El Salon Mexico
Copland‘s Use of Folk Songs in El Salon Mexico
Original Folk Song – El Palo Verde – 1st phrase
Original Folk Song – El Palo Verde – 2nd phrase
Original Folk Song La Jesuita
Original Folk Song – El Mosco – 1st phrase
Original Folk Song – El Mosco – 2nd phrase
Copland‘s Use of Rhythmic Devices in El Salon Mexico
Rhythm is the most exciting element of El Salon Mexico.
Copland had studied Jazz in the 1920‘s and had discovered the jazz
influenced music of Bartok and Stravinsky during his time in Paris.
He uses lots of different types of rhythmic devices in El Salon Mexico.
You need to locate and be able to write about the following:
Time signature changes you can see these!
Polyrhythms 269-273 and 292–296
Syncopation 16/17 27/31 40/38
Alternation 326 - 332
between 2 and 3notes
These rhythmic techniques make the music irregular and unpredictable
but there are periods of regular rhythms too: 73 – 102 and 222-226
Generally El Salon Mexico has a steady tempo but there are more rubato or
cadenza-like passages (26,33 and 183-198)
Copland‘s use of harmony in El Salon Mexico
El Salon Mexico is predominantly
diatonic with some added note harmonies and bitonality
What does diatonic mean? The music is in a key
Good examples of diatonic harmony: 1-18 34-102 183-227
What are added note harmonies?
Normal chords (1,3,and 5) with other notes added!
This is a C chord with an added 6th
Good examples of added note harmony 108-171 and 305-390
There is very little chromaticism –
one of the few example is the cello line in bars 77 - 86
Major/ Minor Harmony
What is major minor harmony?.
This is when the major 3rd and minor 3rd of a chord are sounded
at the same time
Good examples of major/ minor harmony
G major and G minor used at Bars 20 - 29
What is bitonality? Using two keys at the same time
Good examples of bitonality
261-267 278-281 288-291 301-304
Harmony and Texture
Copland often uses
unison passages - opening section
2 part passages 217-221
3rds over a pedal note or simple bass line 40-58 77-98 223-225
tonic and dominant chords 268-277 292-300
tonic pedals or tonic dominant movement 59-102
Copland‘s use of antiphony and dialogue
Copland often uses blocks of instrumentation to create
Good examples of antiphony appear between:
Trumpets Upper strings,
and opening woodwind and
G major chords Melody
Bassoons,trombone, Horns, violin II, viola
Upper strings Horns, trombone,
Upper Wind 173 – tuba, cello, double
PIano 181 bass
Think about the similarities between this structure and sonata
form in the Mozart : the way that ideas are introduced,
developed, mixed with other ideas and then recapped.
Exposition Development Recapitulation
Structural Use of Orchestration
Read through the points above and below and mark them on your score as you revise
Mark on your score the orchestral crescendo at 98 – 102
Mark on the score how the upper wind is added at 151 – 156, making it a louder
version of 145 - 150
Copland uses instruments to emphasise the articulation of accented notes, staccato etc..
Mark the points above on your score.
More about rhythm…
Questions and Answers