; Chapter 22 “The Ordeal of Reconstruction” - PowerPoint
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Chapter 22 “The Ordeal of Reconstruction” - PowerPoint


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									Chapter 22 PPT Notes
   “The Ordeal of
           The Problems of Peace
   No leader to start the Reconstruction
   Life in the South was damaged
      1.   Farms, and crops were destroyed
      2.   Slaves are now free
      3.   Many cities were bombed out
   Slave owners $2 billion dollar investment
    disappeared with emancipation
   The “Old South” had gone with the wind
     Freedmen Define Freedom
   Church becomes the focus of black
   With freedom came education, but severe
    discrimination would face those who pursued
   Freed blacks still enslaved by planters
     1.   Claimed that emancipation wasn’t legal until declared
          by local or state courts
     2.   Slaves retaliated by pillaging master’s things
       The Freedman’s Bureau
   Established March 3, 1865
   Headed by Union General Oliver O. Howard
   The first type of welfare program in the U.S.
   It was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and
    education to both freedmen and to white refugees.
   However, slaves would eventually be contracted
    again by slave owners
   Pres. Andrew Johnson, who shared Southern
    Supremacist feelings, ended it in 1872
Union General Oliver O. Howard
The Freedman’s Bureau
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen
  Plenty to
   eat and
 nothing to
Freedmen’s Bureau School
Johnson: “The Tailor President”
   Came from poverty and humble beginnings
   Moved to Tennessee, elected to Congress
   Gained great attention when he didn’t secede
    along with his state of Tennessee
   Became Vice-Pres. because Congress sought a
    Southern Democrat they could compromise
   Did not fit well with seat of presidency
President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)
 Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except
  Confederate civil and military officers and those with
  property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to
 In new constitutions, they must accept minimum
  conditions repudiating slavery, secession and state debts.
 Named provisional governors in Confederate states and
  called them to oversee elections for constitutional
                1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates.
                2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back
                  to political power to control state organizations.
                3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite
                  were back in power in the South!
      Presidential Reconstruction
   Established two types of Republicans;
    Moderates (agree w/ Lincoln) and Radicals
    (those who believe the South should be
   When Johnson came to power, Radicals
    thought they would control him, but he agreed
    with Lincoln and even came up with his own
    plan for reconstruction using Lincoln’s ideas
         The Baleful Black Codes
   Started in 1865
   Established to keep
    blacks in submission
   Blacks who attacked
    labor contractors would
    face penalties and fines
   Blacks could be
    punished for idleness;
    would be subjected to
    work in a chain gang
    Congressional Reconstruction
   December, 1865- reintegration occurred, many
    Confederates and Democrats of the South
    showed up to the dismay of many Republicans
   Republicans didn’t want to lose the legislations
    they passed
   South is stronger politically because blacks
    now count for one person instead of 3/5
    Congressional Reconstruction
   Feared that the North and South Democrats
    would join and institute their Black Codes
    throughout the nation
   December 6, 1865- Johnson claims the South
    has satisfied all conditions and pronounces the
    Union restored
    Johnson Clashes with Congress
   Johnson repeatedly vetoed Republican-passed
    bills, like a bill to extend the Freedmen’s
    Bureau and the Civil Rights Bill
   As Republicans gain control of Congress, they
    began to override his vetoes by a 2/3 majority
   Blacks still not given the right to vote, but
    Radical Republicans agreed that all states had
    to ratify the amendment to remain in the
Republican Principles and Programs
   Radicals want to keep the South out of the
    Union as long as possible and change its
   Moderates wanted quicker reconstruction
   Compromise would become between the two
        Reconstruction by Sword
   The Reconstruction Act, March 2, 1867, divided the
    South into five military zones
   Laid down guidelines for the readmission of states
   The 15th Amendment gave the blacks the right to vote
    in 1869
   Ex Parte Milligan- a case in which the Supreme Court
    ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians if
    there were no civil courts
Charles Sumner & Thaddeus Stevens
    Senate            House
5 Military Districts
      The Civil War Amendments
   13th Amendment- Slavery, or work done
    involuntarily, except when punished, is
    prohibited in the U.S. or any part controlled by
   14th Amendment- All people born in the U.S.
    are citizens at the place of their birth
   15th Amendment- A citizen’s right to vote will
    not be denied or taken away due to race, color,
    or previous slave status
            No Women Voters
   13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments did not give
    women suffrage
   Women advocates like Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    and Susan B. Anthony campaigned against the
    14th and 15th Amendments
   Women didn’t get what they wanted
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan
           B. Anthony
       The Realities of Radical
      Reconstruction in the South
   Blacks began to organize politically- created
    the Union League
   Black men began serving in Congress
   Southerners hated seeing their former slaves
    hold higher positions than they
   Showed malice towards “scalawags” and
   There was contempt for both groups in the
Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
Black Reconstruction
            The Ku Klux Klan
   Started in Tennessee in 1866
   Also known as the “Invisible Empire of the
   Dedicated to scaring blacks into not voting or
    seeking employment
The Ku Klux Klan
            Johnson Walks the
           Impeachment Plank
   Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act in
   Claims the President must be allowed by the
    Senate to remove his appointees if they have
    been approved by the Senate
   They did this to keep Edwin M. Stanton, who
    was a Republican spy, in office
   Johnson released Stanton of duty in 1868
   Republicans impeached him after he let him go
Edwin M. Stanton
    A Non-Guilty Verdict for Johnson
   Johnson advised not to testify by his lawyers
   They claimed the Tenure of Office was
   May 16, 1868, Johnson was acquitted of
    charges by one vote (7 out of 6 votes)
   Radicals were enraged by the acquittal, but
    other politicians feared setting the precedent of
    removing the president of office by
        The Purchase of Alaska
   Secretary William H. Seward bought Alaska
    from Russia in 1867
   Bought it for $7.2 million
   Most people laughed at him and called it
    “Seward’s Folly”
   Not until later when gold and oil were
    discovered was the purchase of Alaska
    considered to be a bargain
The Purchase of Alaska
    The Heritage of Reconstruction
    Many Southerners regarded reconstruction as
     worse than the Civil War
    It destroyed their system of society
    The Republicans failed to improve the
     conditions of the South
    Conditions for blacks would remain difficult
     for at least another century until the Civil
     Rights Movement in the 1950’s & 60’s

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