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									    IB Music
Prescribed Topics

 Revision Guide
 El Salon Mexico
        Copland‘s Use of Folk Songs in El Salon Mexico

Original Folk Song – El Palo Verde – 1st phrase

Copland‘s version

Original Folk Song – El Palo Verde – 2nd phrase

Copland‘s version
   Original Folk Song La Jesuita

   Copland‘s version

Original Folk Song – El Mosco – 1st phrase

Copland‘s version

Original Folk Song – El Mosco – 2nd phrase

Copland‘s version
     Copland‘s Use of Rhythmic Devices in El Salon Mexico

Rhythm is the most exciting element of El Salon Mexico.

Copland had studied Jazz in the 1920‘s and had discovered the jazz
influenced music of Bartok and Stravinsky during his time in Paris.

He uses lots of different types of rhythmic devices in El Salon Mexico.

You need to locate and be able to write about the following:

Time signature changes you can see these!

Polyrhythms                 269-273 and 292–296

Syncopation                 16/17 27/31 40/38

Alternation                 326 - 332
between 2 and 3notes

These rhythmic techniques make the music irregular and unpredictable
but there are periods of regular rhythms too: 73 – 102 and 222-226

Generally El Salon Mexico has a steady tempo but there are more rubato or
cadenza-like passages (26,33 and 183-198)
        Copland‘s use of harmony in El Salon Mexico

                El Salon Mexico is predominantly

  diatonic with some added note harmonies and bitonality

What does diatonic mean?       The music is in a key

Good examples of diatonic harmony: 1-18 34-102 183-227
                                       292-300 391-end

What are added note harmonies?

Normal chords (1,3,and 5) with other notes added!

                    This is a C chord with an added 6th

Good examples of added note harmony 108-171 and 305-390

There is very little chromaticism –

  one of the few example is the cello line in bars 77 - 86
Major/ Minor Harmony

What is major minor harmony?.
This is when the major 3rd and minor 3rd of a chord are sounded
at the same time

Good examples of major/ minor harmony
G major and G minor used at                   Bars 20 - 29


What is bitonality? Using two keys at the same time
Good examples of bitonality
         261-267 278-281 288-291 301-304

                    Harmony and Texture

Copland often uses

unison passages -                              opening section

2 part passages                                  217-221

3rds over a pedal note or simple bass line 40-58 77-98 223-225

tonic and dominant chords                     268-277 292-300

tonic pedals or tonic dominant movement            59-102
     Copland‘s use of antiphony and dialogue
Copland often uses blocks of instrumentation to create

Good examples of antiphony appear between:

       Trumpets                      Upper strings,
          and           opening      woodwind and
        cymbals                         piano

    G major chords                      Melody

 Bassoons,trombone,               Horns, violin II, viola
   timpani,cellos         133-
      basses              136

     Upper strings                   Horns, trombone,
     Upper Wind          173 –     tuba, cello, double
        PIano            181              bass

Think about the similarities between this structure and sonata
form in the Mozart : the way that ideas are introduced,
developed, mixed with other ideas and then recapped.

Exposition            Development           Recapitulation
                   Structural Use of Orchestration

Read through the points above and below and mark them on your score as you revise


 Mark on your score the orchestral crescendo at 98 – 102

 Mark on the score how the upper wind is added at 151 – 156, making it a louder
 version of 145 - 150


Copland uses instruments to emphasise the articulation of accented notes, staccato etc..
Mark the points above on your score.
More about rhythm…
Questions and Answers

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