Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (PDF)

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					Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Published:september 2011
No.Of Pages:288
Price:US $ 4850




Report Summary

* The global solid oxide fuel cell market in 2011 will be worth more than
$380 million, up from $360 million in 2010. This will result in a $530 million
global market in 2016, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.9%
between 2011 and 2016 under a consensus scenario.
* The market for CPUs is valued at $140 million in 2011 and is forecast to
rise to almost $215 million by 2016, reflecting a CAGR of 9%.
* The total market for generators, remote and APUs is likely to increase from
$135 million in 2011 to approximately $159 million in 2016, a CAGR of
3.3%.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Fuel cells are viewed as potential candidates for auxiliary power, mobile
power, stationary distributed or central power, and portable product power.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are among the most efficient and cost-
effective. Although relatively high operating temperature limits the range of
applications possible, stationary, mobile, and even portable product
configurations are possible.

Advances in the technology have been made, but sometimes these advances
reveal even more challenges to be met. Slowly, there is the realization that
total dependency on hydrocarbon fuels is not a viable economic option.
SOFCs have a part in securing energy security for the country, improving the
environment, greatly reducing urban pollution, and creating jobs in
manufacturing as the technology advances. They can also provide a cost-
effective and performance-driven rival for other fuel cells, batteries, internal
combustion engines, and coal- or oil-fired heat engines.

This study analyzes components of the SOFC, a technology offering the
promise of greatly reduced environmental impact and excellent performance,
price, and efficiency advantages. Recent historic developments and
approaches are described along with recent commercial developments and
the state of the art.

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REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

This report can also provide valuable information in terms of assessing
investment in particular technologies and, therefore, should benefit investors
directly or indirectly. Others may find the broad discussions of energy policy
and environmental impact to be of considerable value in understanding the
opportunities and problems in the near- to mid-term.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is intended to provide a unique analysis of the SOFC market and
will be of interest to a variety of current and potential fuel cell users and
integrators as well as competing battery, fuel cell, and conventional power
generation makers.

BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government agencies, and
university researchers that contributed information for this report.

Table Of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE OF REPORT
METHODOLOGY
INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST CREDENTIALS
RELATED REPORTS
BCC ONLINE SERVICES
DISCLAIMER

CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY
SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SUMMARY BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO ($ MILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SUMMARY BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER THREE: OVERVIEW
FUEL CELL BACKGROUND
TABLE 1 SOFC COMPARED TO OTHER FUEL CELLS
SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL BACKGROUND
SOFC MATERIALS
SOFC Electrodes, Electrolytes, and Interconnects
SOFC Glass Seals
SOFC Gaskets
TABLE 2 SOFC GASKET MATERIALS
Recent SOFC Material Developments
Georgia Tech SOFC Ceramic Material
Georgia Tech …Continued)
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology and the
Fine Ceramics
Research Association Electrode Compositions
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Ceramic Microreactors
Cornell One-Pot Process
West Virginia University Interconnect Coatings
Nippon Shokubai Zirconia Sheets
TABLE 3 NIPPON SHOKUBAI ZIRCONIA SHEET SPECIFICATIONS
University of Birmingham Electrode Doping
Virginia Tech Self-healing Glass Seals
SOFC TECHNOLOGY: CURRENT AND DEVELOPMENTAL CONFIGURATIONS
Generic Planar SOFC Configuration
FIGURE 1 PLANAR SOFC CONFIGURATION
Generic Thin-film Configuration
FIGURE 2 THIN-FILM SOFC CONFIGURATION
Generic Tubular Configuration
FIGURE 3 TUBULAR SOFC CONFIGURATION
Westinghouse Design
Siemens Power Generation Design
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Design
NanoDynamics Energy Microtubular Configuration
MIT Design
Ceres Design
Bloom Energy SOFC Hydrogen Generation Design
FuelCon SOFC Test Station
SOFC Gas Turbine Hybrids
FIGURE 4 FUELCELL ENERGY SOFC/T HYBRID SYSTEM AND TORPEDO
CONFIGURATION
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND SUBSIDIES
U.S. FEDERAL FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES
U.S Department of Energy
History of U.S. DOE SOFC Subsidies
U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2009
U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2010
TABLE 4 2010 BUDGET HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL
TECHNOLOGIES FUNDING PROFILE BY SUBPROGRAM, 2009-2011 ($
THOUSANDS)
U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2011
TABLE 5 2011 PROPOSED FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET
U.S. DOE Draft “Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan”
OTHER U.S. FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES
U.S. Fuel Cell Council Analysis of Funding Priorities
Office of Science
National Hydrogen Association
National Science Foundation
Department of Defense
State Incentives
Federal Excise Tax Exemption for Anti-idling
GLOBAL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES
Canadian Subsidies and Incentives
European Subsidies and Incentives
Japanese Subsidies and Incentives
South Korean Subsidies and Incentives
SOFC RESEARCH
ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS
TABLE 6 MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEM FUEL CELLS

CHAPTER FOUR: MARKETS BY APPLICATION
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER
CHP DEVELOPMENTS
U.S. DOE EERN CHP Developments
TABLE 7 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-10 KWE RESIDENTIAL
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS,
2008-2020
TABLE 8 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-10 KWE FUEL CELL
AUXILIARY POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD ULTRA-LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL, 2008-2020
European Union SOFC Research Partnership CHP Developments
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) CHP
Developments
Ceres Power CHP Developments
GENERATORS, REMOTE POWER, AND AUXILIARY POWER
GENERATORS AND PORTABLE POWER PLANTS
RECREATIONAL VEHICLE POWER
ANTI-IDLING APUS
AIRCRAFT APUS
MARINE VESSEL APUS
PORTABLE PRODUCTS
MILITARY
EXOTIC

CHAPTER FIVE: SOFC MARKET SUMMARY
SOFC SEGMENTS ANALYZED
SOFC MARKET DRIVERS AND BASIS FOR SCENARIOS
SOFC APPLICATION MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS
TABLE 9 SOFC OPTIMISTIC, PESSIMISTIC, AND CONSENSUS SCENARIOS,
BY APPLICATION
SOFC REGIONAL MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS
TABLE 10 SOFC OPTIMISTIC, PESSIMISTIC, AND CONSENSUS SCENARIOS,
BY REGION
SOFC PRODUCT MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS
TABLE 11 SOFC OPTIMISTIC, PESSIMISTIC, AND CONSENSUS SCENARIOS
SOFC MARKETS BY APPLICATION
TABLE 12 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2006-2016 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY BY
APPLICATION IN 2011, CONSENSUS SCENARIO (%)
TABLE 13 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
APPLICATION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
APPLICATION, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
SOFC MARKETS BY REGION
TABLE 15 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2006-2016 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY BY
REGION IN 2011, CONSENSUS SCENARIO (%)
TABLE 16 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
REGION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 17 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
REGION, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, 2006-2016 ($ MILLIONS)
SOFC MARKETS BY PRODUCT
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2006-2016 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT IN 2011, CONSENSUS SCENARIO (%)
TABLE 19 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 20 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER SIX: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
COMPETITION
CONVENTIONAL TURBINE-BASED POWER GENERATION
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
ULTRACAPACITORS
OTHER FUEL CELLS
Alkaline Fuel Cells
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
BATTERIES
TABLE 21 BATTERIES THAT COULD COMPETE WITH SOFCS
Lead-acid Batteries
Nickel-metal Hydride Batteries
Lithium-ion and Lithium-polymer Batteries
Metal-air Batteries
Nickel-hydrogen Secondary Batteries
High-temperature Lithium Batteries
Sodium-sulfur Batteries
Redox and Flow Batteries
Nickel-iron Batteries
Nickel-Zinc Batteries
Calcium-metal Sulfide Batteries
Sodium-metal Chloride Batteries
INDUSTRY LEADERS
TABLE 22 SOFC COMPANIES AND STATUS
TABLE 23 SOFC COMPANY SHIPMENT STATUS
MARKET TIERS
Leading CHP SOFC Companies
TABLE 24 LEADING SOFC CHP COMPANIES
Leading Generators, Remote, and APU SOFC Companies
TABLE 25 LEADING SOFC GENERATORS, REMOTE, AND APU COMPANIES
Leading Military SOFC Companies
TABLE 26 LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES
Leading Portable SOFC Companies
TABLE 27 LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES
Leading Exotic SOFC Companies
TABLE 28 LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES
CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION
TABLE 29 SOFC DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
PURCHASING INFLUENCES
PRICE INFLUENCE
TABLE 30 SOFC PURCHASING INFLUENCES
PRICE TRENDS
FIGURE 11 DRIVING DOWN COSTS FOR FUEL CELLS (ORDER OF
MAGNITUDE COST REDUCTION) ($/KW)
TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
FIGURE 12 SOFC MANUFACTURING TREE
FIGURE 13 SOFC MANUFACTURING FLOW
SOFC PATENTS
TABLE 31 RECENT SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES
TABLE 32 SOFC PATENTS

CHAPTER SEVEN: COMPANY PROFILES
ACUMENTRICS HOLDING CORP.
ADAPTIVE MATERIALS, INC. (ULTRA ELECTRONICS)
ADELAN U.K., LTD.
ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES (ACCURON TECHNOLOGIES)
ADVANCED MEASUREMENTS, INC.
ALPPS FUEL CELL SYSTEMS
ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
ALTAIR NANOTECHNOLOGIES, INC.
BTU INTERNATIONAL, INC.
THE BABCOCK & WILCOX CO. (MCDERMOTT INTERNATIONAL)
BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K.
BHP BILLITON, LTD.
BLOOM ENERGY
CELLTECH POWER, LLC
CERAMATEC, INC.
CERAMIC FUEL CELLS, LTD.
CERES POWER HOLDINGS
CHEVRON TECHNOLOGY VENTURES
CHUBU ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY, INC.
CMR PROTOTECH
CUMMINS POWER GENERATION, INC.
DANA CANADA CORP.
DELPHI CORP
DIGITAL GAS, INC.
EBZ ENTWICKLUNGS
EDISON ELECTRIC INSTITUTE
ELCOGEN AS
EMPRISE CORPORATION
ENERGIENED
ENRG, INC.
ENTWICKLUNGS UND VERTRIEBSGESELLSCHAFT BRENNSTOFFZELLE
FEV MOTORENTECHNIK GMBH
FIDERIS
FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JUELICH
FRANKLIN ADVANCED MATERIALS
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES
FUELCELL ENERGY, INC.
FUEL CELLS (SCOTLAND), LTD.
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY
PARK
GLOBAL THERMOELECTRIC, INC. (FUELCELL ENERGY)
GOETA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPER INTERNATIONAL
HABCO, INC.
HALDOR TOPSOE A/S/TOPSOE FUEL CELL
HC STARCK GMBH
HEXIS, LTD.
HTCERAMIX SA
HOSOKAWA POWDER TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
INTERTEC SOUTHWEST, INC.
K-STYLE ADVANCED CERAMICS CO., LTD.
KAINOS ENERGY CORP. (NANOGRAM)
KANSAI ELECTRIC POWER CO., INC.
LOGANENERGY CORP.
MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
MEIDENSHA CORP.
MERIDIAN ENERGY, LTD.
MERLONI TERMOSANITARI SPA (ARISTON THERMO GROUP)
MESOSCOPIC DEVICES LLC
MORPHIC TECHNOLOGIES
NANODYNAMICS, INC.
NATIONAL FUEL CELL RESEARCH CENTER
NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD.
NGIMAT CO.
NGK INSULATORS, LTD.
NIPPON SHOKUBAI CO., LTD.
NIPPON TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE CORP.
NOAH TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
ONTARIO POWER GENERATION, INC.
PLANSEE SE
PLUG POWER, INC.
POHANG IRON AND STEEL COMPANY (POSCO)
PRECISION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES
PRESIDIO COMPONENTS, INC.
PROTONEX
RAGAN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
RISØ NATIONAL LABORATORY
ROLLS-ROYCE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS, LTD
SAFCELL
SANDVIK
SHELL HYDROGEN BV
SIEMENS POWER GENERATION, INC.
SIENERGY SYSTEMS (ALLIED MINDS)
SOFCPOWER SLC
SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE
STANFORD MATERIALS CORP.
STATOIL ASA
STAXERA GMBH (SUNFIRE)
SULZER HEXIS AG
SUMITOMO CORP.
TOKYO GAS CO., LTD.
TOSOH CORP. CERAMICS DIVISION
TOTO, LTD.
TOYOTA
TABLE 33 TOYOTA POWER GENERATING UNIT SPECIFICATIONS
VAILLANT GMBH
VERSA POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
VIOLET FUEL CELL STICKS
WÄRTSILÄ CORP.
WATT FUEL CELL CORP.
WEBASTO AG
WORLDWIDE ENERGY, LLC
ZTEK CORP.
APPENDIX U.S. PATENTS THAT MENTION SOFCS
TABLE 34 SOFC PATENTS

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posted:9/28/2011
language:English
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Description: This study analyzes components of the SOFC, a technology offering the promise of greatly reduced environmental impact and excellent performance, price, and efficiency advantages. Recent historic developments and approaches are described along with recent commercial developments and the state of the art.