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					BCIS 3615
The Visual Display of Business
Information
         Introducing Sound




         The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder
Today’s Topics

   Business interest in using sound
   Different sound formats
   Sampling sound with a computer
   Recording tips




             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   2
Using Multimedia in Presentations


       Animation, Video

                      Sound

                  Graphics

     Nature of Multimedia
         The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   3
             World’s Oldest Playable
          Instrument (China, 7000 BCE)




Brookhaven National Laboratory


                                 The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   4
Why Use Sound?

   Raise (emotional) interest
   Emphasize text
   Substitute for text
   Promote understanding
   Offer audio relief




             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   5
Subtle Messaging Aspect
   Can promote
       Identification of message with a sound
        (ex., company jingles or themes)
       Audio “testimony”
   Can detract
       Sound as a political or moral threat
           E. Europe: Marche Slave (1876)
           France & Nazis: La Marseillaise (1792)
           USA: Rock „n‟ roll (1950‟s)
       Sound as “noise”
   Consider your audience!
                  The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   6
 Sound
            The vibration of air molecules in
            response to a stimulus; moves
            through the air in an ever-widening
            manner called a sound wave.




Asymetrix


                     The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   7
Waveform

 The highly repetitive pattern of
 vibrating air molecules is called a
 waveform.




           The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   8
Waveform Components

   Amplitude -- the intensity or volume of a
    sound (Y-axis)
   Frequency -- the pitch of a sound; the
    number of periods or cycles per
    second; measured in kHz (X-axis)
   Wavelength (Period) -- distance between
    any given point on one wave and its
    corresponding point on the next wave



             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   9
            Amplitude vs. Frequency




Asymetrix


                The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   10
Thomas Edison (1877)

   Used tin foil strips
   Recorded “Mary Has a Little Lamb” by
    shouting (i.e., acoustic recording)
   Intended for dictated messages




             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   11
    Wax Cylinder Format (1885)

    Perfected by Edison (invented by others)
    Stored 2 min. (1908: 4 min.) of music
    Intended for home use (1907: Enrico
     Caruso 1st million-copy singer)




              The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   12
Samples of Early Recordings
   Frank Lambert‟s “Clock” (1878, lead(!)
    cylinder; earliest playable voice)
   Handel: Israel in Egypt (June 29, 1888;
    Crystal Palace London; oldest known
    playable recorded music)
   Sousa: Liberty Bell March (1897)




              The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   13
Evolution of Music Formats

   1887: Flat-disk (initially of hard rubber!)
   1928: 33 1/3 (LP) (but not sold until 1948)
   1963: Audio cassette
   1982: CD (outsells vinyl records 1988;
    outsells cassettes 1992)
   1997: MP3
   2001: Apple iPod; CD sales start decline



             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   14
Recall Forms of Information

   Analog -- representing information by
    measurable, physical units (dots per
    inch, continuous sound waves or
    electrical signals, etc.)
   Digital -- representing information using
    discrete (not continuous) combinations
    of 0‟s and 1‟s




              The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   15
       Analog Sound




Asymetrix      The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   16
Digital Sound
(WAV, not MIDI)




  Asymetrix
                  The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   17
Multimedia Sound Types

   Waveform (for voice or “authentic”
    recordings)
   MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital
    Interface; for musical composition,
    background music)
   Storage size requirements:
       Waveform ~ bitmap graphic
       MIDI ~ vector graphic



               The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   18
Sampling Frequencies
for waveform digital recordings

   11.025    kHz (poor AM radio quality)
   22.050    kHz (near FM radio quality)
   44.100    kHz (audio CD quality)
   48.000   kHz (DVD quality)




                The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   19
Depth (“Bit Depth”) Examples
how many bits collected per sample
   8-bit = 256 measurement intervals
   16-bit = 65,536 intervals
   24-bit = professional use




                The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   20
   Frequency & Depth Examples




Asymetrix

            The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   21
Use Monaural or Stereo?

   Monaural -- 1 sound channel (only
    format commercially available until
    1950‟s)
   Stereo -- 2 sound channels; 2x storage
    requirement
   Monaural unless authenticity vital




             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   22
Wave Audio Sampling Rates
for monaural (one channel), 5 minutes

              11.025
                                          22.05 kHz 44.1 kHz
              kHz
  8-bit
              3.30 MB                     6.62 MB                       13.20 MB
  Depth
  16-bit
              6.62 MB                     13.20 MB 26.46 MB
  Depth

  Double these sizes for stereo (two
  channels or two tracks).




                The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder              23
Some Waveform File Formats
all lossy except for WAV, VOC

   .WAV (Windows)
   .AIF, .SOU (Apple Mac)
   .VOC (Sound Blaster)
   .AU, .PCM, .SND (UNIX)
   .ACC (Advanced Audio Coding; iTunes)
   .MP3 (Windows, Mac)
   .WMA (Windows Media Audio)


               The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   24
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
(MIDI)
   A hardware interface standard for
    connecting electronic musical
    instruments
   A control language for using electronic
    musical instruments, including MIDI
    circuitry on a sound card




             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   25
MIDI, 2

   .MID or .MIDI files contain program
    instructions
   Storage rate is about 10k per minute




             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   26
MIDI Voice Issues

   A computer program for a distinct
    sound (128 standard voices)
   Number of voices supported by
    hardware important
   Fidelity:
       FM (frequency modulation) synthesis
       Wave table synthesis




               The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   27
Sample Standard Voices

   Bagpipe                                        Bird tweet
   Fiddle                                         Seashore
   Piccolo
   Sitar




              The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   28
MIDI Synthesis Comparison



Frequency Modulation                              Wave Table Synthesis
Synthesis (creates                                (uses samples from
artificial sounds)                                real instruments)




              The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder      29
Using Clip Sound

   Clip sound sources:
       Coba-Cluster / Apps / slides / vedder /
        media
       MasterClips 202K
       WWW: Microsoft, elsewhere
   Legal rights for use
   Do-it-yourself recordings



                The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   30
Sound Card Software
a typical, hardware-specific example

   Sound recorder / editor
   Component “rack” patterned after home
    stereo systems, ex.
       Waveform player
       MIDI player
       Audio CD player
   Audio mixer



                The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   31
Windows Sound Tools
include

   Media Player (.WAV and .MID)
   Sound-card-specific recording s/w
   Adobe Audition
       Edits many waveform types (not .MID)
       Converts between types
       Offers many special effects




                The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   32
Media Player

   Supplied with Windows
   Plays media files only
   Check installed devices
   Test system with a Windows sound file




             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   33
How to Record Sound

   Is equipment plugged-in correctly?
   Is the Windows Volume Control set
    correctly?
   Record your sound
   Edit your WAV file(s)




            The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   34
          COBA Lab Sound Ports

   Blue: Line in (ex.,
    use with a cassette
    player)
   Green: Line out (ex.,
    for headset)
   Red: Microphone
   All ports mini plug
    (1/8 inch)




               The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   35
Windows Volume Controls
   right-click on speaker icon




      The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   36
     Audition Interface


                                                      Current Position




                          Current Time


VU




      The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder              37
Recording with Audition
     File / New Dialog Box




    The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   38
Recording Environment




   The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   39
Recording in Process




  The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   40
Recording Done -- Save, Then Edit!




         The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   41
Sample Editing Effects




   The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   42
Recording Tips

   Watch your amplitude!
   Trade-off between quality and storage
   Assume every recording needs editing




             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   43
More Recording Tips

   Consider recording sound to tape first,
    then digitizing the tape signal
       Use 1/8 inch stereo mini plug patch cord
       Use “Line In” port on sound card
       Can use to capture .RA (Real Audio) files
   Experiment!!




                The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   44
Review

   Business interest in using sound
   Different sound formats
   Sampling sound with a computer
   Recording tips




             The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   45
ITDS Logo / Mood Slide




          The University of North Texas, ITDS Dept., Dr. Vedder   46

				
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posted:9/29/2011
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