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AFRICAN ENTRPERNUERS GHANA PROGRAMME

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AFRICAN ENTRPERNUERS GHANA PROGRAMME Powered By Docstoc
					     Informal Sector Literacy Center

AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURS NATIONAL MEMBER CENTER
             ...support the informal learning system…




                      Context & Objectives




        ASSOCIATION OF AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURS
                       P. O. Box SD 234
                  STADIUM POST, ACCRA
          TEL: 233 24 3785324, EM: info@aaeafrica.org
                       www.aaeafrica.org
1.0   INTRODUCTION

      An entrepreneur is a risk taker; a person who works, invests, builds and in essence,
      creates economic opportunity for themselves and for their employees. In effect,
      entrepreneurship creates jobs, produces tax revenue for the state, produces goods and
      services for the domestic or international market, stimulates other business activity
      and helps develop a country. Governments can‟t create prosperity. Non-governmental
      organizations (NGO‟s) can‟t create prosperity. Entrepreneurs create prosperity. This
      role of entrepreneurs makes them an indispensable partner for development. If they
      are to succeed, they need a friendly business environment within which to operate.

      The realization of a good business climate comes with the construction of the bridges
      of participation for all citizens, especially the poor and vulnerable. Participation
      means free and unhindered access to decision making platforms to facilitate careful,
      economical, long-term management of land, community, and resources. The basis for
      participation is “legitimized” in a territorial dimension in which all citizens are a
      component; and includes the integration of cultural and historical aspects, the sense of
      pride, responsibility and ownership of planning processes. This approach is a far cry
      from looking “outside” for the sole purpose of importing successful models that may
      become unsuitable for local conditions in the long run.

      Local development; the general trend towards decentralization; and the phenomenon
      of independent, yet interdependent, interaction amongst public authorities, the private
      sector, and local communities is necessary because there are no circumstances where
      any single entity will have a full understanding of both the obstacles and opportunities
      facing a particular area, or will have access and control of all of the resources required
      for entrepreneurial development. Mobilizing all territorial actors is a prerequisite for
      gaining insight into and developing understanding of the problems and opportunities
      for redirecting and releasing resources. The absence of such mobilization tends to lead
      to marginalization and exploitation by politicians; economic underdevelopment;
      poverty; vulnerability to health-hazards, economic down-turns, and even man-made
      violence; and inadequate social support systems.

      We are proposing a Project based on the situational analysis of Ghana. Ghana is a
      West African country, bordered by three francophone countries. In pre-colonial times,
      Ghana was formally a collection of ethnic settlers, each of which had its own unique
      local government systems, language and culture. The eras of colonization led to the
      nationalization and unification of these groups and their territories. There have since
      been laudable efforts aimed at enhancing patriotism and nationalism, while curbing
      the tribalism that still permeates every facet of the Ghanaian society. Along with this,
      it is important to stimulate and galvanize the people to think about their common
      destiny as a nation. Educational and cultural spheres are undoubtedly important for
      these efforts.

      At AAE, we also believe that the business of promoting and nurturing the
      entrepreneurial spirit is a consensus that requires the contribution of all, not just a few
people. This is a project that focuses on the informal business sector of Ghana which
comprises small-scale actors operating on the margins of the formal sector. There are
noted difficulties assessing the sector and encouraging participation of suitable quality
and quantity. With weak organization, the informal business sector has often been
relegated from important national public policy discourses, which further affects its
integration and assimilation into a notable and considerable economic authority.
The African Commission on Human and Peoples Right report agrees that:
“Indigenous peoples and communities are to a large extent discriminated against by
mainstream populations and looked down upon as backward peoples. Many
stereotypes have described them as „backward‟, „uncivilised‟, „primitive‟ and
„uncultured‟ and as an embarrassment to modern African states. Such negative
stereotyping legitimizes official discrimination, marginalization, subjugation,
exclusion and dispossession of indigenous people‟s by institutions of government and
dominant groups” (ACHPR, 2005)

There is a need for an endogenous Project that builds on the potentials of the
marginalized by creating connectedness or conduits between them and the various
modern national systems, including the formal educational system, and all other
sectors of the economy in order to improve their participation and contribution to the
national development agenda.

This Project focuses on building such a connection between the informal business
sector and the educational sector.

AAE was formed and promoted by private sector enterprise owners, with the aim of
reversing the general low entrepreneurial spirit. In the course of AAE‟s history, the
organization has expanded its scope to small scale operators comprising informal
sector micro-operators in rural areas, where AAE gained a sense of the situation of the
informal sector in both the rural and urban areas of Ghana. This Project aligns with
AAE's local development strategy of establishing support Projects within the
framework and perspective of Ghanaian culture. National centers promote the
Association‟s member registration services, and are committed to supporting
members to the fullest extent possible.

The Association of African Entrepreneur‟s vision is to create the voice of change and
platform for dialogue amongst the African people, as well as involve the international
audience to have a role in assisting developing nations in promoting the
“entrepreneurial spirit.” In this respect, AAE aims to reintroduce innovative attitudes and
to reform structures that mitigate entrepreneurship by enabling a participatory process that
involves and includes entrepreneurs. This endogenous commitment and vision building
is characterized by networking and interaction, which are essential ingredients for creating
the business climate favorable for enterprise initiatives.
2.0   TERRITORY PRESENTATION

2.1   POLITICAL HISTORY

      Ghana is a country within Anglophone, West Africa; neighbored by Togo in the east,
      Burkina Faso‟s in the north, Côte d'Ivoire‟s in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the
      South. After the Portuguese presence, the countries of Holland, Sweden, Denmark,
      France and England competed for trade in gold, ivory and slaves. Ghana finally
      became a British colony known as the “Gold Coast” and subsequently gained
      independence in 1957. The first President, Kwame Nkrumah, was overturned later by
      the military. In 1981, Jerry Rawlings took power and did not leave until 1992. When
      the new Constitution returned the country to democracy, opposition parties were again
      permitted. In 2000, John A. Kufuor (NPP.) became the head of state; a position he
      held until 2008, when the main opposition group, NDC, took over democratically
      with John Atta Mills as the new president. Today, Ghana has about 21 million
      inhabitants; the capital is Accra.

2.2   ECONOMIC BACKGROUND

       Since 2000, annual economic growth in Ghana was roughly 4 or 5%, GDP per capita
      is 390 U.S. $. The currency, the cedi, has an inflation rate of around 9%. This rate
      has stabilized recently, after reaching levels much higher.

      The economic policy of Mr. Kufuor, which aimed to improve macro-economic
      indicators, proved effective and Ghana is currently considered a good student of the
      IMF and World Bank. He took advantage of the HIPC Initiative. The final document
      of the "Strategic Framework to Fight Against Poverty" was completed in late 2002
      and the completion point reached in July 2004.
      The economy remains focused on the private sector which employs 35.2% of the
      workforce: the main resources are gold, cocoa and timber. Food production is also
      important (cassava, plantain, corn, coconut, rice, livestock). This industry employs
      24.8% of assets and the services sector 40.1%, consisting mainly of trade (trade is
      small scale, but also exports to neighboring countries of West Africa and also to
      developed countries).

      Analysis of the three broad economic sectors of Ghana: Agriculture, Industry and
      Service; indicates that the agricultural sector income employment elasticity has been
      very low for all periods ranging between 0.31 and 0.57. This low elasticity indicates
      that the agricultural sector is saturated with labor and expansion of employment
      opportunities is limited. Meanwhile, income employment elasticity in both industry
      and service exceed unity, 2.12 for industry and1.22 for service, indicating that there
      are greater opportunities for job expansion in the industrial and the service sectors
      (Employment Policy).

      The industrial sector in Ghana has being described as the vanguard of structural
      change with the expectation of an increase in its share in GDP. The sector registers
      the highest level of labor productivity indicating greater potential for job creation and
      employment. Nevertheless, this sector faced serious operational and management
      difficulties in the 1970‟s and early 1980‟s, mainly as a result of instability in the
      macroeconomic environment.

2.3   SOCIAL SITUATION

      On the basis of language and culture, the indigenous people of Ghana can be
      classified into five major groups: the Akan; Ewe; MoleDagbane; Guan; and Ga-
      Adangbe. While English is the official language, more than 100 native languages are
      spoken.

      Traditional social values and the bonds of the extended family are important factors in
      Ghana as a whole, although such dynamics are becoming increasingly less
      pronounced among the urban population and the professional classes.

      Major health problems include communicable diseases, poor sanitation and poor
      nutrition. Many improvements have been made and many of the endemic diseases,
      such as malaria and pneumonia, have been brought under a measure of control
      through improved hygiene, better drugs and education. However, many communities
      still have inadequate sanitation and water supplies, which hinder efforts to improve
      public health. Although AIDS is present in the country, Ghana has one of the lowest
      reported HIV infection rates in Africa. A National Health Insurance Bill was launched
      in 2003 aimed at providing universal access to basic health care free at the point of
      delivery.

2.4.1 GENERAL EDUCATION

      In Ghana, both public and other key stakeholders, such as religious and private
      institutions, provide basic school education, as well as some secondary and tertiary
      education. The general story of developments in education is that access has improved
      considerably since 2004. Progress at all levels of education in Ghana has been less
      than satisfactory or quite mixed (NDPC, 2007).

      Access to basic education is operational by the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS,
      1998/99) as having a facility within one kilometer radius from one's place of
      residence. There are regional differences in access to primary school. Regions in the
      southern sector of the country have greater access to primary education than the
      northern sector. The Upper East Region has the poorest access to primary education
      (61.9%) followed by the Upper West Region (67.1%). The factors that account for the
     low access to primary education in the three northern regions include sparse
     population distribution, poverty and the general deprivation in most areas.

     The picture is grimmer with respect to access to secondary education. The national
     average for access to secondary school is 43.3 percent, but it is even worse for the
     northern regions which average 15.5%. Apart from the north-south disparities, there
     exist differences between rural and urban areas. Urban areas have better access to
     primary education than rural areas (93.2% compared to 81.0% respectively).
     Additionally, access to secondary education is higher in urban areas (62.6%) than in
     rural areas (28.8%). Moreover, the quality of education in the rural areas is poorer.
     (Addae-Boahene, 2007)

     There are similar explanatory factors of poor infrastructure and poverty, coupled with
     the tendency for more qualified secondary teachers to refuse posting to rural areas.
     Thus, in terms of education and related personal self-fulfillment and advancement,
     northern Ghana and remote rural areas, in particular, are increasingly excluded.

     Education has been one of the sectors within the overall GPRS II development
     framework that has received commitments from Development Partners (DPs). With
     the Ministry of Education providing the leadership, the development partners have
     established a well coordinated platform for collaboration for the implementation of
     sector programs. There is a monthly review of sector performance by the Ministry and
     its DPs on policy initiatives and direction, and these regular and productive
     consultations are aimed at ensuring program effectiveness and coherence. During
     these meetings, government officials and DPs get the opportunity to exchange ideas
     on sector policy direction and procedures. At the same time, these meetings have been
     a platform for the negotiation of policy conditions, including benchmarks, triggers
     and performance based allocations at the sector level. (Mettle-Nunoo, & Hilditch,
     2000)

     The implementation of Ghana's most recent education reform, which began in 1987,
     brought to the fore many problems in the objectives, content, administration and the
     management of education, and the proposals to address these concerns. However, the
     latest results have been mixed and there has been almost unanimous agreement that
     under the latest 1987 reforms, public education in Ghana has failed to meet
     expectations in terms of its coverage, quality, equitableness and economic utility.
     (www.ghana.gov.gh, 2009)

2.4.2 TERTIARY EDUCATION

     The public tertiary education sector in Ghana is composed of six universities, ten
     polytechnic institutions and several professional institutes. Admission to public sector
     tertiary institutions is based on a student‟s results on the Senior Secondary School
     Certificate Examination that is administered by the West African Examinations
     Council. Students who do not meet the competitive departmental requirements and cut
      off points, but who do satisfy the minimum entry requirements, may be admitted on a
      fee paying basis, whereby they pay a significant tuition fee.

      Access to tertiary education in Ghana continues to be quite limited and
      unquestionably differentiated by socio-economic status, region of origin and types
      and locations of secondary school. Less than 35 percent of the students who apply are
      admitted due to growing numbers of qualified secondary school leavers and university
      space and staffing limitations. The majority of these come from a limited number of
      secondary schools and the more advantaged regions.

2.4.3 LITERACY

      Over half (57.4%) of the total population of Ghana are literate; while 16.4 percent are
      literate in English only, 2.5 percent are literate in a local language only and 38.1
      percent are literate in both English and a Ghanaian language. This implies that the
      Ghanaian is generally more versed in learning through the English language than
      through their own indigenous language(s).There is a higher proportion of illiterate
      females (50.2%) than males (33.6%). Differences in access to economic opportunities,
      reinforced by some cultural practices are largely responsible for the much higher
      illiteracy rate of females and rural populations. (Hanza, 2010)

      For both sexes, Greater Accra has the lowest illiteracy rate (18.4%), followed by
      Ashanti (35%) and Eastern (36.4%). The highest illiteracy levels are found in the
      three northern regions of Ghana (76.2% for Northern, 76.5% for Upper East and
      73.4% for Upper West). Statistics also indicate that illiteracy is much higher in rural
      (55.6%) than urban (26.9%) areas and in both areas females have higher illiteracy
      levels (34.2% urban and 64.5% rural) than males (19.2% urban and 46.4% rural).
      (Hanza, 2010)

2.5   LABOR

      Since achieving independence in 1957, Ghana has ratified 46 ILO Conventions. In
      addition, Ghana has an elaborate legal framework that regulates employment, working
      conditions and labor relations. The role of labor standards as an instrument for social
      inclusion of the working class in the social, political and economic development of
      Ghana was recognized in the early period of Ghana‟s independence.

      The problem, however, is the poor compliance and enforcement that has characterized
      Ghana‟s labor legislation. Labor laws are only enforceable in the formal sector which
      employs a little over a million individuals, out a workforce of over 10 million. The
      capacity of institutions of the industrial relations system is weak. (MYE, 2010)

      Labor administration also suffers from limited coverage of trade unions. Currently,
      the total membership of all labor organizations in Ghana is less than one million out
      of over 10 million in the work force. The limited coverage of unions could be a
      hindrance to a broad-based, all inclusive agreement on important industrial relations
      issues. The employer‟s associations also face similar problems of limited coverage at
      both the national and sector levels. The Ghana Employers Association (which
      operates at the national level) and associations such as the Association of Ghana
      Industries (AGI) and Chamber of Mines do not cover majority of employers,
      particularly owners of small and medium scale enterprises. This may lead to difficulty
      in the implementation of decisions taken at the tripartite level as these associations
      may be deemed not to be representative enough.

2.6   INFORMAL SECTOR

      The informal sector comprises small scale enterprise activities on the margins of
      formal or mainstream activities. Their activities are normally outside the conventional
      scope of government regulation and assistance, normally youthful, and burden with
      unhealthy or unsafe working conditions, lack of social protection arrangements at
      work and health facilities and little or no training.

      The size of Ghana‟s informal sector is placed at 80 percent of the total labor force.
      The large-scale retrenchment of labor, coupled with the inability to provide
      employment for the emerging labor force has created a large pool of unemployed
      persons who have naturally gravitated towards the informal sectors.

      A study of the informal sector in the 1990‟s focused on the urban component which
      provides a haven for the working poor. They include aged, young and women workers
      who are essentially low-skilled and are involved mainly in the services sector, and
      only to a lesser degree in the construction and manufacturing sectors. But in the last
      couple of years, interest has also grown in the rural informal sub-sector. (BFT, 2005)

      A large part of that interest has been generated by the work of the General
      Agricultural Workers‟ Union, of the Ghana Trades Union Congress, in organizing
      rural workers, as well as through the intervention of some other non-governmental
      organizations. Interest in the sub-sector is also underlined by the fact that among
      Ghana‟s relatively large labor force of self-employed workers, two-thirds are engaged
      in agriculture, which is predominantly rural based. (BFT, 2005)

2.7   EMIGRATION

      Ghana transformed from a country of immigration to a country of emigration by the
      late 1970s (revised 1994 National Population Policy of Ghana). The exodus was
      largely a consequence of deteriorating and harsh economic conditions, which started
      in that period and reached their peak in the mid-1980s. Today, migration has now
      become so ingrained in the Ghanaian psyche that it will be difficult to stop the
      momentum, considering the fact that those already outside continue to act as magnets
      in the chain of the migration process. Policy attention has been drawn to monitoring
      international migration and to stem the „brain-drain‟ of professionals and other skilled
      people leaving the country. One sector which has suffered more than many others
      from the exodus of skilled personnel is the Ministry of Health.
2.8    DECENTRALIZATION & PARTICIPATION

       In Ghana, all the necessary decentralization structures have been put in place from
       national to zone levels. This allows citizen participation through the decentralized
       system of District assemblies for economic empowerment and sustainable
       development. The current system also facilitates transparency and accountability and
       ensures that citizen‟s basic needs are met; including coherent decentralized programs
       with an increased focus on poverty eradication and employment creation.

       However, the system does not seem to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of
       local people. A “recentralization” has been perceived with power remaining in the
       control of the bureaucrats and political appointees, where the elite continue to decide
       the direction of implementation of local level governance and development, apathy of
       local populations, weak or non-existent representative organizations and politicization
       of development activities. (Guri, 2006)

2.9    LOCAL ACTORS WORKING IN EDUCATION, LITERACY & THE INFORMAL
       SECTOR

2.9.1 Ministry of Education

       The Ministry organizes the Functional Literacy Skills Program for adults with a
       special focus on empowering women, the poor and vulnerable.

2.9.2 District Education Office

       Based on the decentralized education system, Metropolitan, Municipal and District
       Assemblies (MMDAs) design comprehensive strategic plans which respond to
       specific sector needs of the district and which also fit into the GPRS II.

2.9.3 Universities, Polytechnic Institutions and Professional Institutes

       The present Technical, Vocational and Agricultural Institutions (TVET) system is
       mostly institution-based and fragmented under different Ministries, Agencies and the
       Private sector, each developing and offering its program under their parochial policies
       without any coordination. Linkages with industry in terms of input for curricula
       development are weak resulting in mismatches of supply and demand of skills. There
       is also the poor public perception of TVET affecting recruitment, funding and
       unsatisfactory quality of delivery due to inadequate instructor preparation and
       provision of instructional resources. However a new a new TVET Policy is in the
       pipeline. Private Universities are still beyond the reach of the poor and public
       institution burdened by inadequate facilities.

2.9.4 Traditional Leaders
       In Ghana, the traditional authority system comprises of the following: Chiefs (Ohene,
       Tobge, Naba), Queen mother‟s (Ohemaa, Mamaa, Pognaa), Linguists, family / lineage /
       clan heads (abusuapanyinfo, yir nimbere), heads of asafo companies (asafohene / supi),
       priests, and priestesses (Okomfo, Tindamba). These groups, collectively and individually,
       command much influence in both the urban and rural areas. However, it is argued their
       traditional powers in the field have been replaced or ignored, for the most part, by the
       current decentralization system (Guri, 2006)

2.9.5 Financial Institutions

       In Ghana, financial services to the informal sector have been made accessible largely
       through non-bank financial institutions, the rural banks, and recently, some traditional
       banks. There are big players like Procredit, Opportunity, Ezi (WHAT/WHO?). There
       are also up-and-coming ones like Garden City, Midland, First Allied, Unicredit,
       Women‟s World Banking and Pacific.

2.9.6 Other Local Actors

       Ghana National Education Campaign Coalition (GNECC)
       Northern Network for Education and Development (NNED).
       National Board for Small-Scale Industries (NBSSI,
       Fund for Small and Medium Enterprises Development (FUSMED),
        Program of Action for the Mitigation of the Social Costs of Adjustment
       (PAMSCAD), the Ghana Regional Appropriate Technology Industrial Service
       (GRATIS, TECHNOSERVE), and the Council for Indigenous Business Associations
       (CIBA).
       Internal Revenue Service,
       Ghana Trade Unions
       The Ghana Employers Association
       Association of Ghana Industries,
       And Ghana Chamber of Mines

       At the regional level, the primary actors consist of the following:

       The NEPAD Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP)
       Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
       The Millennium Village project and
       United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
       African Union
       Millennium Challenge Account

3.0   PROJECT JUSTIFICATION

       In Ghana, the sector most affected by income poverty as a result of unemployment
       and under-employment jobs is the informal sector. According to the human
       development Report 2007, poverty is particularly evident in this sector in Ghana: with
      the agricultural sector being the worse affected. Next to agriculture, 29 percent of
      those in micro and small enterprises live below the poverty line (National Policy
      Group, 2005).

      Since the middle of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, the informal sector has
      received increasing attention in the development discourse of Ghana. It has, in effect,
      been the target of some policy initiatives and activities by certain governmental and
      non-governmental institutions and organizations, including the trade unions. The
      present and past governments of Ghana, like their peers in the rest of Africa, have
      always known that part of the answer to the questions of unemployment, extreme
      poverty and other socio-economic challenges lie in making financial services
      available to the informal economy, particularly microfinance and credit. By making
      finance accessible to these informal sector operators, the country is, to some extent,
      able to provide the needed fuel to turn around their means of livelihood and possibly
      take them out of poverty – while as the same time bringing them into the formal
      setting (at least as far as their need for finance and credit goes). (BFT, 2009)

      Ghana's low levels of literacy and educational achievement, the considerable failings
      of the educational system, and continued emigration of skilled professionals and
      recent graduates are issues that cannot be left out in the diagnostic equation of the
      ailing informal sector. While a number of financial interventions are being provided
      by government and private institutions, whereby financial experts work to drive
      economic change in poor communities, such interventions are performed within an
      “environment of ignorance” and give rise to skepticism. Actors need to work with a
      heightened sense of collaboration with the illiterate poor; beginning with an
      understanding of the nation's psyche and cultural arithmetic, the time-bound systems
      and livelihood structures, in order to develop sensitivities and the possibilities to
      inspire and motivate citizens. This is especially true if a sweeping reform for self-
      development, as well as a collective effort for territorial development, is to be
      achieved. We are proposing a project aimed at contributing to the literacy
      development of the informal sector (particularly of persons who are not served by the
      educational community) and also to improve capacity to make full use of existing
      financial and entrepreneurial support services.

4.0   STRATEGY

      This project intends to set up learning centers for entrepreneurs, leverage existing
      support systems within the country, engage all actors and avoid duplication. It would
      play an intermediary role between entrepreneurs and support agencies like educational
      institutions and financial institutions.

      We observe that as a result of the colonization of most parts of Africa, including
      Ghana, there were many undiluted importation of foreign systems of administration
      and processes that distanced indigenous persons from the central and local
      administrative mechanisms. Even in modern times, the tendency for this importation
      is still there. While all that may be well -intentioned, the problem is that there has
always being an overemphasis in that many existing internal capacities were ignored
and allowed to under-develop.

In Ghana, the Asante Akinkra symbol, which stands for “go back and take” is often
associated with the proverb “Se were fi na wosankofa a yenyi”, which translates to “It
is not wrong to go back for that which you have forgotten.” This project explores the
age-old, and widely practiced 'informal learning' of enhancing the current and making
it more relevant and applicable to the needs of the people. Informal learning relates to
an education that takes place through real life work and the particular wisdom and
knowledge that workers acquire and how they perform their respective tasks. This
type of higher level training is not confined to and unobtainable in mere education
classroom settings. But, the active recognition and valuation of this wisdom can
facilitate the identification and incorporation of the competence of the worker into the
intellectual life of higher level institutions. Informal learning could be used to
enhance the curriculum of educational institutions offering courses; thus, it is not only
an individual good, but an institutional good that enriches the educational sector.

In many Ghanaian communities, as part of the socialization process, growing children
serve as domestic house-helps and apprentices in settings where they learn important
skills, language and traditional knowledge from their hosts. While the practice may be
abusive at times, its proper, regulated form can culminate into the progressive
development of the country‟s youth and integration into the social and business
environments.

Many informal business operatives had no opportunity to attend school. They learned
vocational or agricultural skills, operated businesses that employ themselves and
others: apprentice, wage-earners, kiosk operators, house-helpers, new artisans etc.
They can be provided the incentive, support and environment to upgrade and develop
themselves and become more useful to the territory

In Ghana, experiential learning has being recognized by some institutions as
introducing comparable higher value learning and wisdom unobtainable from mere
classroom settings. However, institutions embracing this approach are few. Many fear
losing their licenses and so safely play within ordinary limits. Others wait and act in
time to the height of a public crises For instance, at the University of Education,
Winneba, during a teacher shortage crises the school to combine three years of
intensive on-campus courses with a one year internship in Ghanaian schools, reducing
the number of years students must spend on campus, giving some space for practical
or field learning. There are also many institutions established within the framework of
international capital, like tutorial colleges, branches and franchises of international
institutes, that often tend to have course offerings, content and academic systems that
are imported and transplanted, where the potential for indigenous knowledge
production may be missing.

All these points of learning, (or Informal Learning Centers) would be included as
partners of the AAE Informal Sector Literacy Center. They would be encourage to
      improve their support and accessibility to our clients, lawfully, agreeably
      cooperatively and cost effectively.

      Concretely, the Informal Sector Literacy Center would provide support to the
      Informal Learning Centers especially in the area of content development,
      formalization, and quality. The Center Network would promote and facilitate self
      development of our clients towards the ends of better enterprise management, and
      making the graduates more useful to the territory

      The project, at its initial stage, will be practically supported by the resources provided
      by the project. Nevertheless, to ensure its sustainability, our services to be provided
      to our clients will be charged, either by fees reflecting costs or by regular payments.
      In order to bring together the partnership that will perform the Center's activities,
      cooperation agreements will be signed with appropriate educational and regulatory
      institutions.

      Our implementation would be done in stages:

      In the first stage, the Learning center will be set up along with its corresponding
      “antennas” and its personnel will be recruited and trained. Pilot services would
      include assistance with placement and entry, assistance with formal registration,
      enrollment and recognition.

      Another component would provide regular students and public sector professionals
      placement assistant in the informal sector environments where they acquire practical
      knowledge. For instance, students may earn formal credits by working in libraries to
      promote literacy or within informal sector organizations or associations to provide
      management assistance while earning valuable experience while public sector
      officials may also enroll in similar leaning environment in order to acquire the
      knowledge to better serve the country.

5.0   USERS AND LOCATION

      The Project's direct beneficiaries will be the micro, small and medium sized enterprise
      owners present throughout the country within the sector. Currently they remain
      outside adequate government assistance for self-development.. Most community
      libraries are closed or underfunded. There are no formal recognition for competences,
      knowledge or skills aquired, The difficulty in acquiring, demonstrating and applying
      new knowledge and skills impacts on their everyday activities, their ability to
      articulate themselves and eligibility for formal services, like educational institutions,
      financial institutions, business registration. For poor rural micro-operators there is
      restriction in their ability to acquire capital, technology, and networking

      The Project's indirect beneficiaries are employed members, families and communities
      that will be supported by the Project. In general, local community business owners
      will also benefit, from the learning, research and knowledge sharing with the informal
      sector, technology and innovation and enterprise development that lead to increased
      economic activity.

      As previously mentioned, the Project is expected to contribute to improved
      professional qualification of entrepreneurs, the creation and nurturing of expectations,
      the improving of access of opportunities and consequently to increase productivity
      and competitiveness.

5.0   INSTITUTIONAL STAFF

      The Projects implementing agency will be the Association of African Entrepreneurs,
      since the Literacy center will be created as an extension, and will work according to
      the same principles of AAE, concerning entrepreneurial management and
      reinvestment of profits made through its activities.

      AAE will regularly contribute to the Center providing for, and paying, its Executive
      Coordinator. The Center's technical team will consist of two technicians, at the
      headquarters and a technician at each “antenna” (4 in all) who, working closely with
      the center, will be in charge of supporting enterprises in every city.

      The center will work under the strategic direction of an Orientation Council that will
      be in charge of the following:

            Approving annual activity plans and their estimated work budgets

            Defining interventions and the priority areas to supporting

            Approving agreements with partner institutions

            Advising on new investment Projects and approving their financial plans

            Approving annual accounts

      The Orientation Council will consist of the following:

            The AAE Executive Director who will act as Chairman

            Representatives of the AAE Learning Committee

            Two representatives from the Regional House of Chiefs

            One representative from the financial sector

            One representative from the Ministry of Employment and Man Power
             Development
            Two representatives from the educational community

6.0   GENERAL OBJECTIVE

      The Project will contribute to upgrading human resource capacity; via the process of
      boosting management and learning skills in micro, small and medium enterprises.

7.0   SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE

      To create a Literacy Service Center that has the technical and operative capacity to
      support the informal sector operatives in Ghana.




8.0   REFERENCES

      ACHPR Report on indigenous populations-communities Eks/Skolens Trykkeri,
      Copenhagen, Denmar, 2005, 120

      Addae-Boahene, A, "Ghana: AID Effectiveness and the Education Sector:
      Implications for Civil Society”, Alliance 2015, Ghana 2007,

      Mettle-Nunoo, R & Hilditch, L, “Donor Participation in the Education Sector”,
      ActionAid, Accra, Jan. 2000,

      Thaver, T, “The Private Higher Education Sector in Africa: Current Trends and
      Themes in Six Country Studies”, JHEA/RESA, 2008,.

      Hamza, T, “Approaches to Literacy in Ghana: The Challenges faced”, IBIS, Accra,
      2010

      Ministry of Education, www.ghana.gov.gh, 2009

      “Putting Ghana‟s informal sector in business”, Business & Financial Times, Accra,
      2009
       Black, R & King, R, & Tiemoko, R. “Migration, Return and Small Enterprise
       development in Ghana: a route out of poverty” Sussex Centre for Migration Research,
       UK, 2003.

       Anarfi, J & Kwankye, S. & Tiemoko, R. “Migration from and to Ghana: A
       Background Paper”, Development Research Center on Migration, Globalization &
       Poverty,

       “Policy Brief 9: National Functional Literacy Program”, Inter-regional Inequality
       Facility, Ghana, 2006

       Trades Union Congress, “Incomes in Ghana, Policy Discussion Paper”, Ghana, Policy
       Network, 2004

       Baiden – Ammissah, R. “Improving the Education Sector in Ghana‟s Development
       Agenda, Ghana, 2006

       The Ministry of Manpower, Youth & Employment, The 1st Draft: Version 4 of the
       National Employment Policy, Ghana Accra, 2010

       Guri, B, "Traditional Authorities, Decentralization and

Development, a concept paper for Strengthening the Capacity of Traditional Authorities for
Good Governance and Development at the Local Level, Center for Indigenous Knowledge
and Organizational Development, Accra, 2006

				
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