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chapter 7 windows 2000 server guide

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									Chapter 7: Configuring Server Storage, Backup, and Performance Options

Basic Disk
 

Uses traditional disk management techniques They are partitioned and formatted

Basic Disk
 

Can be set up to employ disk sets: Ex, volumes Offered for backward compatibility with earlier versions of Windows and MS-DOS

Disk Partitioning


Blocks a group of tracks and sectors in preparation for a file system


Free unallocated space



Each partition appears as a logical drive (Ex: C or D)

Disk Partitioning


Places a master boot record and partition table in the beginning track and sectors on a disk

Disk Partitioning


MBR:


Startup and disk access information about partitions

Disk Partitioning


Partition table contents
 

Partition size, type, and location Specifies which partition to access first

Partitioning Tip


When you partition a basic disk, leave 1 MB free for workspace which is necessary to later convert to a dynamic disk

Disk Management Tool
 

Create partitions, etc. Open administrative tools, then computer management


Then click on storage

Customizing the MMC For Disk Management

Disk Management and Disk Defragmenter snap-ins installed in the MMC

Creating A Partition


Right click unallocated space
 

Click create partition Choose a size, and format

Deleting A Partition


Right click the partition
 

Choose delete partition Space is unallocated

Primary and Extended Partitions


Primary partition: A partition or portion of a hard disk that is bootable


If it’s a system partition


Contains the boot (startup)files


Known as the active partition



4 primary partitions maximum

Primary and Extended Partitions




Extended Partition: Created from unpartitioned free disk space Linked to a primary partition in order to increase the available disk space

Primary and Extended Partitions


Not bootable


May contain the Server 2000 software

Process of Creating


Right click unallocated space


Choose the partition type (extended or primary)


Next slide



Specify the size, then format

Setting Up an Extended Partition

Creating an extended partition

Boot and System Partitions (Summary)


Boot partition: A partition that holds the Windows 2000 Server \Winnt folder containing the system files

Boot and System Partitions (Summary)


System partition: A partition that contains boot files, such as Boot.ini and Ntldr in Windows 2000 Server

Formatting


Formatting creates a table containing file and folder information for a specific file system in a partition – it also creates a root folder and volume label

Formatting


Use the Disk Management tool to format a partition

Formatting


Right click
 

Choose format Specify ”Label, file system, and size”

Formatting Using the Disk Management Tool

Figure 7-4 Formatting a partition

Formatting Tips




When you format a partition, avoid using the quick format option, because it does not check for bad sectors during the format After you partition and format a disk, be sure to update the emergency repair disk to reflect your change

Formatting


Changing the drive letter


Right click the partition


etc

Volume and Stripe Sets


Volume set: Two or more formatted basic disk partitions (volumes) that are combined to look like one volume with a single drive letter

Volume and Stripe Sets




Stripe set: Two or more basic disks set up so that files are spread in blocks across the disks RAID levels 0, 5

Converting a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk




Dynamic: not compatible if dualbooting To convert a disk:
 

Right-click the basic disk to convert Click Upgrade to Dynamic Disk

Converting a Dynamic Disk to a Basic Disk


To convert back to a basic disk (4 steps):



Back up the dynamic disk Delete the dynamic disk volume

Converting a Dynamic Disk to a Basic Disk


Steps 3 & 4
Restore Basic Disk  Partition and format the disk


Converting back to a Basic Disk


When the volume is deleted


Destroys the data
An Ex: Eliminate 2000 & Load 98 Or Dual booting



Why convert back
 

Dynamic Disks


Dynamic disk


Does not use traditional partitioning



No restriction to the number of volumes on one disk

Dynamic Disks


Dynamic disks support:




Up to 32 disks in one spanned volume RAID levels 0, 1, and 5

Dynamic Disks


Formatted for: FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS

Dynamic Disk Configurations


Simple, spanned, mirrored, striped and RAID-5 volumes

Dynamic Disks


Uses terms such as boot, system, and striped volumes

Simple Volume


Simple volume: A portion of a disk or an entire disk that is set up as a dynamic disk

Spanned Volume


Spanned volume: Two or more Windows 2000 dynamic disks that are combined to appear as one disk

Spanned Volume


A spanned volume can contain 2 to 32 disks


Sizes can vary



Can even use portions of disks

Spanned Volume (continued)

2 GB

2 GB

3 GB

4 GB

11 GB spanned volume

Spanned volume

Spanned Volumes
 

Can add space from new disks Disadvantage:
 

Failure of one affects all Deleting one portion deletes all

Striped Volume






Striped volume: Two or more dynamic disks Files are spread in blocks across the disks RAID level 0

Striped Volume


Use between 2 – 32 disks


Data written in 64 KB data block allocations

Striped Volume


Decent write & read time


Writes to all drives – simultaneously



Equalizes the disk load

Striped Volume
 

Extends the life of disks Disadvantage


Disk failure

Striped Volume Layout
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Disk 4 Disk 5

Row 1

1-64 KB

65-128 KB

129-192 KB

193-256 KB

257-320 KB

Row 2

321-384 KB

385-448 KB

449-512 KB

513-576 KB

577-640 KB

Row 3

641-704 KB

704-720 KB

Disks in a striped volume

Troubleshooting Tip


Frequently back up a striped volume

RAID-5 Volume
  

RAID-5 Use 3 – 32 dynamic disks Stripes the data + creates parity blocks for data recovery


Parity blocks: Information about the data used to rebuild lost data if a drive fails

RAID-5 Volume


Slower writing because it must calculate the parity block for each row

RAID-5 Layout
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Disk 4 Disk 5 Row 1 Parity block 1-64 KB 65-128 KB 129-192 KB 193-256 KB

Row 2

257-320 KB

Parity block

321-384 KB

385-448 KB

449-512 KB

Row 3

513-576 KB

577-640 KB

Parity block

641-704 KB

704-720 KB

Disks in a RAID-5 volume

Disk Space Used for Parity
 

Needs more RAM Disk space used for parity is 1/n where n equals the number of physical disks

Mirrored Volume





RAID level 1 Two dynamic disks Redundant

Mirrored Volume
 

Disk read performance is the same Write time is increased

Design Caution


The system and boot partitions can be on a simple, spanned, or mirrored volume, but not on a striped or RAID-5 volume

Disk Performance and Repair



 



No more than 80 percent full Using striped or RAID-5 volumes Regularly defragment Separate adapters Manually relocate files

Using the Disk Defragmenter

Analyzing a disk’s fragmentation

Troubleshooting Tip


Ensure disk integrity and repair disk problems: “chkdsk” utility


Files, & folders

Troubleshooting Tip


If there is physical damage on a disk, use chkdsk with the /r switch to identify bad sectors


Fix + recover files

Mounted Drive





A physical disk, CD-ROM, or Zip drive Appears as a folder Accessed through a path

Library Concepts


Stand-alone drive library


The media are mounted manually one at a time

Library Concepts
 

Library: Removable storage media Robotic library



Multiple media, such as tapes or CD’s Mounted and dismounted automatically

Media Pool Concepts


A set of removable media




Used for the same purpose Managed in the same way



Ex: backup tapes

Media Pool Concepts


Application Media Pool Category


Created by a software application


Ex: backing up files at a pre-set time, through software settings

Media Pool Concepts


System media pool Category


Manually create media


Ex: Create a CD


Ex: manually back up files



Types of system media pools


Free: Previously used, but now available

Media Pool Concepts Continued


Types of system media pools


Import


Import from a different media pool

Media Pool Concepts Continued


Types of system media pools


Unrecognizable


Not previously used

Backups


When the backup occurs at the server


No extra load on network traffic

Backups


Backup at each server


Assurance that servers registry is backed up

Types of Tape Backups


Full
 

Considered a normal backup Archives removed

Types of Tape Backups


Incremental




Backups new or updated files Archives set off

Types of Tape Backups


Differential


Partial backup (does not remove the archive attribute
Backs up selected files Archive remains unchanged



Copy




Tape Backups - Daily




Daily – backs up files that have changed on the day of the backup Archive unchanged

Tape Backups


Retentioning


Ensures the tape starts from the beginning of the reel

Accessing the Backup Tool


Accessories, system tools, backup

Starting a Backup

Manually starting a backup

Scheduling Backups


For regularly performed backups, use the scheduling capability in the Backup tool – which actually employs the Scheduled Tasks tool

Configuring a Scheduled Backup

Scheduling a backup job

Performing a Restore




Using the Backup tool and clicking the Restore tab Choose to restore all or a selection of files and/or folders

Restore Locations


Folder structure retained


Restore to:
Original location  New location


Configuring Application Performance


Tune the server performance


Open the System icon, Advanced tab, and click the Performance Options button

Configuring Application Performance


Foreground


Processor priorities
Running at the server console  Ex: performance Monitor


Configuring Application Performance


Background


Logon verifications, requested services

Configuring Virtual Memory


Tune a server by configuring the page file, which is used to expand the capacity of RAM


Match the amount of RAM times 1.5

Page File Configuration Tips


Avoid placing the page file on the boot partition or volume

Page File Configuration Tips


Place a page file in each volume in a multiple volume system

Page File Configuration Tips




Place the page file on the main volume in a mirrored set Do not place a page file on a stripe sets or volumes

Page File Configuration

Configuring virtual memory

Configuring Memory to Match the User Load


Tune a server so the memory is allocated to match the number of users and the main functions of the server (access by users, access to run processes, access to obtain files)

Configuring RAM Allocation

Adjusting memory allocation

UPS Fault Tolerance




Uninterruptible power supply (UPS): A device built into electrical equipment or a separate device that provides immediate battery power to equipment during a power failure or brownout The dollars you spend on a UPS are quickly returned in terms of the data that is saved


								
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