Innovation and productivity across four
      European countries. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 22, 438-498.
    • Hamel, G. (2006). The why, what, and how of management innovation. Harvard
      Business Review, 84, 72-84.

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                    Example of literature review
                     reference writing styles…
    Innovation positively contribute to the survival of the firm in dynamic business
    environments [22]. Generally, firms with higher innovation rates sustain higher
    profitability over the long-term [59]. However, as Downs and Mohr [24] pointed out,
    there are two aspects of organizational innovation studies. The first dealt with
    phenomena related to the adoption and diffusion of new innovations; in the IT area,
    examples include Moore and Benbasat [50], Fichman [27], and Swanson and Ramiller

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    • [22] E. Danneels, The dynamics of product innovation and firm competences,
      Strategic Management Journal 23, 2002, pp. 1095–1121.
    • [23] D.L. Deadrick, N. Bennett, C.J. Russell, Using hierarchical linear modeling to
      examine dynamic performance criteria over time, Journal of Management 23
      (November–December (6)), 1997, pp. 745–757.
    • [24] G.W. Downs Jr., L.B. Mohr, Conceptual issues in the study of innovation,
      Administrative Science Quarterly 21 (December), 1976, pp. 700–714.

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                                Checklist 3.3

    • Previous research?
    • Strength weaknesses?
    • Objectivity?
    • Facts vs opinion?
    • Value & relevance?
    • Justify own ideas?
    • New insight is needed? Inconsistencies, bias/omission, further testing, lack of
      evidence, contradictory, limited
    • Referencing correctly published research?

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                    Structure of the literature review

                      Three common structures

     A single chapter

     A series of chapters

     Throughout the report

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            The key to a critical literature review
     Demonstrate that you have read, understood and evaluated
      your material

     Link the different ideas to form a cohesive and coherent

     Make clear connections to your research objectives and the
      subsequent empirical material

                                                 Saunders et al. (2009)
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               Categories of Literature Sources
     Primary (published and unpublished)

     Secondary

     Tertiary

                    Detailed in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 Saunders et al. (2009)

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                  Literature sources available

CBEB2105                                       Saunders et al. (2009)
     Figure 3.2 Literature sources available                       25
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                         Data sources
         Textbooks
         Academic and professional journals
         Theses
         Conference proceedings
         Unpublished manuscripts
         Reports of government departments and corporations
         Newspapers
         The Internet
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                The literature search strategy (1)
                                 Write down
       parameters of your search
       key words and search terms to be used
       databases and search engines to be used
       criteria for selection of relevant and useful studies

                    Discuss these with a tutor (if possible)

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               The literature search strategy (2)
     Define the research parameters

     Generate key words

     Discuss your research

     Brainstorm ideas

     Construct Relevance trees - use computer software

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              Conducting a literature search (1)
                     Approaches can include

     Searching tertiary literature sources

     Obtaining relevant literature

     Scanning and browsing secondary literature

     Searching using the Internet
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              Conducting a literature search (2)
                    Searching using tertiary literature

     Ensure key words match controlled index language

     Search appropriate printed and database sources

     Note precise details used – including search strings

     Note the FULL reference of each search found
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              Conducting a literature search (3)
     Printed sources

     Databases – use of Boolean logic and free text
      searching (Table 3.3)

     Scanning and browsing

     Searching the Internet (Tables 3.4 and 3.5)
                                             Saunders et al. (2009)

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            Conducting a literature search (4)
                            Searching the Internet

                                                     Saunders et al. (2003)
     Figure 3.3 Searching the Internet                                   32
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            Conducting a literature search (5)
                           Searching the Internet

CBEB2105                                             Saunders et al. (2003)
     Figure 3.3 Searching the Internet (Continued)                       33
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                    Evaluating the literature

         Define the scope of your review

         Assess relevance and value

         Assess sufficiency

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                     Recording the literature
                    Make notes for each item you read

        Record –

         Biographic details

         Brief summary of content

         Supplementary information
                                                 Sharp et al. (2002)
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                            Four common forms

         Stealing material from another source

         Submitting material written by another

         Copying material without quotation marks

         Paraphrasing material without documentation

                    Adapted from Park (2003), cited in Easterby-Smith et al. (2008)
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