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					Food & Nutrition
Gardening
Family Living
                                          The Wahkiakum
Up-coming Events
                                                      Courier
Spring Issue
             2007

                                                                                     opportunity to observe trial beds using
Extension Staff and
                                               Events &                              compost and worm castings as soil
How to Reach Us:                            Information                              amendments.

Wahkiakum County
                                           2007 Gardening Classes &                  Tough-as-Nails Gardening
25 River Street – Suite E
Cathlamet, WA. 986l2                       Workshops                                 Saturday, July 28, 11:00 a.m.
(PO Box 278)                               Presented by WSU Master                   Salkum Timberland Library
Phone: 360-795-3278                        Gardeners & WSU Master                    2480 U.S. Highway 12
Fax:    360-795-0317                       Recycler Composters of Lewis              Free
                                           County                                    Tour a Master Gardener
Jennifer Leach                                                                       demonstration garden with a variety of
County Director                            Salkum Library                            colorful garden beds consisting
WSU 4-H Youth Agent                        Demonstration Garden Tour,                of drought-tolerant, rabbit and deer
E-mail: jleach@wsu.edu                                                               resistant flowers and shrubs. Master
                                           Plant Clinic & Friends of the             Gardeners will be on hand to explain
Lore Hammond Twiet                         Library Book and Plant Sale               the gardens and to answer gardening
Administrative Assistant                   Saturday, May 5,                          questions.
E-mail:                                    9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.
twietl@co.wahkiakum.wa.us                  Free
                                           This annual event will include tours of   Fall Gardening for Everyone
Carrie Kennedy                             the Master Gardener “Tough as Nails”      Saturday, September 9
Small Farm/Ag Program Assistant            gardens, a Master Gardener Plant and      9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.
Food & Nutrition Assistant                 Insect Clinic to answer gardening         Centralia College - Washington
Food $ense Program                         questions and book and plant sale by      Hall            Free
E-mail:                                    the Friends of the Library.               Six free gardening classes to be
kennedyc@co.wahkiakum.wa.us                                                          announced in August. To receive a
                                           Straw Bale Gardening                      mailer with class information
                                           Saturday, June 2, 10:00 a.m.              contact the Master Gardener office at
This newsletter is edited by Lore Twiet    Salkum Timberland Library                 740-1216 to leave a name, mailing
                                           2480 U.S. Highway 12                      address, city, state, zip and an e-mail
                                           Free                                      address or e-mail the information
Cooperating agencies: Washington                                                     to: deburris@co.lewis.wa.us
                                           Master Gardeners will demonstrate
State University, U.S. Department of
                                           how to raise warm-season vegetable
Agriculture and Wahkiakum County.
                                           crops and some annual bedding
                                           plants using straw-bales to create
 Extension programs and employment
                                           raised beds. This is a great gardening
are available to all without
                                           technique for children or older
discrimination. Evidence of
                                           gardeners with back problems.
noncompliance may be reported                                                        2007 Brown Bag Forums
                                           Children are encouraged to participate
through your local Extension office.                                                 All classes will be held 12:00 noon to
                                           in this hands-on activity.
                                                                                     1:00pm in the Cowlitz Co.
                                           Composting & Vermiculture                 Administrative Bldg., Room 300, 207-
                                                                                     4th Ave. N, Kelso; except where noted.
                                           Hands-on Workshop
                                           Saturday, August 11, 9:00 a.m.            Elder resource fair, April 19th
                                           Master Gardener Borst Park                12noon to 2pm
                                           Demonstration Garden                      What are the needs of the elderly?
                                           Free                                      Where does one go to find services to
                                           This will be a repeat of the February     help meet those needs? Meet
                                           17th class at Centralia College but it    representatives from agencies in our
                                           will be hands-on. You’ll also have an
                                                                                                                              2
area who serve the elderly and learn       Make It for Others
what they have to offer.                   In the Make It for Others (district-        Antibiotics are among the wonder
                                           level only) contest, all regular Make It    drugs of our time, preventing
The internet and your child, May 8th       With Wool rules apply regarding             countless details from deadly
The internet is a wonderful tool to        content of wool and garment                 infections and illness such as
provide your family with educational       categories. However, the entrant does       pneumonia, meningitis and
activities and new experiences.            not have to model the garment               tuberculosis.
Unfortunately, it can also be a place      himself/herself. Instead, the garment
where danger lurks for your kids.          must be modeled for the district            However, if people take these
Learn tips on how to make the internet     competition judging and fashion show        powerful medications when they don’t
a safe experience for your family.         by the person for whom it was made.         need them, it costs them money in the
                                           Information on the entry form should        short term and has the potential to cost
Creating a pond in my yard, June           pertain to the person who constructed       them a lot more money if they become
5th                                        the garment, not the model.                 resistant to the drugs, making
Wouldn’t we all love to have a pond                                                    themselves and others vulnerable to
in our landscape? WSU Master               Prizes                                      serious illnesses with no available
Gardeners will tell you what plants to     District Preteen winners will receive       cure.
add and a few to avoid and why. Also       1.5 yards of Pendleton wool fabric.
what you can do to help to help your       Each district winner in the Junior,         Unfortunately, according to national
fish hide from the critters that like to   Senior, and both Adult categories will      surveys, many Americans take
go fishing.                                receive a trip to the state finals at the   antibiotics improperly. Some
                                           at the Best Western Lake Inn in Moses       common ways people misuse
                                           Lake on November 3, 2007. Make It           antibiotics include:
                                           for Others winners will receive 2.5              • Using antibiotics from a
                                           yards of Pendleton wool fabric.                       previous illness
                                           State Junior and Senior winners each             • Taking someone else’s
                                           will receive a trip to the national                   antibiotics
                                           competition at the Riviera Hotel in              • Stopping antibiotics too soon.
                                           Las Vegas, NV, January 24–26, 2008.
                                           State Junior and Senior alternates will
Washington State Make It                   win sewing machines.
                                                                                       Protect yourself
with Wool                                                                              As a patient and a consumer, you can
                                           One overall Adult winner will be            do a lot to protect yourself form
2007 Contest Information                   selected at state to receive a serger.      resistant bacteria. The key is taking
This contest is made possible through      The garment, a video, and photos of         antibiotics only when needed and then
contributions from the Washington          him/her in the garment will advance to      using them correctly as follows:
Wool Growers’ Auxiliary, Pendleton         the national Adult competition. One              • Don’t save left over
Woolen Mills, and other kind               overall national Adult winner is                      medicines to treat the next
sponsors.                                  chosen to model his/her garment at the                sore throat or earache in your
                                           national competition. The state Adult                 family. Only a doctor can
Entering the Contest                       alternate wins $100 in cash.                          tell when you really need an
Entries may be sewn, knit, crocheted,                                                            antibiotic – and which type is
woven or felted and must contain a         For more information contact State                    best for your illness.
minimum of 60 percent wool fibers.*        Director: Mrs. Susan Parr at (253)               • Understand when
Entries are judged 60 percent on how       922-5403 or E-mail                                    antibiotics are necessary.
they appear and fit on the contestant      smparr4h@earthlink.net                                Antibiotics work only on
and 40 percent on construction (off the    A contest brochure may be down                        bacterial infections, including
contestant). Age categories are Preteen    loaded from the web site at:                          strep throat, urinary tract
(12 and under), Junior (13–16), Senior     http://www.home.earthlink.net/~washi                  infections and many ear
(17–24), Adult (25–49), and Adult (50      ngtonwoolcontest                                      infections. Antibiotics can’t
and over). Preteens compete at district                                                          cure an illness caused by a
level only.                                                                                      virus – and viruses cause
*To test fabric for wool content, place              Food and                                    colds, flu and most sore
a scrap in one cup of bleach                                                                     throats.
overnight. One-hundred-percent wool                  Nutrition
                                                                                            • Take antibiotics at the same
will have no residue left. If any fibers
                                                                                                 time every day. Antibiotics
remain, the fabric is a blend. Some        Using Antibiotics Safely                              work best when they are
finishes and natural fiber content may
                                                                                                 taken on a regular schedule.
affect results.
                                                                                            • Always finish your
                                                                                                 prescription. Once you start
                                           and Wisely                                            to feel better, you may be
                                                                                                                               3
         tempted to stop taking your         There is a helpful list compiled by        influence the digestive system
         antibiotic. But by not              Mayoclinic.com that can help you met       hormones gherlin and leptin that
         finishing your prescription,        your daily fiber needs.                    control hunger and appetite. Ghrelin
         you could risk getting sick                                                    tells you you are hungry. Leptin tells
         again or becoming resistant         Guide to sugars and                        your brain that you are full. HFCS has
         to the antibiotic.                  Artificial Sweeteners                      been shown to lower lepin secretion so
                                                                                        you never get the message that you are
When you start taking an antibiotic,         Americans are getting fatter and added     full. And HFCS fails to shut off
the sensitive, weaker germs die first,       sweetener may be partly to blame.          gherlin production so that you feel
while the stronger, more resistant           We consume roughly 100 pounds of           hungry even though you have food in
bacteria survive. If you stop taking         sweetener per person per year.             your stomach. All of this can lead to
your antibiotic too soon, the stronger,      Sweeteners come in a variety of forms      weight gain.
more resistant bacteria could survive        – table sugar, honey, high-fructose
and multiply. As a result, your illness      corn syrup (HFCS), fruit juice             Products sweetened with concentrated
may linger or you could develop              concentrates, artificial sweeteners and    fruit juices are not much better
another infection that is harder to treat.   sugar alcohols. Check food labels and      because fruit-juice concentrates also
                                             chances are you will find one or more      have high levels of fructose. Stick
The bottom line? Taking an                   of these sweeteners in a large number      with whole fruit or fruit juice diluted
antibiotic exactly as prescribed by          of products – some of which might          with water. Are artificial sweeteners
your doctor will not only help cure          surprise you. Sweeteners are used in       and sugar alcohols better choices than
your existing illness, but can also help     everything from cookies, jams and          sugar and HFCS? Although artificial
protect you from a more serious              energy bars to ketchup, salad dressing,    sweeteners such as aspartame
infection later on.                          bread and pasta sauces to sport drinks,    NutraSweet, Equal) and sucralose
                                             coffee drinks, sodas and chewing gum.      (Spenda) are virtually calorie free,
                                             So which sweetener to choose?              consuming them may lead to a craving
Fiber Rich Foods                                                                        for sweetness – a sweet tooth. Sugar
Fiber has many roles in good health.         Let’s start with good old sugar – table    alcohols such as maltitol and sorbitol
Fiber is important to move foods             sugar, honey, maple syrup and corn         are low in calories because they are
through your digestive track easily and      syrup. These are carbohydrates and         not completely absorbed in the
quickly. It is helpful in preventing         contain calories so they will affect       digestive tract and sugar alcohols
constipation. Eating a diet rich in          blood glucose levels and contribute to     don’t affect blood glucose levels as
fiber may help reduce the risk of heart      your daily calorie intake. If you are      much as sugar does. In addition, sugar
disease and diabetes, and it may help        diabetic or have insulin sensitivity you   alcohols do not contribute to tooth
with weight loss.                            will need to consider these sugars as      decay so they are used in sugarless
                                             part of the daily carbohydrate intake      gum and toothpaste. Sugar alcohols
Fiber is often referred to as roughage       and if you are watching your weight,       are also used in other food products
or bulk. There are two types of fiber:       don’t forget to account for these          such as ice cream and bakery items
soluble and insoluble.                       sweeteners – such as in beverages – as     but are not used as much as sugar,
Soluble fiber dissolves in water. It is      part of your daily calorie intake.         HFCS, aspartame or sucralose because
helpful in keeping blood cholesterol                                                    consuming too much sugar alcohol
and glucose levels low. Soluble fiber        But not all sugars are the same. While     can cause bloating, gas and diarrhea.
is found in foods such as oats, peas,        table sugar – sucrose – breaks down
beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots and    into 50% glucose and 50% fructose in       So… what to do? The best advice is
barley.                                      our bodies, HFCS has a higher              to limit your intake of added
Insoluble fiber adds stool bulk and is       percentage of fructose content. Our        sweeteners, especially HFCS. And a
often helpful in preventing and              bodies can metabolize both glucose         good rule of thumb is always
relieving constipation. Insoluble fiber      and fructose however we metabolize         “everything in moderation”.
is found in foods such as whole wheat,       them differently and can only handle       Source:
wheat bran, nuts and many vegetables.        limited amounts of fructose at one         www.naturemade.com/WellnessTopics
                                             time. Unlike glucose, which is
Americans typically do not get enough        metabolized in cells throughout the
fiber in their diets. According to           body for energy, fructose is
MayoClinic.com, men under age 50             metabolizes almost entirely in the liver
need to have 38 grams of fiber each          and is more likely to result in the
day and women under 50 need 25               creation of fats – especially the types
grams. Men 51 years of age and older         of fat that increase the risk of heart
need 30 grams each day and women             disease. In addition, HFCS, which is
51 years of age and older need 21            cheaper than sugar and is now the
grams.                                       leading sweetener in beverages and
                                             processed foods, has been shown to
                                                                                                                                  4
                                          2 tsp. dried thyme, crushed
                                          1 tsp. salt                                             Gardening
                                          1 tsp. black pepper

                                          Pick through beans to remove bad
                                          ones. Rinse beans well. In a large pot,
                                          combine beans, water, onion, celery
                                          and bay leaves. Bring to a boil.
                                          Reduce heat, cover and cook over low
                                          heat for about 1 ½ hours or until beans        Spring is when it all happens for the
                                          are tender. Stir, mash beans against           rhododendron enthusiast. Most
                                          side of pan. Add green pepper, garlic,         rhododendrons are spring blooming,
                                          parsley, thyme, salt and black pepper.         although flowers can be had from
                                          Cook uncovered over low heat until             mid-winter until well into the summer.
                                          creamy, about 30 minutes. Remove
                                          bay leaves. Serve with hot cooked              Dead heading
                                          brown rice if desired.                         When the rhododendron flowers have
                                                                                         gone over, carefully remove the
                                          Makes 8 servings, 1 ¼ cups each                flower head at the base, taking care
                                          Per serving: 171 calories, less than 1         not to remove or damage the growth
Recipes:                                  g. total fat, less that 1 g saturated fat, 0   buds at the base of the flower shoot.
                                          mg cholesterol, 285 mg sodium, 7 g             Plants that re not deadheaded will put
Herbed Brown Rice                         fiber, 10 g protein, 32 g                      growing and flowering energy into
Ingredients:                              carbohydrates, 665 mg potassium.               seed production. Young, newly
¼ tsp. ground cumin                                                                      planted or transplanted bushes are
2 ½ cups lower-sodium, fat-free           Sunshine Bean Casserole                        especially worth deadheading.
chicken broth                             Ingredients:
1 ½ cups instant brown rice               ½ - 1 pound ground turkey                      Weeding
3 Tbs`. olive oil                         1 large onion, chopped                         Rhododendrons are surface rooting
2 garlic cloves, minced                   1 - 16 ounce can read bean, drained            plants and weeding should be done
1 Tbs. chopped fresh thyme                1 – 16 ounce can lima beans, drained           with care, and never with a hoe or
1 Tbs. chopped fresh rosemary             1 – 16 ounce can garbanzo beans,               digging with a fork or spade as this
1 Tbs. chopped fresh sage                         Drained                                will damage the delicate feeding roots
1 Tbs. chopped fresh chives               ¼ cup brown sugar                              that lie near the surface.
Freshly ground black pepper               1 tablespoon prepared mustard
                                          ½ cup catsup                                   Mulching
Combine the cumin and broth in a          3 tablespoons vinegar                          Rhododendrons provide a natural
medium saucepan and bring to a boil.      1 tablespoon water                             mulch with their fallen leaves. Do not
Add the rice, reduce the heat, cover                                                     remove this as it adds required
and simmer for 10 minutes. Combine        In a large skillet, cook ground turkey         nutrients to the soil.
the remaining ingredients and pour        and onions until meat is no longer
over the cooked rice, stirring to         pink. Stir in drained beans, sugar,            If you live in warm or dry climate
combine. Makes 6 servings.                mustard, catsup, vinegar and water.            supplementary mulch such as pea-
                                          Simmer over low heat until heated and          straw will help to retain soil moisture.
Per serving – ½ cup:                      flavors are blended.                           Mulch after the ground has warmed -
Calories: 160, total fat: 8g, saturated                                                  to suppress weeds and to retain
fat: 1g, fiber: 1g, sodium: 170 mg,                                                      moisture. Never mulch over dry soils
                                          To cook in oven:
cholesterol: 0mg, carbohydrates: 18g,     Follow skillet directions above. Put           but wait until a rain shower or the
protein: 4g.                              turkey and bean mixture into a 2 ½             hose has thoroughly dampened the
                                          quart baking dish. Cover and bake an           ground. Some mulch materials can
New Orleans Red Beans                     hour at 325 F.                                 deplete nitrogen as it decomposes; the
Ingredients:                                                                             signal is leaves that begin to yellow.
1 pound dry read beans                    To cook in crock pot or slow cooker:
2 quarts water                            Follow skillet direction above. Put            Take care when mulching to keep the
1 ½ cups chopped onion                    turkey and bean mixture into a slow            main plant stem clear or collar rot can
1 cup chopped celery                      cooker or crock pot and simmer for 3-          result. Never use mushroom compost
4 bay leaves                              4 hours.                                       as this is alkaline and rhododendrons
1 cup chopped green pepper                Source: Eating Well for Less                   are acid-soil loving plants.
3 Tbs. chopped garlic
3 Tbs. chopped parsley
                                                                                                                                 5
Feeding                                    some fruit bearing trees or shrubs.         insects tunneling under the bark are an
Rhododendrons planted in good              Plants that hold their fruits through the   important food source for birds such
garden soils should not require            winter provide a vital food source for      as chickadees, woodpeckers and
supplementary feeding. On thin and         non-migratory birds. Add variety to         nuthatches. Furthermore, old hollow
poor soils, add generous amounts of        the kinds of food you offer and you         trees are becoming increasingly scarce
well-rooted compost (not mushroom          will attract a wider variety of bird        and cavity nesting birds such as
compost) into the soil before planting.    species.                                    bluebirds and woodpeckers are having
                                                                                       an increasingly difficult time finding
Mulch with a good compost, or use a        A good water source will draw birds         nest sites. A dead tree can look
specialist rhododendron fertilizer         like a magnet. Even just a common           attractive in a garden, particularly it is
following the instructions carefully.      birdbath purchased at a garden supply       has ivy growing up its trunk.
                                           shop will do. Some people hang a
Shade                                      plastic bottle or jug of water with a       Use dead branches that fall from your
Rhododendrons are under-storey trees       hole in the bottom over their birdbath.     trees to stat a brush pile. It will afford
or come from climates without hot          The motion and sound of the dripping        protection to the birds form harsh
dry, blazing summer days. Planting         water is irresistible to many birds.        weather and predators.
under the canopy of suitable shade
trees or on the shady side of a house or   Does your yard have an area of dense        With a little time and effort, you can
wall will protect plants from sun-         thickets that birds could use for           easily turn your yard into a welcome
scorch, as spring becomes summer.          nesting, secluded perching, or escape       haven for local and migrant songbirds.
Source: bestgradening.com                  cover? If not, them plant some shrubs
                                           or make a hedge. Consider growing           The following is a list of bird-friendly
                                           some vines up the side of your house        plants.
                                           or along your fence. Try to create          Deciduous trees:
                                           lush, wild growth in a few places to        Mulberries – the berries produced by
                                           simulate a natural environment.             these trees in July and August are a
                                                                                       favorite food of more than 40 bird
                                           You should be able to find some             species. These wide-spreading,
                                           excellent plants for your garden in a       medium sized trees grow 30 to 60 feet
                                           nursery – either local or mail order. If    tall, depending on the species.
                                           you buy from an out-of-state nursery,       Dogwoods – an excellent choice for
Creating a Garden
                                           however, be sure that the plants you        birds and people, this well-known
   for Birds                               purchase will be hardy in your region.      ornamental tree is covered with white,
Few things are as interesting and                                                      pink or red flowers in spring and red
beautiful as songbirds. They brighten      When you are designing your yard,           fruits (birds love them) from August
up the darkest days of winter, adding      consider how large each plant will be       to November. Grows up to 40 feet
music and color to our lives. What         when it matures. Remember that a            tall.
can we do to repay them? For starters,     lovely little tree that you plant today     Crab apples – Many bird species eat
we can make our yards more bird            may become a giant that hogs your           the flower buds, flowers, fruit and
friendly. Never before has suitable        entire yard in a few years. So shop         seeds of these trees which also provide
habitat for birds been in such short       wisely and avoid make a costly error.       good cover and nest sties. Usually
supply. Urban areas are expanding                                                      grow to about 20 feet tall.
constantly, altering or destroying                                                     Serviceberries – these are medium
                                           Before you start digging up plants and
natural areas. By creating bird                                                        sized trees, 25 to 60 feet tall, that grow
                                           rearranging your yard, you will want
gardens, we provide oases for birds in                                                 masses of white or pinkish flowers in
                                           to try out your garden design on paper.
the heart of our cities. And not only                                                  spring. Fruits appear in the summer.
                                           Avoid straight lines or rows in your
will the birds benefit, but if you make                                                Coniferous trees:
                                           plantings. Create a meandering line
your yard more attractive to birds, you                                                Red cedar – An attractive cone-shaped
                                           where two kinds of habitat, such as
will have the pleasure of seeing an                                                    tree, offering cover, nest sites and
                                           shrubs and lawn meet. These edge
increasing number and variety of birds                                                 winter fruit for birds. Usually grows
                                           areas provide the widest variety of
there.                                                                                 50 to 90 feet tall.
                                           perching places, nest sites and food
                                           types. Develop secluded areas of            Spruce – the cones of these trees
The first step in designing a bird                                                     produce seeds that birds eat in fall and
                                           shrubs, conifer and mixed plantings.
garden is to evaluate your yard from a                                                 winter. Spruces also provide cover and
                                           Take note of the areas in your yard
bird’s perspective. Does it provide the                                                next sties. They may grow up to 150
                                           that receive sun or shade and choose
basic necessities – food, water, shelter                                               feet tall.
                                           only plants that are appropriate for
– that birds need to survive? If not,
                                           each lighting situation.
which are lacking? If there is a                                                       Shrubs and vines:
                                           Leave dead limbs and even entire dead
shortage of food, you can hang up bird                                                 Northern Bayberry – this semi-
                                           trees where they are; unless they are
feeders, but also consider planting                                                    evergreen shrub grows fragrant
                                           dangerous to people or property. The
                                                                                                                                6
berries, which stay on the plant year-              Little" mini-pumpkins delight              either rain or irrigation not
round and are a preferred food of tree              children!                                  both.
swallows, catbirds, bluebirds and may
others.                                      Lawn care:                                    •   Mow every five to seven
Staghorn Sumac – this shrub has                                                                days.
brilliant red fall foliage and clusters of      •   Fertilize in late April, using a
hairy red fruit that persist throughout             3-1-2 ratio slow-release or            •   Tolerate some weeds; dig out
winter and are eaten by many bird                   natural organic formulation.               dandelions to prevent
species.                                                                                       seeding.
Viburnums – A large genus of easy-              •   Mow regularly.
to-grow shrubs with white flowers in
spring, followed by red, yellow, blue,          •   Recycle grass clippings on to
or black berries. Birds eat the berries             lawn, "grass cycling."
and find cover in the branches.
                                                                                         JUNE
Wild grapes – These climbing vines                                                     Garden essentials:
provide superb fruit, eaten by more                        MAY                             •   Plant fall perennials; asters,
than 50 birds species. The vines also        Garden essentials:                                chrysanthemums.
provide excellent cover and nest sties.         •   Visit public gardens for fresh
Virgina Creeper – A tree-climbing                   ideas.                                 •   Encourage birds in garden for
vine that produces small blue berries                                                          help with insect control.
from August to February. Brilliant              •   Trim spring-blooming shrubs
scarlet foliage in autumn.                          after bloom.                           •   Remember, if you kill a
Edited from Bird Notes, Cornell                                                                beneficial insect, you inherit
Laboratory of Ornithology                       •   Remove spent bulb seedpods,                its work.
                                                    allowing bulb foliage to
                                                    mature.                                •   Enjoy June colors and scents.

                                                •   Fill containers for summer         Veggies year-round:
                                                    color.
                                                                                           •   Replant replacement crops
                                                •   Combine herbs with annual                  when early lettuce, mustard
                                                    flowers.                                   greens, bok choys and
                                                                                               spinach mature.
                APRIL                           •   Plant dahlias, gladiolus and
Garden essentials:                                  calla lilies.                          •   Mulch the garden with a thin
                                                                                               layer of straw or rough
    •    Plant annual seeds of asters,
                                             Veggies year-round:                               compost after soil warms.
         cosmos, marigolds, zinnias.
                                                •   Harden tender transplants by           •   Control weeds with frequent
    •    Take stored fuchsias and
                                                    putting them out in a                      light cultivation.
         geraniums outdoors; cover if
         frost returns.                             sheltered location and
                                                    bringing them in at night.             •   Provide an inch of water a
                                                                                               week as rains taper off.
    •    Finish garden cleanup and
         fertilizing.                           •   When soil warms, seed corn
                                                    and beans.                         Lawn care:
    •    Start your garden log now
                                                •   Transplant starts of heat-             •   Water deeply and slowly.
         while spring energy reigns!
                                                    lovers such as tomatoes,
                                                    peppers, squash and                    •   Keep irrigation systems on
Veggies year-round:                                                                            manual, not timed,
                                                    cucumbers.
                                                                                               application.
    •    Thin direct-seeded crops as
         they sprout.                                                                      •   Continue "grass cycling."
                                             Lawn care:                                        Grass clippings don't create
    •    Sow carrots and parsnips.
                                                                                               thatch.
    •    Late in the month, plant               •   Check all irrigation systems;
                                                    set up a simple rain gauge.            •   Mow often enough to remove
         squash, zucchini, pumpkins
                                                                                               only one-third of grass blade
         and cucumber seeds indoors
                                                •   Lawns optimally require 1                  length.
         in large peat pots. "Jack-Be-
                                                    inch of water weekly, as
                                                                                                                                   7
                                             than needed, since you’ll be stretching     wet towel (to attract the dust) for 15
                                             the fabric as it is sewn. (A)               minutes. Hang them back in the
                                                                                         windows immediately.
                                             Position the fabric at one end of the       It is often difficult to clean the blades
                                             cording.                                    of a ceiling fan. Make future cleaning
                                                                                         easier by covering them with a coat of
                                             With right sides facing, fold the           furniture polish. Wipe off the excess
                                             fabric in halt lengthwise, encasing the     and lightly buff.
                                             cording (B)
                                                                                         Sometimes comforters, blankets and
                                             Using a zipper foot, stitch across one      pillows don't need to be cleaned, but
                                             end of the fabric and the cording at the    they need to be aired out after a long,
        Home Life                            cord center. Continue stitching the         closed-up winter. Take them outside
                                             fabric, stretching it as you sew. Stitch    and hang them on a clothesline for a
                                             close to the cording, being careful not     day to release the stale air.
How to remove tree sap                       to catch it is the stitching. (C)
from the carpet                                                                          Tips and Tricks
According to the International               Cut off the corner of the fabric at the
                                                                                         Here are 3 tips from Woman’s Day for
Fabricare Institute, this home remedy        starting end, and trim the seam
                                                                                         an emergency:
may work:                                    allowance. (D)
                                                                                         Ripped hem: tape it temporarily with
                                                                                         masking or duct tape. If there is time
         Mix ¼ teaspoon mild dish            Turn the fabric right side out onto
                                                                                         secure with narrow fusible web.
         washing detergent with 1 cup        the cording (E)
         of lukewarm water. Do not                                                       Missing buttons: Use a costume
         use a stronger concentration,                                                   jewelry pin to close a blouse or skirt,
         as it may damage the carpet.            Spring Cleaning                         or fasten the waistband on pants or
         Apply a small amount of the         Springtime is when the items in the         skirt with a safety pin and cover with a
         solution to a white cloth and       refrigerator change from winter foods       wide belt.
         blot onto the sap.                  to summer foods, so this provides a
         Rinse the area by blotting          perfect opportunity to clean the            Stuck zipper: Rub a bar of soap over
         with a towel and cold water         refrigerator. The best cleaner is a         the zipper teeth. Move the zipper pull
         until the detergent residue is      combination of salt and soda water.         up and down to distribute the soap;
         completely removed. After           The bubbling action of the soda water       wipe off any residue.
         rinsing, blot again with dry        combined with the abrasive texture of
         towel.                              the salt works great as a cleaner.          When hand sewing a button put a
         Never use laundry detergent         Another area in the kitchen that could      piece of tape over the button to secure
         on carpet; it may contain           use a seasonal cleaning is the faucet.      it to the fabric. The tape removes
         bleaching agents that could         There may be a buildup of lime              easily and you don’t have to worry
         damage the fiber and/or             around the fixture. The best way to get     about the button slipping.
         color.                              rid of it is to lay paper towels over the
         If the stain remains, try           fixture and soak it with vinegar, letting   If you have an old magnetic photo
         mixing 2 tablespoons of             it set for one hour. The deposits will      album that is empty, use it to store
         household ammonia with 1            soften and become easier remove.            return address labels. Magnetic
         cup of water and apply as for                                                   photo albums are bad for photos
         the detergent solution above.       To clean screens, use a scrap of            anyway because of the acid content on
         If the stain still remains, it is   carpeting this makes a powerful brush       the pages.
         time to seek help from a            that removes all the dirt.
         carpet cleaning professional.                                                   Cut the finger off an old rubber glove,
                                             Clean windows with a rag and soapy
                                                                                         and slide over the handle of long-
How to cover cording                         water, then dry them with another rag.
                                             Another quick-cleaning option               handled tools and brooms. This
Fabric-covered cording is a very                                                         prevents them from slipping when you
versatile design tool. It can be sued to     involves going to an auto-parts store
                                             and purchasing a windshield squeegee.       prop them against a wall while
make knot buttons, loops, frogs, purse                                                   working.
handles or trim. State with cording          They're available for less than $5, and
twice as long as needed.                     they clean very well.

Cut bias strips wide enough to wrap          If drapes are looking a little drab, take
around the cording, adding extra for         them out of the window, remove the
seam allowances. Cut the strips wider        hooks and run them through the air-
                                             fluff cycle in the dryer, along with a
                                                                                                                         8


Tips for Using Baking
Soda                                             •   Dust baking soda under your
Baking soda is a must – one box does
                                                     arms as needed to feel fresh
so much. It is a dishwashing aid, pot
                                                     all day. Baking soda actually
scrubber, hand cleanser, deodorant,
                                                     absorbs odors instead of just
toothpaste, fire extinguisher and good
                                                     covering them up.
for tons of other uses.
                                                                                       •   Get ready for your next
     • For cooked-on foods: let                                                            barbecue by sprinkling dry
                                                 •   Baking soda can help in the
          them soak in the baking                                                          baking soda on a damp brush,
                                                     initial handling of minor
          soda/detergent water first,                                                      scrub the grill and rinse
                                                     grease or electrical kitchen
          then use dry baking soda on a                                                    clean. For tough, greasy
                                                     fires. That is because when
          clean damp sponge or cloth                                                       stains, scrub with a wire
                                                     baking soda is heated, it gives
          as a scratchless scouring                                                        brush and a baking soda paste
                                                     off carbon dioxide, which
          powder.                                                                          (3 parts baking soda to 1 part
                                                     helps to smother the flames.
                                                     For small cooking fires               warm water).
    •    Forget harsh soaps and gently               (frying pans, broilers, ovens,
         scrub away ground-in dirt                   grills), turn off the gas or      •   Car of RV smelling a bit
         and neutralize odors on hands               electricity if you can safely         musty? Odors settle into the
         with a paste of 3 parts baking              do so. Stand back and throw           upholstery and carpet, and
         soda to l part water, or                    handfuls of baking soda at            are released into the air each
         sprinkle baking soda onto                   the base of the flame to help         time you sit down. Eliminate
         liquid hand soap in your                    put out the fire – and call the       odors by sprinkling baking
         palm. Then rinse clean.                     fire department just to be            soda directly from a shaker
         Your skin will feel softer,                 safe.                                 on fabric car seats and
         too.                                                                              carpets. Wait 15 minutes or
                                                 •   Baking soda is a gentle non-
                                                     fluoride dentifrice that helps        longer for strong odors) and
                                                     keep teeth clean and white.           vacuum up the odors with the
                                                     Dip a damp toothbrush in              baking soda. Be sure to
                                                     some baking soda sprinkled            check for color-fastness first.
                                                     into you palm. Brush as
                                                     usual and rinse.




                  Scenes from sites located in Wahkiakum County.

				
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