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Chapter Nine Jacksonian America True/False Questions 1. Jacksonian democracy included a weak challenge to the institution of slavery. Page: 237 2. The “age of Jackson” was less a triumph for the common man than conservatives feared. Page: 238 3. More people gained the right to vote in the 1830s, but requirements for voters to own property remained in place. Page: 238 4. The Dorr Rebellion was generally consistent with Jacksonian principles. Page: 239 5. During the Jacksonian era, free blacks could not vote at all in the South and hardly anywhere in the North. Page: 239 6. One of the major reforms of the Jacksonian period was the introduction of the secret ballot. Page: 239-240 7. By 1840 the actual number of adult white males who voted had risen to 80 percent. Page: 240 8. During the Jacksonian period, political parties were regarded as a threat to democracy. Answer: False Page: 240 9. The Whig Party was the first national political party. Page: 241 10. As president, Andrew Jackson’s first political target was the Bank of the United States. Page: 242 11. National political conventions were introduced during the Jacksonian period in order to expand the democratic process. Page: 242 12. Andrew Jackson believed a strong federal government would lead to a strong democracy. Page: 243 13. As Andrew Jackson’s vice president, John C. Calhoun became a strong Jackson opponent. Page: 243 14. The Peggy Eaton affair improved Andrew Jackson’s relationship with John C. Calhoun. Page: 244 15. The Webster-Hayne debate concerned primarily the issue of the sale of public lands. Page: 244 16. Calhoun’s defense of his doctrine of nullification was directed primarily at the issue of tariffs. Page: 245 17. Andrew Jackson sided with Robert Hayne in the Webster-Hayne debate. Page: 245 18. President Jackson considered those who favored nullification to be traitors. Page: 245 19. President Jackson was a strong advocate for protecting the autonomy of Indian tribes. Page: 246 20. In the early nineteenth century, many whites viewed Indians as “noble savages.” Page: 246 21. President Jackson sought to remove all of the eastern Indian tribes except the “Five Civilized Tribes.” Page: 246 22. In the Black Hawk War, white forces attacked Indians as they surrendered and retreated. Page: 246 23. In Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, the Supreme Court ruled against the Indian tribe. Page: 247 24. Unlike most other tribes, the relocation of the Seminoles in Florida was never completed. Page: 249 25. In the 1830s, as a result of removal policies, the United States gained control of more than 100 million acres of Indian lands. Page: 249 26. President Jackson vetoed the Maysville Road even though this proposed road was in his home state. Page: 256 27. Opposition to the Bank of the United States came from both “soft-money” and “hard-money” advocates. Page: 250 28. The results of the election of 1832 could be interpreted as a defeat for both Henry Clay and Nicholas Biddle. Page: 251 29. The case of Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge could be interpreted as a victory for the forces of democracy. Page: 253 30. Although political opponents, Whigs supported President Jackson’s use of the veto. Page: 251 31. The Whigs were more concerned with their political philosophy than with winning elections. Page: 253 32. Jacksonians were more likely than Whigs to favor territorial expansion. Page: 253 33. The Democrats were more likely than Whigs to oppose legislation establishing banks. Page: 253 34. The well-to-do were more likely to support Whigs than Democrats. Page: 253 35. The Panic of 1837 began the worst American depression to that point. Page: 255 36. The “penny press” was more lively and sensationalistic than previous newspapers. Page: 256 37. The Washington Star was the first of the new “penny press” newspapers. Page: 258 38. In 1840 the Whigs elected a president for the first time. Page: 256 39. John Tyler saw every cabinet member but one resign together from his administration. Page: 257 40. The “Aroostook War” was the result of tensions between Canada and Maine. Page: 258 41. The Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 was strongly criticized in the United States. Page: 259 42. During the Tyler administration, the United States established diplomatic relations with China. Page: 259 Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1. President Jackson’s attack on federal officeholders led to the introduction of what one of his allies called the “______________________.” Page: 242 2. Jackson’s supporters created the ___________________ as a forum for selecting candidates for president. Page: 242 3. Thomas Dorr and his followers formed a _________________. Page: 239 4. John C. Calhoun championed a states’ rights theory called ___________________. Page: 243 5. John C. Calhoun argued that the federal government was a creation of the __________. Page: 243 6. John C. Calhoun’s most powerful rival within the Jackson administration was _______________ _______. Page: 243 7. The main issue of public policy at stake in the Webster-Hayne debate was the _____________. Page: 244 8. The most successful of the “Five Civilized Tribes” when it came to resisting Jackson’s removal policy were the _________________. Page: 248 9. The forced Cherokee migration on what was called the Trail of Tears ended in the territory of ________________. Page: 247 10. In the election of 1832, Andrew Jackson was opposed by _________________. Page: 251 11. ____________________ succeeded John Marshall as chief justice of the Supreme Court. Page: 252 12. Radical Jacksonians were known as __________________. Page: 253 13. William Morgan mysteriously disappeared shortly before he published a book, which allegedly exposed the secrets of _________________. Page: 253 14. The Great Triumvirate consisted of Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and ________________. Page: 254 15. President Jackson’s distrust of paper currency became obvious when in 1836 he issued an executive order called the “_____________________.” Page: 255 16. Upon the death of William Henry Harrison, the former Democrat who became president was ________________. Page: 256 Essay Questions 1. What changes in the political process occurred during the 1820s which support the claim that American democracy was on the rise? 2. How “democratic” was the United States during the 1830s? Who was included in the political process and who was not? 3. What obstacles did Andrew Jackson see to American democracy? What steps did he take to reduce those obstacles? 4. What steps did Andrew Jackson take as president to strengthen the authority of the federal government? What did he believe should be the limit of that authority? 5. How did Andrew Jackson’s ideals of democracy compare with Thomas Jefferson’s? 6. What role did political parties play during the 1830s and 1840s? 7. Since 1790, how had the nation’s general perception of political parties as part of the democratic process changed and why? 8. Why did Andrew Jackson not consider native tribes to be a part of democratic America? How did his Indian removal policy fit into his concept of democracy? 9. What were the various tactics employed by the “Five Civilized Tribes” to resist removal? Why were these tactics ultimately unable to prevent their removal? 10. What alternatives to Indian removal existed and why were they not taken? 11. For what reasons did Andrew Jackson oppose the doctrine of nullification and the Bank of the United States. What were the consequences of his successful defeat of the doctrine and the Bank? 12. Characterize the presidency of Martin Van Buren. 13. What evidence supports the claim that Andrew Jackson was a “man of his times”? 14. What historical assessment would you give to Andrew Jackson’s presidency? What rating would you give him as president? Explain.
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