Fall Flora Lecture List 5 Asteraceae _Compositae_ Floral Features

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Fall Flora Lecture List 5 Asteraceae _Compositae_ Floral Features Powered By Docstoc
					                                                             Asteraceae (Compositae)
                                                    • Sunflower Family – 1535 genera / 23,000
                                                    • Second largest plant family (after orchids)
                   Fall Flora                       • 10% of flowering plants
                                                    • Cosmopolitan – esp. in open, dry habitats
                 Lecture List 5                     • Leaves simple, but often deeply lobed,
          Sunflower and Sedge Families:             • Inflorescence in head (capitulum), subtended
                DYC’s on Parade                       by involucre of bracts (phyllaries)

                Floral Features                                      Floral Features
• Sepals modified into persistent                       •    Stamens connate and adnate to corolla
  pappus                                                •    Staminal tube releases pollen to inside
   – Scales                                             •    Elongating style pushes pollen out of tube
   – Awns                                                              = Plunger Pollination
   – Bristles
                                                        •    Stigma lobes open after pollen removed =
   – simple hairlike                                         protandrous – enforces outcrossing
   – plumose
                                                        •    2 carpellate gynoecium (2 stigma lobes),
• Petals connate, 2 types                                    but only one basal ovule
   – radial (disk or filiform)
                                                        •    Fruit an achene, often with attached pappus
   – bilateral (ligulate of various types)

            Inflorescence Types
  3 Main types of heads, combos of 2 flower types
 1. Discoid Head – perfect disk flowers only
 2. Radiate Head – Female peripheral ray
    (ligulate) flowers and interior perfect disk
 3. Ligulate Head – composed completely of
    perfect, ligulate flowers                         Aster –
                                                     Sterile ray
                                                    And perfect
                                                    Disk florets;
                                                    Radiate Head
                                  Taraxacum and Cichorium - Ligulate

                                                                                                       Cirsium and Cynaria - Discoid

                                                                             Identification of Asteraceae
                                                                        • Key Features to check:
                                                                           – Number, type, and arrangement of phyllaries
                                                                           – Types of flowers and arrangement in inflors.
                                                                           – Petal type in disk and ray flowers
                     Helianthus                                            – Type of pappus
                                                                           – Type of style and stigma (branching, etc.)

Common or Western Yarrow, Milfoil (N)
         Achillea millefolium L. (A. lanulosa Nutt.)
                                                                              Common Yarrow, Milfoil (N)
                                                                                        Achillea millefolium L.
Habit: Perennial herb, arising
  singly or as a loose cluster, knee                                   Leaves: Alternate,
  high; stems have dense wooly                                           simple, fern-like
  hairs; flowers April to July, and
  reproduces from seeds and                                              (finely divided)
  rhizomes.                                                            Flowers: Flowers
Habitat: NATIVE; Occurs in                                               radiate, 5 white to
  prairies, sagebrush plains,
  pastures, roadsides, and                                               pink ray flowers,
  disturbed sites.                                                       with ~30 yellow disc
Uses: styptic (stops bleeding),                                          flowers. They are
  taken internally or externally.
  Stops itch of bites and stings.                                        borne in flat-topped
  Aromatic – insect repellent.                                           inflorescenses.
  Soothing teas for colds and
  stomach aches
                                                                       Fruit: a flattened,
                                                                         hairless achene
                (I) Common Burdock                                  Common Burdock
             Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.        Leaves: Alternate,
Habit: Introduced (Europe),                       large, cordate, hairy.
  biennial herb, large (3-10
  ft), coarse, erect, much                        Rosette the first year.
  branched in second year                       Flowers/inflorescence:
Habitat: Grows along                              Flower heads
  roadsides, ditchbanks, in
  pastures and waste areas.                       discoid, involucre
  Burs tangle in the hair of                      bracts with hooked
  livestock allowing seeds to                     prickles. Flowers are
  be distributed to new
  areas. Flower and seed                          purple,
  production occur from July                    Fruits/seeds: Fruit is an
  to September
                                                  achene about ¼ inch
Uses: The hooked bristles of
  bur-like flower heads are                       long. Entire bur-like
  said to have inspired the                       head dispersed as a
  invention of Velcro                             unit

        Big Sage, Big Sagebrush (N)
                   Artemisia tridentata Nutt.
                                                             Big Sage, Big Sagebrush
                                                Leaves: Alternate, simple;
Habit: Perennial, aromatic,                        gray-green color;
  evergreen, shrub with a                          covered with dense, silver
  rounded crown, 3 to 10 feet                      hairs. Spatula-shaped
  tall. Highly branched above                      (narrower at base); tip is
  short trunk Flowers August                       usually bluntly 3-lobed.
  to September. Reproduces                         Two crops per year
  from seed                                        (spring and fall). Fall
Habitat: Native; occurs in                         leaves smaller, thicker,
  valleys, basins, and                             cold tolerant.
  mountain slopes, at                           Flowers: Heads of 5-8 small
  elevations between 2,500                         inconspicuous yellow-
  and 10,000 feet.                                 brown discoid flowers; in
Uses: leaves produce                               dense linear clusters,
  aromatic oils – camphor;                         forming in the fall.
  seeds are edible; leaves                      Fruit/seed: A resinous,
  said to aid digestion. Poor                      brown, flattened achene
  forage for ungulates and                         with no pappus.
  livestock (benefits from
  overgrazing). Does not
  survive fire.

    Threetip Sage, Cut-leaf Sage (N)                 Threetip Sage, Cut-leaf Sage (N)
                    Artemisa tripartita Rydb.   Leaves: narrowly 3-
 Habit: Wintergreen                               lobed (fingered);
   shrub, about 2 ft tall;                        wedge-shaped;
   smaller and not as                             with the leaf tips
   woody as Big Sage                              long and linear
 Habitat: Native, in
   similar habitats with                        Flowers: Yellow, in
   Big Sage, often in                             discoid heads;
   moister or more                                Narrower
   favorable sites and                            inflorescence than
   slightly higher
   elevations.                                    Big Sage
 More fire-tolerant than                        Fruits/seeds:
   Big Sage - sprouts                             achenes lacking
   freely after fire.                             pappus
       Western Mugwort, Louisiana Sage,         Western Mugwort, Louisiana Sage, Silver Sage
        Prairie Sage, Silver Sage, (N)         Leaves: Alternate;
                 Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.
                                                 Several forms on
Habit: Aromatic,                                 same plant; lance-
 Knee high,                                      shaped on upper parts,
                                                 basal leaves usually
 erect, perennial
                                                 lobed with pointed
 herb (non-
                                                 tips; leaves are densely
 woody),                                         hairy
 covered in
                                               Flower: small discoid
                                                 heads of small,
 hairs, from
                                                 inconspicuous flowers,
 creeping                                        heads numerous with
 rhizomes                                        dense white hairs.
Habitat: Native;                               Fruit: a pappus free
 dry, open sites                                 achene

Western Mugwort, Louisiana Sage, Silver Sage                           Aster (N)
  Uses: Widely used                                                    Aster spp.
   medicinally and                               Characteristics: Asters are
   ceremonially; Sage                               generally fall-blooming –
   bundles burned as                                white-purple daisy-like
   incense; Brewed as                               plants. Heads are radiate
                                                    and ray florets are
   tea for cold and fever                           generally few and wide.
   and as poultices to treat                        Phyllaries (involucral
   skin ailments;                                   bracts) are in 3+
   aromatic – used as a                             overlapping rows (like
                                                    shingles), glandular, and
   deodorant; used as                               dark at the tips. Plants
   snuff for nosebleeds                             usually rhizomatous.
   and headaches. Closely                        Erigeron spp. (fleabanes) are
   related to tarragon (A.                          superficially similar, but
   dracunculus) – a                                 mostly spring-blooming
   culinary herb.

                            Aster                          (N) Engelmann’s Aster,
                                                             Michaelmas Daisy
  white, blue or violet                                   Aster engelmannii (Eat.) Gray
  ray flowers with
  yellow disc flowers,
  Involucral bracts in 3-                      Habit: Perennial
  5 overlapping rows                            herb; tall (1-2 m)
  and generally                                 robust plants with
  glandular; few to
  many flowerheads in                           few, white to pink
  rounded to flat topped                        flowers, stems
  clusters; bloom from                          ribbed
  July to October
Fruit/seeds: achenes;                          Habitat: Open
  variously hairy, with                         woods, foothills to
  white to reddish,                             high elevation
  bristly pappus
                                                        Common, Rubber, or Gray Rabbitbrush (N)
Engelmann’s Aster, Michaelmas Daisy                                    Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall.) Britt.
Leaves: alternate,                                       Habit: perennial, deciduous shrub
  simple, entire, sessile                                  (<1 m), stems rubbery, densely
                                                           covered in grey, felt-like hairs;
Flowers and                                                many branched, with a flat-
                                                           topped growth form
  inflorescence: Few                                     Habitat: Native; favors sunny, open
  white to pinkish ray                                     sites throughout a wide variety of
                                                           habitats; particularly common on
  flowers in radiate                                       disturbed sites.
  heads; involucre                                       Rubber rabbitbrush is cold hardy,
  bracts tough, keeled,                                    and tolerant of both moisture and
                                                           salt stress; it exhibits a number
  red to purple-tinged;                                    of adaptations for surviving in an
                                                           arid environment. One of these is
Fruit/seeds: Achenes                                       that leaves and stems are
  several-nerved with                                      covered with a felt-like layer of
                                                           hairs that insulate the plant and
  bristly pappus                                           reduce transpiration

                Gray Rabbitbrush (N)                                     Gray Rabbit-brush (N)
              Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall.) Britt.                    Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall.) Britt

 • Leaves                                               • Uses: American Indians
    – Alternate, linear to spatula                        made chewing gum from
      shaped blades with entire                           pulverized wood and bark
      margins. The leaves are 1
      to 3 nerved                                       • It was also used as tea,
    – Grass like and not
                                                          cough syrup, yellow dye,
      twisted                                             and for chest pains
 • Stems                                                • small commercial source
    – Twigs are erect, flexible
                                                          for rubber extraction, and
      (rubbery), yellowish-green,                         was studied extensively
      and covered with a dense                            during World War II as a
      felt-like covering                                  substitute for commercial
    – Trunk is gray-brown with                            rubber.
      small cracks. The bark is
      fibrous and somewhat

    Green or Douglas Rabbitbrush (N)                                   Green Rabbit-brush (N)
            Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hook.) Nutt.                  Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hook.) Nutt.

Habit: Woody                                               Leaves: Alternate, linear,
                                                              and with at least one
 perennial shrub;                                             twist
 stems not hairy                                           Stems: Brittle, hairless or
                                                              only slightly hairy, with
Habitat: Native;                                              brown bark
 Grows in dry,                                             Flowers: Heads strictly
 open sites in the                                            discoid, small, yellow
                                                              heads of 5 disc florets,
 plains, foothills                                            in dense clusters at
 and montane                                                  branch tips
 zones; often                                              Fruits/seeds: Hairy, linear
                                                              achenes: pappus of
 grows with                                                   white hairs
 sagebrush and
 grey rabbit-brush
  (N) Curlycup gumweed, Resinweed                 (N) Curlycup gumweed, Resinweed
           Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal             Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal
Habit: Forb, erect growing 1-3                 • Leaves: Alternate and
  ft, annual, biennial, perennial                oblong with toothed
  with 1 to several branched
  stems. Grows from a taproot.                   edges, gland-dotted, and
  Starts growth in early spring,                 gummy
  flowers July to August                       • Flowers/Inflorescence:
Habitat: favors dry areas, but                   Numerous and yellow.
  grows on moist soils that lack                 There are bracts at the
  other vegetation from 3,000
  to 8,000 feet; most common                     base of the flower which
  in dry prairies, waste places,                 are shiny, sticky, and
  roadsides, railroads, depleted                 curved downward (hence
  rangelands, and abandoned                      the name "squarrose" in
  croplands. It often forms                      the name). Fruit is an
  almost pure stands. Curlycup
  gumweed increases under                        achene.
  drought conditions.

                   Curlycup gumweed                        (N) Broom snakeweed,
Uses and Management: Resistant to
                                                           matchbrush, broomweed
  grazing and drought; unpalatable to
  cattle, sheep, and horses. Tannins,
                                                  Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby
  volatile oils, resins, bitter alkaloids,
  and glucosides give it an unpleasant          Habit: Herbs or small
  taste. If consumed, it may lead to             shrubs, perennial,
  poisoning due to the selenium
  accumulation.                                  erect, slender, brittle
American Indians used the gummy
                                                 branches; grows new
  secretions to relieve asthma,                  from the roots each
  bronchitis, and colic. Pawnee Indians          year
  boiled leaves and flowering tops to
  treat saddle sores and raw skin.              Habitat: Dry, open
  Today, medicinal uses include
  treatment of bronchial spasm,                  places, generally at
  whooping cough, asthma, and rashes
  caused by poison ivy. Curlycup                 lower elevation
  gumweed extract is valuable as a              Uses: Plant is
  stimulant, sedative, astringent,
  purgative, emetic, diuretic, antiseptic,       poisonous to grazers
  and disinfectant.

  (N) Broom snakeweed, matchbrush                                (N) Sneezeweed
                                                                Helenium autumnale L.
Leaves: alternate,
                                                Habit: perennial herb to 1 m
  linear, untwisted
                                                  tall, globose flower
Flowerheads: small,                               heads with 3-lobed ray
  numerous heads in                               flowers
  a flat-topped infl.;                          Habitat: Moist, low ground
  inconspicuous ray                             Uses: Poisonous
  flowers generally 3-
  8, disk flowers
  generally 3-8
Fruits/seeds Achenes,
  pappus of narrow
                                                    (N) Rocky Mountain Helianthella,
                 (N) Sneezeweed
               Helenium autumnale L.
                                                         Helianthella uniflora (Nutt.) T. & G.
Leaves simple, entire,
  lance-shaped;                                  • Habit:
Flowerheads: Radiate, 10
  to 20, 3-toothed ray                           • Slender, perennial,
  flowers, in heads with                           single-flowered herb
  hemispherical yellow
  disc flowers                                   • Habitat:
                                                 • Grows in dry to moist
                                                   meadows and slopes
                                                 • Foothills, montane
                                                   and subalpine zones

    (N) Rocky Mountain Helianthella,
                                                            (N) Common Sunflower
                                                                  Helianthus annuus L.
        Helianthella uniflora (Nutt.) T. & G.
                                                • Habit: Annual,
• Leaves: Leaves                                  forb/herb, stems erect
  usually 3-nerved                              • Habitat: Dry to moist,
                                                  open sites, disturbed
• Flowers: Bright                                 ground, plains to foothills
  yellows, single                               • Uses: The seeds of the
  flowerheads                                     achenes are eaten by
                                                  humans. Crushed seeds
• Fruit: 4-sided                                  boiled in water let off oil
  achenes                                         that can be skimmed from
                                                  the surface and used like
                                                  olive oil. Sunflower seed
                                                  sprouts are also edible.

                                                     (I) Prickly lettuce, Wild lettuce,
           (N) Common Sunflower
                                                    China lettuceCommon Sunflower
                Helianthus annuus L.
                                                                   Lactuca serriola L.
Leaves Mainly alternate,                        Habit: Herb, biennial or
  egg to heart shaped,                            winter annual, large
  lowest leaves opposite.                         taproot, with milky
Flowerheads: Yellow                               juice
  with bright yellow ray                        Habitat: Native of
  florets around a large,                         Europe, now
  reddish-brown button of                         naturalized
  disc florets; 1-few                             throughout North
  flowerheads in June
  through September                             Weed that invades
                                                  disturbed soil,
Fruits/seeds Thick,                               irrigated crops, and
  flattened, 2- or 4                              orchards, as well as
  angled achene; pappus                           gardens, roadsides,
  of 2 stiff bristle                              and yards
                    Prickly lettuce               (N) Black Head, Western
Leaves: alternate,                            Coneflower Rudbeckia occidentalis Nutt.
  twisted at the base to
                                            • Habit:
  lie in a vertical plane,                     – Native, short lived perennial,
  prickly on the lower                           or biennial; stems 30 to
  side of midrib,                                100cm tall, from rhizomes
  clasping the stem with                    • Habitat:
  two angled earlike                           – Grows in moist, open or
                                                 wooded sites in foothills
  lobes                                          and montane zones
Flowers: Flower heads                       • Uses:
  are yellow, composed                         – Used mostly for medicine.
  of 5 to 30 ray flowers                         Plants are said to increase
                                                 urination and to have a mild
  only                                           stimulating effect on the heart.
Fruits/seeds: Bristly                            Some people have an allergic
  Achenes for dispersal                          reaction to this plant.

      (N) Black Head, Western                   (N) Canada goldenrod, Meadow
  Coneflower Rudbeckia occidentalis Nutt.        goldenrod Solidago canadensis L.
                                            • Habit:
• Leaves alternate, lance                     Perennial herb,
  shaped to elliptic, long-                   solitary stems,
  stalked                                     leafy, erect, 30
• Flowerheads Rayless,                        – 120 cm tall,
  black to purplish, cone-                    from spreading
  shaped or cylindrical                       rhizomes
  clusters of disc
  flowers                                   • Habitat: Moist,
                                              open or partly
• Fruits/seeds Hairless,
                                              shaded sites;
  4-sided achenes;
  pappus absent
                                              plains to

                Canada goldenrod               (I) Common Tansy, Garden Tansy
Leaves: Alternate,                                                 Tanacetum vulgare L.
  crowded, lance-
  shaped, usually                           Habit: To 2m tall, erect, from
  sharply toothed,                            fibrous roots and rhizomes,
  stalkless                                   herbaceous, fragrant,
Flowerheads: Yellow                         Habitat: Native to Eurasia;
  ray florets about 10-                       Meadows, fence rows,
  17, with disc florets                       prairie margins, fields,
  usually more                                roadsides, railroads,
  numerous than rays;                         cultivated.
  many flowerheads                          Other info: Tansy has been
                                              used in the past as a
  in dense, showy                             remedy for many ailments.
  pyramidal clusters                          The plant is quite toxic and
  from July to October                        causes abortions and even
Fruit/seeds Short-                            death in most mammals.
  hairy achenes;                            Grown as an ornamental, Many
                                              hybrids and cultivars exist
  pappus of white,
  hair-like bristles
     (I) Common tansy, garden tansy                              I Common Dandelion
                     Tanacetum vulgare L.                         Taraxacum officinale Weber
                                               Habit: Perennial, cool season
Leaves: Alternate,                               herb; erect stems contain a
  petiolate below to                             bitter, milky-white juice. from
  sessile above,                                 a fleshy, deep taproot;
                                                 flowers April to October
  deeply pinnately
                                               Habitat: It most commonly
  divided, with                                  occurs in disturbed areas;
  serrate lobes;                                 Dandelion can reproduce
  fragrant                                       vegetatively by sprouting
                                                 from the caudex after
Flowers: Rayless;                                disturbance
  disk flowers                                 Uses: Eaten in salads, cooked
  yellow, numerous,                              vegetable, roots can be
                                                 cooked or used in salads,
  crowded into                                   and flower petals produce a
  buttonlike terminal                            highly esteemed, delicately
  heads                                          flavored, pale yellow wine

              (I) Common Dandelion                      (I) Yellow Salsify, Goatsbeard
                  Taraxacum officinale Weber                       Tragopogon dubius Scop.
Leaves: Basal, deeply                          Habit: Biennial
   lobed, 2 to 16 inches
   long, and forming a                          (sometimes
   rosette. Surfaces of                         annual) herb, milky
   leaves can be lightly
                                                sap, stems leafy,
Flowers: All ray flowers                        from taproot
   (ligulate); Yellow; at                      Habitat: Fairly dry,
   the tip of a leafless
   stem. It becomes a                           disturbed sites;
   ball of white silky                          plains to montane;
   bristles at maturity
Fruits/Seeds: Seeds of
                                                introduced from
   dandelion are topped                         Europe; a
   by a parachute of                            common, widely-
   bristles that aid in
   dispersal                                    dispersed weed

        (I) Yellow salsify, goatsbeard                        (N) Common Cocklebur
                  Tragopogon dubius Scop.                            Xanthium strumarium L.
Leaves: alternate,
   grass-like, linear,                         Habit: erect annual herb,
   gradually tapered                             stem 2 to 4 ft tall; with
   from base to pointed                          large, rough leaves and
   tip, clasping stem
Flowerhead: solitary;
                                                 burlike fruits
   lemon-yellow with                           Habitat: Native to NA,
   ray florets only;                             Common in cultivated
   involucral bracts                             fields, abandoned land,
   about 12 in 1 row,                            run-down pastures, road
   slender, gradually
   tapered, extending                            ditches, and waste areas.
   past ray florets;                           The burs are irritating to
   from May to July                              humans and animals;
Fruits/seeds: Slender                            both seeds and seedling
   minutely spined
   achenes, forming                              contain a substance toxic
   large, ball-like                              to livestock
   heads with fuzzy
              (N) Common cocklebur                            SEDGE FAMILY
                    Xanthium strumarium L.                     Cyperaceae
Leaves: Alternate,
   triangular or heart-                      • Grasslike
   shaped, rough on both                     • Species are usually
   sides and long petioled
                                               perennial, often
   Flower heads discoid,                       rhizomatous herbs;
   small, in axils of upper                    partial to wet places
   leaves; male and female
   flowers in separate                       • Solid, triangular stems
   heads; Female heads 2-                      (usually)
   flowered, completely
   enclose by fused, spiny                   • Leaves 3-ranked with
   involucral bracts                           closed sheath
Fruits/seeds: Fruits are 1-                  • Small, wind-pollinated
   inch long, woody, with
   hooked prickles and two                     flowers in dense clusters
   curved spines at the tip                    called spikelets; lack
   and two seeds that                          petals/sepals
   germinate in successive
   years; pappus none

    (N) Creeping spikerush; spikerush          (N) Creeping spikerush; spikerush
                          Eleocharis spp.                             Eleocharis spp.
                                             Leaves: Reduced to
Habit: “Leafless”,                              bladeless sheaths
 slender, perennial                             at the stem base
 sedge; round                                Flowers: Spirally
 stems; from                                    arranged in single,
 rhizomes                                       terminal, brown
                                                spikes; Florets
Habitat: Wet sites,
                                                with 3 anthers and
 often in standing                              2 stigmas in axils
 water; Plains to                               of scales
 montane Yukon                               Fruit: Yellowish
 and NWT to New                                 brown achenes

      (N) Hardstemmed bulrush; Tule               (N) Hardstemmed bulrush; Tule
                      Scirpus acutus Muhl.                      Scirpus acutus Muhl.
                                              Leaves: Most
Habit: Aquatic perennial; Stems
  erect, round and spongy;                      reduced to
  bluegreen color; spreading
  from rhizomes
Habitat: Marshes, muddy shores,                 sheaths
  shallow water (fresh and
  brackish) at low to mid                     Flowers: occur in
  elevations                                    dense spikelets
Uses: The Ohlone Indians bound                  borne at the top
  bundles of tules together to
  make boats that were used in                  of the stem;
  hunting and fishing along San
  Francisco Bay. Air chambers                   resemble orange
  in the hollow stems kept the                  brown scales
  boats afloat. Long cylindrical
  stems from 5 to 8 feet tall                 Fruits: egg shaped
  leaves have slender, v-shaped
  blades                                        achenes

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