Memorandum

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					WRITTEN DOCUMENTS :
 MEMORANDUM / MEMO
                 &
    LETTER WRITING
             Reference :
    Pinner, D., & Pinner D., 1998,
  Communication Skills, 4th Edition,
 Addison Wesley Longman, Auckland.


                                       1
   Memorandum/Memo
• Within an Organization
• Widely used form of written
  communication
• Content – one subject/idea
• Usually less than a page
• “Short note FOR MEMORY”



                                2
          Memo Headings
• Layouts and headings are a variety
• Standard headings are Company Name,
  Memo, To, From, Date and Subject.
• Reference notations, telephone
  extensions, ‘enclosure’(enc.), ‘copy
  to’(CC) can be used.


                                         3
             Language
Tone & style is influenced by a variety
  of factors:
• nature of the message
• position and authority of the receiver
• interpersonal relationships
• context of the message
• Keep simple and unambiguous

                                           4
        The Format of a Memo
COMPANY NAME
                   MEMORANDUM
TO:
FROM:
DATE:
SUBJECT:
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

Initials of the writer
                                                   5
           Advantages
• Reach receivers who are temporarily
  unavailable
• Saves money & time
• Complex info can be sent & retained
• Reaches many people at one time
• Provides a written record


                                   6
      When To Send A Memo?
•   When subject is for many people
•   Submitting regular reports
•   Sharing business ideas or summarizing
    discussions
•   Personal messages to individuals or
    groups
•   To stimulate thinking or action
•   When the timing or political climate is
    right.

                                              7
     When NOT To Send A Memo
• Face to face communication is better
• You have nothing pertinent (relevant) to
  say
• Emotions are running too high (do not
  write in ANGER)
• You have more important duties or
  priorities
• Timing or the political climate is wrong (do
  not jump in too fast or be too hasty)
                                             8
      Types of Memorandums
• Announcement Memo

• Confirmation Memo

• Request Memo

• Self-Protection Memo

                             9
I). ANNOUNCEMENT          ii). CONFIRMATION
   MEMO                      MEMO
• large audience          • confirms in writing
• interest of everyone       what was agreed to
   is affected               by both
• sent through internal   • contains specific info
   mail (electronic)         about dates, places,
• requires no reply          roles, outcomes, etc
                          • secured in file for
                             future reference

                                                10
iii). REQUEST MEMO     iv). SELF-PROTECTION
• notes the writer’s     MEMO
   expectations        • writer wishes to put
                         disagreement with org
                         policy on record
• request for action
                       • usually copied to
                         persons other than
• strong element of      the person addressed.
  accountability
                       • could cause ill-feelings



                                                    11
          Letter Writing
In your career, you will encounter letters
  which:
  – make requests
  – ask for specific information
  – confirm details already agreed
  – place orders
  – accompany other documents
  – reply to earlier letters
  – make claims/ complaints
  – refuse claims or requests, etc
  – apply for a job or seek promotion


                                             12
             Types of Letters
• Acknowledgement – reply to a letter once it is
  received

• Complaint [Claim] – asking an org. for an apology or
  adjustment for re: error; be firm without being rude

• Adjustment – written in reply to a letter of complaint
• Covering [Transmittal] – to accompany & explain
  the purpose of printed material, e.g., for a Report,
  Proposal


                                                           13
• Confirmation – to confirm what had been agreed
  to

• Inquiry – asks for info; should be specific, simple &
  brief

• Request – asks for services; should be written in
  advance

• Order – used by companies & people to order goods
  & services

• Application – finding job/ job hunting; accomp. CV,
  etc
                                                          14
       Principles of Letter Writing
               - the 10 Cs
•   Clarity - write clear sentences
•   Completeness – incl. all essential info
•   Conciseness – brief & precise
•   Concreteness – be specific
•   Correctness - avoid errors in spelling, names, etc
•   Courtesy – be courteous & friendly
•   Consideration – “you” attitude; consider the reader
•   Coherence – logical linking of sentences & para
•   Candidness – be honest & sincere about yourself
•   Compulsion – positive writing to compel reader

                                                          15
             Simple Format
Full block (Open punctuation)
• Sender’s address (no name)
• Date
• Receiver’s address
• Salutation
• Subject line (Underlined & or Capitalized)
• Paragraphs
• Complementary Close
• Signature
• Name in Print
• Designation
• Encl.

                                               16
Points to remember on Written
 Documents:
• Writing is a reflection of image and
  character
• Do NOT repeat points that are contained in a
  CV.
• Concentrate on your most impressive
  highlights for the particular job that you are
  applying for.
• Use simple language, correct grammar and
  no jargons.



                                                   17
Conclusion
• Writing at work is judged and it
  reflects your personality, Attitude,
  Professionalism, Education and Credibility
• Preparation and research is important
  in writing.
• Think before you write and choose
  your words wisely.
• Be yourself yet be professional.

				
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posted:9/28/2011
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