Phrases clause

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    What is a clause in general?

• a group of related words, centering around
  TWO parts of speech (a subject and a verb
  phrase, AKA a predicate), which acts as a
  complete sentence OR takes on a part of
  speech and/or has specific functions in the
   What’s the difference between a
        phrase and a clause?
• Note: a phrase (in almost all cases) does
  NOT contain both a subject and a verb
• Even if it does (as in the case of the
  infinitive clause), the verb is not
• The clause can sometimes stand by itself as
  a sentence
 A clause includes the following:

• Subject and verb phrase or predicate
• objects/complements
• modifiers

  and, if it’s a dependent clause,
• Introductory word (in almost all cases)
         Independent Clause

• Independent—a group of words which
  contain and subject and verb phrase or
  predicate and which can stand on its own
• Main clause
• Sentence
          Dependent Clause

• Dependent—a group of words which
  contains a subject and a verb and which
  cannot stand on its own as a sentence
• Subordinate
• Fragment
    Three ways to make a fragment

•   Leave out subject
•   Leave out verb phrase or predicate
•   Leave out both
•   Try to make a phrase act as a clause and
    punctuate it as a clause would be punctuated
    (big no no)

•   that Sharon likes so much
•   if you want oranges
•   when she found the answer
•   unless it’s on sale
•   which rhymes with bloomers
          Embedded clause:

• a clause within another clause
• Example: I had to return home from the
  store because I had forgotten my list of
  what I had to buy for the party.
• Example: If you follow the path toward
  where your goal lies, you will find success.
      How do we use clauses in a
• Slightly larger units of the parts of speech
• Most common: N, ADJ, ADV
  (if it’s dependent)
• The clause IS the sentence (if it’s

• Do not use fragments in formal writing.
• Period. 
           Adjective Clause

• A group of words which contains a subject
  and a predicate, which cannot stand by
  itself, which modifies a noun or pronoun,
  and which answers the questions “Which
  one? What kind? Or How many?”

• Essential vs. Nonessential
  Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive
• A family that plays together stays together.
• Jim Blakely, who served as interim
  principal for six months, will not move into
  that position permanently.
  *************DANGER, WILL

• DO NOT punctuate ESSENTIAL adjective
  clauses with commas.
  clauses with commas. You must put a comma
  BEFORE and AFTER the clause. If you only use
  ONE comma, you MAY CAUSE A
  SPLICE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Splices are…terrible.  
• Essential: (the clause is NECESSARY to understand the
  meaning of the sentence)
• Students who completed their answer sheets correctly will
  receive their scores in four weeks. NO COMMAS.
• Nonessential: (the clause is NOT NECESSARY to
  understand the meaning of the sentence)
• John Rutter, whom contemporary music critics regard
  highly, will conduct at Belmont University. (There’s only
  one John Rutter)
      Hints for finding them…

• Adjective clauses are usually introduced by
  relative pronouns.
  Who whose whom which that
• The house that Jack built stood for years.
• It’s an idea whose time has come.
• He didn’t tell me that I’d won the lottery!
          But not always…

• BUT they may begin with a relative adverb,
  such as when or where:
•      *Do you remember the time when we
  fell in love?
•      *Do you remember the time when we
  first met?
• Of course, you may omit the introductory word
  and say—
• Do you remember the time we fell in love?
• change it to a NOUN clause and say
• Do you remember when we first met ?
• SIDE NOTE: Isn’t the power of the English
  AMAZING????????????????????????????  
             More hints…

• They follow immediately after the nouns or
  pronouns they modify; if they don’t, they
  may be either dangling or misplaced
            More warnings…
• ***Careful here: sometimes adjective clauses can
  cause wordiness!! NEVER USE THE

• who is        which is     that is
• Just cross them out and go on without them.

• Also, use who/whom for people and which/that for
          Who vs. whom…

• Who is nominative

• Whom is objective
               Noun Clause

• A group of words that contains a subject
  and a verb, that cannot stand by itself, that
  identifies a person, place, thing, or idea, and
  that answers the questions “Who?” and
       Introductory words…

• Relative pronouns
• Relative adverbs
    Where will we find them?

• Noun clauses may appear anywhere a noun
  may appear in the sentence.
• Noun uses: (list them)

• Whatever makes you happy makes me
  happy, also. 
• That she broke the law is obvious; how she
  should be punished is NOT.
• Subject
• What you want is what I want.
• Predicate nominative
           More examples…

• I wish he would stop playing his drums all
  night long.
• Direct object
• Your response to the reporters gave what we
  were trying to accomplish an unfavorable
  impression; please stop talking to the press.
• Indirect object
             Even more…

• Mr. Happy Wrench has the answer to
  whatever you ask.
• Object of the preposition
• Mr. Morton, hiding what he had bought for
  his sweetheart behind his back, walked
  across the street.
• Object of the participle
       And there’s still more…
• Hiding what he had bought for his sweetheart
  behind his back made Mr. Morton lose his balance
  and fall in front of an oncoming car…..
• Object of a gerund
• To save what he had bought for his sweetheart
  from being broken, Mr. Morton broke his arm,
  fractured two ribs, and skinned his nose.
• Object of the infinitive
• I want whomever you want to be elected to the
  position, dear.
• Subject of the infinitive.
 This is like the Ginsu commercial,
• His essay, “How I Spent My Summer
  Vacation,” won a $2 prize.
• Nominative appositive
• He didn’t really write his essay, “How I
  Spent My Summer Vacation.” Shame!
• Objective appositive
  How will we punctuate them?

• Nouns are usually essential, except in the
  case of a nonrestrictive appositive, so we
  will not usually set off a noun clause with
            Adverb Clauses
• A group of words that contains a subject
  and a verb, that cannot stand by itself, that
  modifies a verb/adjective/other adverb, and
  that answers the questions “When?”
  “Where?” “Why?” “How?” “To what
  extent?” “To what degree?” “Under what
• Shows manner, place, time, condition, or
          Introductory words

• The subordinating conjunction
• As, if, unless, until, because, though, even
  though, than, when, since, etc.
• Check a list on the web if you aren’t sure
      Where do we find them?

• Adverbs are loose cannons and can actually
  appear just about anywhere; however, they
  really seem to love two primary spots…
• Introductory adverb clause—at the
  beginning of the sentence
• Supplementary adverb clause—at the end

• Introductory elements must have commas,
  so we punctuate introductory adverb clauses
• Supplementary clauses require no
  punctuation at all; however, you may use a
  comma with one if it expresses contrast.
  Less is more in terms of commas. 
• If a picture paints a thousand words, then why
  can’t I paint you?
• Whenever you need me, I’ll be there.
• If you leave me now, you’ll take away the biggest
  part of me…
• Where the boys are, someone waits for me…
• As I was going to St. Ives, I met a man with seven
• You don’t know what you got ‘til it’s gone…..
• ….apologize to her because she loves you (and
  you know that can’t be bad…)
     The elliptical adverb clause

• Elliptical clause—part of a clause may be omitted
  when the meaning can be understood from the
  context of the sentence. When we leave
  something out, we call that item elliptical; thus,
  elliptical clauses are those whose content has been
  partially omitted!

• Helen could run faster than Jeremy (could run).
• While (he was) mining for gold, Old Crusty
  stubbed his toe.
Sentences according to structure

• IC=independent clause
• DC=dependent clause
• Phrases don’t count—you can have as
  few or as many as you want

• Simple= 1 IC + NO DC
• Beware: a simple sentence can be very long
  because it’s packed with phrases and
  compound elements
• Don’t be deceived by the compound subject
  and compound predicate
•   Compound= 2 IC +NO DC
•   IC , and (or any coord. Conj.) IC
•   IC; IC
•   IC; however , IC
•       *You MUST have all three elements!
•   IC; on the other hand , IC
•       *You MUST still have all elements
•   IC: IC
•       *ONLY IF the second IC| explains,
    illustrates, or restates the first one
       Danger, Will Robinson!

• A ; is NEVER used with a list OR with phrases
  (except phrases in which you have items in a
  series which already contain commas)
•     Ex: Nashville, Tennessee; Omaha, Nebraska;
  Boston, Massachusetts; Philadelphia,
  Pennsylvania; Atlanta, Georgia;
• Complex= 1 IC + 1 or MORE DC
• Compound-Complex= 2 or more IC + 1 or
  more DC
• Introductory adverb clauses—punctuate
  with a comma
• Supplementary adverb clauses—no comma
• Essential adjective clauses—no commas
• Nonessential adjective clauses—comma
• Noun clauses—depends on the function of
  the noun
     And a reminder or two…

• Introductory phrases—always use a comma
• Nonessential phrases—comma BEFORE
  and AFTER
• Essential phrases—no commas
       **A note about coordination and
• When revising/editing, remember to make
  EVERY WORD COUNT. Go back and ask
• 1.     Do I have two sentences (close together and
  related in content) which could be combined into
• 2.     Do I REALLY NEED a clause? Would a
  phrase be more efficient instead?
• 3.     Do I REALLY NEED a phrase? Would a
  word or two be more efficient instead?
• 4.     Have I used a variation of sentence structure
  AND sentence openers?
• 5.     Have I punctuated correctly?

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