OF THE EU/EEA

                            -an overall review of development trends-

The advance of Quality Work within the PES
During the '90s the concept of 'Quality' has gradually entered the jargon of PES
management and began to influence the public production and marketing of
employment services in all member states of the European Economic Area. In several
countries –to mention Sweden, Austria, Ireland, the United Kingdom and the
Netherlands- this happened already well before the mid of the decade.
By now, all European PESs have adopted some practices of 'quality development' and,
irrespective of the degree of maturity already achieved, each of them seems to keep on
expanding its efforts in the field.

The importance of 'quality work' has acquired general recognition throughout Europe,
not only at national but also at regional level. In countries where the national PES is
currently being reorganised into a number of autonomous regional institutions, like
Spain and Italy, many new regional PESs immediately start to reflect on the issue of
'quality development' and tend to formulate a programme of action for it.

Even PESs where 'quality development' is not yet institutionalised as a distinct strand
of management, have for long integrated many elements of it. In Germany for
instance, this is shown in the objectives and practices that are incorporated in the
reform of the local employment office, the 'Arbeitsamt 2000'. 'Customer orientation'
and 'minimum quality standards' are among the keywords of this reform.

In several countries the quality work done within Public Employment Service is
supported by a broader government program for quality development in the public
administration at large. The PES can to some extent profit from facilities offered by
such a programme. This is most clearly the case in Finland, but -though less
prononciated- happens in several other countries as well.

'Quality development' is certainly not an ephemere phenomenon, a whim, a fancy of
the day. National PESs that started in this field long ago may have changed their
approach to it during the years, drawing lessons from accumulated practical
experience, but they never again dropped the concept as such and investments to it
will be surely made in many years to come.

For that reason it is not surprising that Heads of PES at their meeting in Baden/Austria
in November 1998, have collectively expressed great interest in a serious international
exchange of experiences.

The importance of quality development
Why are Public Employment Services so motivated for 'quality development'?
They see, I believe, three major gains from it:

1.      'Customer satisfaction' will be recognised as a performance indicator. It will
join the traditional targets that describe what volume of what services shall be

I:\pes\Quality Management\QMLahti.doc
produced for what groups of jobseekers and staffseekers, and that sometimes also
describe envisaged changes in the market itself and in the individual carreers of those
that have received PES assistance.

2.     Detailed understanding of various parts of the service production proces, and
the supply/demand interrelations between these parts.

3.     Higher staff productivity.

I will make a few comments on each of these three gains:

To build a positive public image for the PES is rather difficult for several reasons.
In the first place it is not easy to measure the added value of the PES in terms of
objective market outcomes. The provision of employment services can not easily be
related to objective market outcomes, be it on the level of individual careers or on a
more aggregate level of market flows. Causal relationships are often questionnable as
such and, as far as they do exist, they are difficult to measure.
Secondly, the PES suffers from the persistent creation of wrong expectations. The
public services tend to be proclaimed as a general market facility at zero cost to the
user, while the production of these services is at the same time bound to a rather
restricted budget.

The demonopolisation of the PES tends to even aggravate image problems.
Employers and groups of jobseekers now have a free choice between alternative
service providers to fulfil their needs. And the government starts to ask itself more
questions about the real need for public initiative in the production of employment
services and about the role of the PES to deliver those services.

Under such circumstances a more keen attention for customer satisfaction is is an
evident necessity. When achieved, high customer satisfaction will become a
permanent collective vote in favour of the public service and in favour of the PES as
its delivery agency.

An increase in customer appreciation is moreover an important precondition for better
performance with regard to the other targets of the PES. In particular, this is true for
satisfied employers who will use the PES more frequently for their staff recruitment,
thereby increasing the opportunities for the PES to find employment for unemployed

A detailed analysis of the various parts of the service production process is a
natural first step towards a systematic strengthening of effectiveness and efficiency
through improved working methods. This is a general truth. By better specifying the
various services that the organisation produces and by relating these services to
specific work processes, the culture of quality management also stimulates to assess
the unit cost of each product. In that sense it fosters a kind of market-enterprise
approach to the issue of effectiveness and efficiency.
Next to its encouragement of analysis and measurement, quality management offers
some forcefull techniques for improving the work processes. It teaches for instance
the staff members of different parts of the organisation to understand their mutual

relationships in terms of suppliers and customers. This has a profound effect on the
work culture that should change from bureaucratic to enterprise-oriented.

Then some words about the third gain. Staff productivity will rise for several
In the first place, the concern with service quality will lead to a more systematic
attention for required staff skills and to more investment in it. Secondly, the
motivation of the 70% of staff that is directly dealing with jobseekers and employers
is bound to increase, when more value is attached to the immediate outcome of their
efforts: hopefully satisfied customers. Thirdly, knowledge and competences of the
staff are better exploited for identifying shortcomings in the production process and
designing improvements.

For all these reasons it is not difficult to understand why 'quality' became such an
important issue for the PES.

We should however not conceal that there is at least one major problem to be
resolved. The maximisation of customer satisfaction is not spontaneously in harmony
with the achievement of the targets given by the public authorities. Under influence of
market opportunities, the PES may define 'customers' as a much wider or different
category than the groups of clients on whome the government wants to spend its
money. Somehow the logic of the market and the logic of the political domain have to
be reconciled.
This is a major difference with quality management in the private sector. There the
customers/consumers themselves pay for the services they receive, while in the public
sector those who pay are diferent from those who consume.

Practical implementation of quality development within the PES
Now I will turn to some salient features of the implementation of quality management
and how diferent national PESs deal with them.

1.      To develop the service process in relation to customer needs and expectations
is the central issue of quality development in all PESs.
This starts with analysis and measurement of the needs of various groups of customers
and identifying their points of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Most PESs today have
indeed engaged in this kind of marketing research. Various techniques of analysis and
measurement are developed.

As a second step, innovative projects are launched to better structure the interaction
between the PES and the customer. They deal with such things as: prompt
responsiveness to customers who contact the PES, the internal architecture of the local
office, communication skills of PES staff, and so on.

The final step is to develop and maintain particular standards for several facets of the
interaction with customers, often specified for different kinds of services and
customers. The nature of those standards and the way they function is an interesting
topic for international exchange.

The Irish FAS is a clear example of a PES that defines quality management as an
activity mainly concerned with these issues of services and customers. Its main

objective is to achieve a consistent package of services. At all times and everywhere
customers should know what they may expect from the PES and they should be able
to rely on indeed getting what they expect.

2.      Other national PESs try to make the quality development a process that
explicitly includes the achievement of the targets given by the public authorities. Then
also the budget provider tends to be regarded as a specific customer. The PES will
regard itself excellent when it reaches high satisfaction of jobseekers, employers and
budget provider at the same time. Quality management becomes a more 'holistic'
process covering all inputs, all work processes and all outputs of the organisation.
Those who follow this approach speak of 'Total Quality Management'.
We have seen such an excercise start in Sweden around 1994. Nowadays it is more or
less applied in the Netherlands, and Austria provides perhaps the most striking
example of this holistic approach.

3.       To improve the functioning of the organisation in relation to certain targets
requires a theory about the relationship between the work process and consecutive
target achievement. Such a theory is a model that describes how the work process
should ideally be structured and organised to result in maximum target achievement.
It is also a tool for measurement and assessment. Points are given for the existing state
of the work process. Sufficient points lead to a certificate, a reward, etc. Insufficient
point show where improvements should be designed and implemented.

A number of models are used by PESs to analyse their work processes. ISO
9000/9002, the EFQM model, models of national 'Quality Institutes' that often more
or less seem to resemble the EFQM model. Such models are usually to some extent
adapted to the needs of the PES as a specific type of service enterprise. The French
ANPE has designed its own model, specifically adapted to the characteristics of the
A systematic international comparison of all reference models in use would probably
be a rewarding exercise.

4.      At an early stage some national PESs have attempted to immediately work out
a national system, but this proved not successful. Quality development therefor
became primarily a regional and local affair, with only a limited role of co-ordination
and facilitation for the national head-office of the PES. A nation-wide system for
quality development is seen as a future outcome, when continuous exchange of ideas
and experience between regional and local offices will lead to progressive
convergence. Finland, Ireland and Austria are clear examples of this approach. After 6
years of progressive development, Austria now seems at the point of introducing a
national system.
The strong regional and local roots of quality development indicate a relationship with
the general trend in PESs today towards decentralisation.

Only France has succeeded immediately in building up a national system. It has
developed national service standards and a national procedure for certifying local
offices who reach these standards.

5.     The distinction between a bottom-up and a top-down approach is not only
relevant as regards the geographical dimension. It also bears upon the relationship

between management and staff. On the one hand, quality development can only
succeed if the management is strongly supporting and guiding the process, on the
other hand it requires enthousiastic involvement of staff. Sufficient staff ownership of
the quality development process is seen by many PESs as a key requirement for
The management perspective and the staff perspective are not automatically
compatible. A good balance has to be achieved where management leadership does
not suffocate staff enthousiasm.

The dialectic between staff and management is clearly influenced by the gradual
professionalisation of quality work, leading to a vanguard of specialists (quality work
facilitators/co-ordinators/ internal auditors, and so on).
Specialisation/professionalisation is evidently required, but it is also a danger. Backed
up by the management, specialists may turn the whole process to much into a
bureaucratic affair in which the rank and file primarily feels to be ordered and
controlled. From my own experiences of the early stages of quality management in
the Netherlands, I remember how the quality managers and facilitators began to be
referred to as the 'quapo', the 'quality police'. They began to be mistrusted as once
happened with the Taylorist 'time-and-motion watchers' in many work organisations.

Each organisation who starts with quality management has to develop its own
solutions for these matters.

Final remarks
After this brief overview of some aspects of quality development and its functioning
in various European PESs, my concluding observations would be the following:

Quality development does certainly lead to many innovations in the orientations and
working methods of Public Employment Services. A basic question remains: what is
the actual return on investment? Or more specificly: what approaches to quality
development yield the highest return at the lowest cost in resources? No clear general
answers are yet available to this question.
But there is accumulating evidence that the investment indeed does pay off
substantially. In the United Kingdom for instance, it was observed that those regions
that were most active in quality development were the ones that were the quickest in
fully and adequately implementing the New Deal programme when this was
introduced by the Government. And in Austria the Länder that are most advanced in
developing quality systems tend to reach the highest results on the policy targets that
the Ministry has given to the Arbeitsmarktservice.

Systematic international exchange can be a forcefull means to support each PES in
exploring the manifold dimensions of 'quality development' and getting the best out of
it as quickly and easily as possible. This conference makes a valuable start with
involving not only national but also regional PES structures in that exchange.
The working group of 'quality experts' that has already been established at European
level and that at present is composed of 11 national PESs, intends to continue this
exchange and to secure a wide dissemination of its results, being aware that it is often
the regional and local level where the real things happen.


     Quality management in the Public Employment Service
                   11 European Countries

This document is the first, very provisional edition of a review of PES approaches to
Quality Management in a number of European countries, on which an international
working group of PES experts is working at present. In order to identify differences
and commonalities between national PESs, most descriptions are already structured
according to the common grid of following six aspects:

1.      What concrete objectives/targets does the PES seek to achieve in its efforts to
raise quality? How do these objectives/targets relate to the general and permanent
management concern with maximising efficiency and effectiveness.

Clarification: In providing several kinds of employment services to jobseekers and
staffseekers, PESs are seeking to achieve a number of targets. Some are output-
defined in terms of market impact and/or volume and composition of the inflow into
and the off-flow from the PES registers of vacancies and jobseekers. Others are input-
defined in terms of volume and distribution of services to be rendered and of
interventions to be made. These targets are partly developed by PESs themselves
within the broad legal task prescriptions under which they work. For another part,
targets are specified periodically by budget providers (government / unemployment
benefit funds). PESs make an effort to maximise target achievement (effectiveness),
and they try to minimise required resources (efficiency). In this context, QM is a
relatively new concept leading to particular activities that should have a specific
added value.

2.      A brief catalogue of specific activities/projects that the PES organises to raise
quality. What kind of workprocesses are characteristic for these activities/projects?

3.     The practical organisation of QM activities?

Clarification: What role is played by the various organisational levels of the PES
(head-office /regional offices /local offices)? How are roles distributed between
management and staff? Are there special units and officials to organise/co-
ordinate/facilitate the process of raising quality? How are these positioned within the
PES organisation?

4.     What gains did efforts to manage quality allready bring to your organisation?
What identifiable products were realised?

5.    On what points should the running process of quality management be
improved and how? (= raising the effectiveness and the efficiency of QM itself)

6.      What would be issues for international exchange that could have a clear added
value to improve QM in national PESs?

In its completed form, this reader will also contain a synoptic/comparative analysis of
the various national approaches to QM.

I. Introduction
At the entrance of the 1990’ the Labour Market Administration was in a period with
enormous growth to handle the high increasement in the unemployment, and the
increased tasks. At the same time the service had moved in the direction of a more
decentralised and measure directed service. With the background of variations in the
organisation’s service-production, lack of tools, and challenges attached to control
and follow-ups, the management in the Directorate of Labour initiated a commitment
on quality in 1994. The quality system is the basis of the service’s commitment. A
well-functioned quality system is however not a guarantee for satisfied customers.
You have to see the totality in the product the service wants to offer. The focus of the
service on quality stresses that “the good handicraft” is going to be continued. In our
endeavours to achieve quality on our services, there are a few approximations we
must focus on. The General Director has fixed the following quality policy for the

       -   The Labour Market Administration shall fulfil clarified user expectations
       -   Every leader and colleague is responsible to provide that service is
           produced in accordance to determined procedures and agreements
       -   Quality development is a continuous process and it will be done in
           accordance to altered needs and claims from users and authorities.

II. Approaches
In accordance to this focus on the quality assurance system and the approaches
connected to this system, we must considerate the following aspects:

       -   How to achieve quality on what we install on the IT
       -   How to achieve quality on our linkage between employer and job-seeker?
           Are we delivering the right manpower to the different published vacancies
           and do we give an overview of the right vacancies to the single job-seeker?
       -   How to give our customers what they need to move on? Can we do more to
           qualify manpower to the level of the needs for the employers? Or do we
           give them the manpower we at any time have in our files without thinking
           that small efforts have to be done to make the manpower very suitable in
           accordance to the needs? Do we ask our customers the right questions?
       -   How is our human approach to our customers? Do we work internally with
           our attitudes? Do we treat our customers with respect? Do we think that it
           is very important that the customers we have will come again and maybe
           even be ambassadors to our service by recommending us to others?
       -   Does our service manage to emphasise the importance of satisfied
           customers? Satisfied customers infect the treatment of our customers. How
           are the organisation and the organisational culture? Can we do a good
           enough job in a more easy way (we think about outsourcing, new
           technology, new ways of thinking and so on)?
       -   Does the professional approach have enough weight? Do both the leaders
           and the colleagues get the qualifications that are necessary to react in a
           professional way in the market? Is our executive work satisfactory? Have
           our customers the same service all over the country?

       -     How to keep the quality assurance system alive? Is it alive? Do our
             colleagues and our customers participate in this process?
As the quality policy of our service indicates, it is the target of the service, that we are
going to have satisfied customers. They are going to have what they expect and this
will be delivered in a good manner. They ought to be sure that what they get is
quality, and that we do what is necessary to deliver to them the service and help that is
expected. We are going to act professionally. Then it will be important that our
customers don’t demand more than we are capable to deliver. If our customers aren’t
satisfied, they become aware of why they haven’t got what they have expected. Our
target is that we will have loyal customers who can market our services towards
continually new groups.

For the public authorities it is very important to be sensitive to the user demands and
to open up for it. If we don’t do this, we will be viewed as a heavy, bureaucratic
substance that doesn’t work for the users best. There are three concepts we must see
in a connexion. These three concepts are Quantity, Quality and Customer treatment.
We can make a chart to illustrate this:

                                   Customer treatment

                       Quantity                                        Quality

It is very important to understand that if we are going to achieve quantity (volume),
quality and good customer treatment must lay in the bottom. We don’t achieve “re-
sale” if these concepts aren’t a part of the organisation. It will therefore be a very
important task to show the colleagues in our organisation the connexion between
quality/customer treatment and quantity. If we can manage this we will have a
satisfied customer in the centre of the triangle.

III. Activities
To achieve these targets we now work with the following activities:

       ☛   Commercial services
       ☛   Downsizing of the quality assurance system
       ☛   IT
       ☛   Job-centre
       ☛   Core-values
       ☛   Training, both
              - leaders
              - staff

       ☛   Organisation of the service
       ☛   Profile programme
       ☛   Service declarations
       ☛   Virtual employment offices

IV. Organisation of the processes
As an example, I will now try to describe the work with the service declarations. In
this way I hope it will say something about the organisation.

A well done executive work is no guarantee for customer satisfaction. The Labour
Market Administration has therefore decided to implement service declarations before
01.01.2000. These service declarations are going to tell our customers something
about what they can expect from our service. The service declarations will further on
be of importance to many. To identify which areas that are of importance to many, it
is important to have good communication with our customers. It is further on
important that representatives of the part of our service that are in touch with our
customers, will be listened to.

One working-group and one reference group with representatives from both the
Directorate of Labour, the County Employment Offices and from the Local
Employment Offices were therefor established. Further on representatives of the
Labour organisations and the safety work are engaged in the reference group. In this
work all levels in the service have been asked about comments. In addition questions
about the service of the service are worked in to the great annual user survey. We
hope that we in this way will make declarations that are both important to our
customers and that these surveys will intercept need for changes in the long run. This
description fits in broad outline what we always do when we have this kind of
activities; the central service and the external service work together, and when it is
needed, we try to get statements from our customers.

V. Gains achieved
The greatest gains that we see until now, is that quality, follow-up of the users, service
and the relation between quality, customer treatment and quantity have increased their
attention. When the processes are well implemented, we calculate to have full
rationalisation gain. In this way the staff of the service can concentrate to work with
customers and don’t spend so much of their time doing executive work.

VI. Can some of the problems be illuminated by international co-operation?
Some of the most important experiences we have done, are that we work with
problems that are the same in different countries. If we look at the work we do now
with the service declarations, we see that this is not an isolated approach that only we
in Norway are occupied with. We see that we work with the same approaches
approximately at the same time in quite a few countries in the western hemisphere. It
is therefore of crucial importance to do some kind of benchmarking in other countries.
This we have seen in our work with service declarations, job-centres, virtual
employment offices, commercial services etc. It is therefore important that countries
that have almost the same sort of social system, exchange their experiences and ideas
they have round their approaches.

Mr. Erling UNDRUM
Dir. Of Labour
P.O. Box 8127
NO 0032 Oslo

The purpose of this review is to give an overall picture on the development of quality
in labour administration in Finland. The review concentrates on themes and projects
that are topical at present. The projects presented in the memorandum constitute only
part of the quality work in labour administration. The majority of projects involving
the development of quality are implemented locally or regionally. Quite a number of
projects have been started, and their objectives and practical implementation show a
considerable variation. Therefore, it was not possible to include them all in this short

1. Objectives and targets to raise quality?

The objectives, targets, and links to management with respect to the development of
quality are described in Quality Guidelines – Labour administration quality strategy
for 1999-2001. The implementation of the outlines drafted in Quality Guidelines has
started as follows:

Outline 1. Opening up direct participation and influence opportunities for customers

q   A prerequisite for increasing customers’ opportunities to have an impact is that
    services are described in an understandable manner and criteria are defined for the
    quality of these services. The criteria enable customers and officials alike to assess
    the quality level reached and to set targets for quality levels. A two-year project
    was started last spring to draw up a description of services and define criteria for

q   A customer feedback questionnaire is sent every second year to various customer
    groups in order to be able to monitor customers’ experiences of services nationally
    and regionally. Furthermore, several customer feedback enquiries are carried out
    locally and regionally.

q   In addition, some employment offices have established customer panels, which
    give customers an opportunity for direct participation not only in feedback but
    also in the development of the services.

Outline 2. Integrating quality and personnel development into employment policy
strategy and management

One of the central challenges in quality strategy is to increase the commitment of the
management to quality development and to include quality issues as an integral part of
planning and guidance processes. In order to give effect to this outline,

q   Targets for quality levels in some employment services are agreed on in
    negotiations on objectives between the Ministry of Labour and regional labour
    administration. Central national targets include the filling of vacancies according
    to the schedule agreed on with the employer, and the improvement of the quality
    level of job seeking plans drawn up together with the job-seeker. There may be
    additional quality targets locally and regionally.

q   In addition, Employment and Economic Development Centres and their Labour
    Market Departments have drawn up regional quality development plans for the
    year 2000. These plans are based on the outlines for quality strategy on one hand,
    and the specific needs of the region on the other hand.

q   In order to develop the strategy processes of the employment policy of the
    Ministry of Labour, strategy work is diversified in accordance with the framework
    of balanced scorecard so that it pays attention to the following for aspects, fitting
    them with each other: (i) social impact, (ii) development of organisational
    operations and work processes, (iii) needs of the customers who use the services,
    and (iv) aspects related to the expertise, motivation, and work capacity of the
    personnel. The development of strategy work by means of the BSC method is,
    however, only just begun.

q   Quality issues are integrated into other activities also by means of the criteria of
    the Finnish Quality Award. It is nearly identical with the EFQM-model and it
    covers all the central domains of an organisation. Applications with a varying
    degree of quality demands were developed in 1998-1999 to be used in labour
    administration. The application was tested in approx. 20 organs for regional and
    local labour administration. The application will be further adapted to conform to
    the EFQM-model by the end of 1999, and it will be tried also in some Ministry
    departments in 2000.

q   In order to integrate quality issues into other operations and increase the personal
    commitment of the management, the leading officials of the Ministry will be given
    quality training and the leadership groups of the Ministry will assess the
    operations of their own departments and units by means of an assessment model
    based on the above criteria.

Outline 3: Improving the functioning of working communities and processes by
furthering internal customer relations and personal quality

q   In 2000, the Ministry of Labour teams, units, and departments will carry out self-
    evaluation on the functioning and the quality of operations of their own work
    community using the above mentioned framework of assessment based on the
    Finnish Quality Award. Self-evaluation is supported by means of general training
    for the whole personnel. In addition, internal developers are trained in the methods
    of quality work in order to give the teams an opportunity to have expert assistance
    in carrying out their self-evaluation.

q   The year 2000 will see the start of a quality project concentrating on some core
    processes in labour administration, aiming to improve the functioning of the
    Ministry of Labour and its internal customer relations. The functioning of work

    communities is supported through training focusing on both the leaders of teams
    and on the team members.

Outline 4: Improving monitoring systems and assessment so that they support
excellent performance

q   The targets for quality levels included in the objectives for the year 2000 are
    defined so that their implementation may be seen as part of the monitoring of

q   The preconditions for benchmarking are improved by means of a comprehensive
    register on all quality projects in the various parts of labour administration,
    including a description and details of contact persons of each project. This project
    register is accessible for every employee in labour administration in his/her own
    computer. The purpose is to help those who are planning quality projects find
    partners who have implemented or will implement similar projects.

q   The functioning of work communities, the experienced work load, the
    development of work motivation, and the management are assessed by an annual
    personnel questionnaire at all levels of the organisation. Employment offices have,
    in their questionnaire, included the assessment on whether the improvement of
    quality is given enough attention in each respondent’s own work community.

q   Furthermore, the management of the Ministry gives its assessment on the
    implementation and developmental needs of quality strategy twice every year on
    the basis of an evaluation review by the quality group of the Ministry.

Outline 5: Ensuring the availability and timeliness of quality training and expert

q   The Personnel Training Centre of labour administration has trained the quality
    groups of the Labour Market Departments of the Employment and Economic
    Development Centres. Thus, every region has its own experts on quality work and
    its methods. Furthermore, the Training Centre has supervised development
    projects, which resulted, for instance, in the application of the criteria of the
    quality award in labour administration. The experts of the Training Centre have
    also been involved as development consultants in quality improvement projects at
    various levels of the organisation.

q   An overall plan on quality training will be completed during the autumn of 1999,
    and it will define the responsibility of the various levels of organisation on quality
    training and the support of quality development. Training plans will be
    constructed so that they pay attention to the various needs of different groups (new
    employees, experts, management, etc.). The availability of training will be
    arranged so that it supports the needs of those in various stages of the
    development of quality.

Outline 6: Creating an incentive system to motivate working communities to improve

q   During the autumn of 1999, a system of quality bonus has been drafted. Its
    purpose is to encourage work communities to assess and improve their operations.
    The assessment is first carried out as self-evaluation by work communities.
    Assessments are given points in the various areas of operation, and the total
    amount of points will range from zero to 500. If the work communities regard
    their quality level to be above 250 points, they may forward a motion to gain the
    quality bonus. Then an outside, independent assessment group will evaluate the
    work community using the same criteria as in self-evaluation. The amount of the
    quality bonus is, depending on the level reached, 1-3 (maybe even 5) per cent of
    the person’s annual salary. This system will be introduced in the Ministry in the
    beginning of the year 2000.

2. A brief catalogue of the specific activities or projects to raise quality

The most important projects aiming at the development of quality include

q   A description of employment services and employment policy measures and a
    definition of quality criteria related to them, in order to set targets for quality
    levels. The project will be implemented in 1999-2000. Employment Offices will
    set targets for their quality levels during the year 2000 on the basis of these

q   Assessment and development of overall quality. The project started in the summer
    of 1999 and its purpose is to develop self-evaluation related to the various
    domains of labour administration to conform to the EFQM model. Self-evaluation
    will be carried out primarily in the Ministry but, in the test period, it will include
    also some units in local and regional administration. Descriptions and evaluations
    according to the EFQM model create the preconditions for benchmarking between
    labour administration in the various EU states.

q   Analysis and development of core processes in view of the operation of the entire
    labour administration, in order to develop the functioning and internal customer
    relations in the Ministry. The project is being planned and it will probably be
    introduced in the beginning of the year 2000.

q   Introduction of self-evaluation in the Ministry as part of a quality bonus system. In
    addition to teams, also the management groups of departments and units will carry
    out self-evaluation on their functioning. Thus, their example will support the

q   The conference “Towards Quality Networking of European Public Employment
    Services” in Lahti, Finland on 22-23 November, 1999 will give an opportunity to
    get an overall picture on quality work in labour administration in the EU states, to
    exchange experiences, present promising practices, and build up quality co-
    operation between labour administration in various countries.

Furthermore, the Ministry has initiated projects that touch upon the subject of quality
work. One such example is the Service-Control project which aims at clarifying
customers’ rights and obligations as well as rules in service processes.

3. How do you organise the specific domain of QM activities?

Quality responsibilities have been organised as follows:

The quality group of the Ministry acts as an expert body, and its duties include the
implementation of quality strategy and the promotion of quality work in labour
administration. The group includes e.g. project managers of the most important
quality projects. The management groups of the various departments discuss matters
that have been prepared by the quality group but need to have the approval of the
management, and the management groups are chaired by the Permanent Secretary and
the Director-General. The most important issues may be discussed in a cabinet chaired
by the Minister.

Quality work is organised along the same guidelines regionally and in the largest
employment offices. The Personnel Training Centre has taken the main responsibility
for quality training. The division of responsibilities for training and development will
be specified in a quality training plan that will be completed in the autumn of 1999.

Forms of interaction between the various levels of organisation include e.g. training,
common projects and development plans, as well as negotiations focusing on quality

4. Gains of Quality Management?

Holistic quality reward systems (like the Finnish Quality Award or EFQM) have been
found very useful because they focus on the operation of the organisation as a whole
as well as on its central domains. This examination helps identify the areas which
clearly need to be developed but have not gained enough attention.

The targets for quality levels concerning the contents of job-seeking plans promote
the ultimate purpose of the plan. It is not enough to draw up a plan for the customer,
to be entered in the records. It must adhere to a certain quality level in order to further
the customer’s employment.

Customer feedback questionnaires sent to central customer groups have helped
identify developmental trends (like an increase in the discontent of employers), and it
has become possible to react and direct resources to the problem area in question.

Specific quality projects have shown practical benefits both for customers and
officials. To take an example: in dealing with unemployment allowances, it has
become possible to achieve quicker processing times, drop in quality costs caused by
correcting errors, more satisfied customers and officials.

5. How to improve Quality Management?

Especially in the beginning, it was necessary to emphasise the importance of the
improvement of quality. In the future, quality management should become an integral
part of normal management with the objective of continious improving the
functioning and good practices of an organisation.

At the level of the work community, the most decisive factor is the commitment of the
management to quality and their own example in the development of quality. It is
important that the management will contribute to quality work and not delegate it to
the personnel only.

The objectives and evaluation of quality work need to be developed for its long-term
credibility so that it becomes possible to evaluate the positive effects of projects on
the effectiveness of the overall operation. Now it often seems to be so that a quality
project is felt to be important but there is no actual evidence of its causal relation to
the results or its benefits for the customer or for the work community.

One of the developmental needs on the level of work communities is to consolidate
the principle of constant improvement and better practices so that new practices are
used also after the end of a project and that they, too, undergo assessment and further
development after a certain period of time.

One challenge of quality management is to lower the threshold so that the personnel
does not regard quality development as an extra issue separate from one’s ordinary
work but, instead, as its integral part.

6. Issues for international exchange to improve QM?

The focus, strength, and developmental needs of the development of quality and
quality management vary in the different domains of operation in different countries.
This gives an excellent opportunity to learn from the experiences of other countries –
particularly when comparing organisations in the same field. This should also be
exploited by the labour administration in the various countries.

From the Finnish perspective, it would be particularly interesting to compare
applications and experiences of the EFQM model in various countries as well as
descriptions, evaluations, and development measures in the various domains, based on
the EFQM. In addition, it would be useful to exchange experiences on the definition
of quality criteria and targets for quality levels, including services produced by
outside organisations, as well as on development projects related to the internal
functioning and core processes of an organisation.

Mr. Pekka HAKALA
Ministry of Labour
P.O.Box 524
FIN 00101 Helsinki


A) Self assessment on special QM issues or on all policy targets?

•   Now QM is focused on all the policy targets. The AMS has been using the
    EFQM-Model in all offices in all business areas since July 1999.

•   In two of the nine federal states the AMS has been working with ISO 9000 for
    some years in all business areas.

•   Some elements of QM (ISO) are introduced in the work of the head office and
    also in some offices on federal or regional level.

B) Diversity of regional/local settings or homogeneous criteria by the head office?

•   There are 10 business targets for all AMS-offices.
    9 of these targets are monitored on national level. 8 of these business targets are
    the same for all offices in Austria and based on the main policy targets set by the
    government. Additionally each federal state has one common business target for
    all offices in this state.
    And each regional office in Austria has ist one own business target.

•   Additionally, there is an annual nationalwide survey on customer satisfaction,
    with results valid at office level.

•   A central monitoring system on the level of each office is in preparation (e.g.:
    customer satisfaction assess in a short interval).

•   Furthermore, there is a lot of data in every business area (process data). Each
    department in the head office has its one data (data about the processes and results
    or all offices is obtainable in the central EDP system). Some data is only
    obtainable at office level.

•   In some federal states (especially in those with ISO) a complete described internal
    control system has been introduced. In the headoffice a discussion about the
    introduction of a described complete internal control system is ongoing.

C) Actual procedures of organising the self-assessment?

•   From the middle of October until spring next year, there will be self-assessments
    in accordance with the EFQM-model in all offices in the AMS. These self-
    assessments will be led by a staff of trained internal assessors. In the first round
    there will be no rating of the offices. The results of each self assessment remains
    in the office. A list of ten prioritised strengths and ten prioritised points for
    improvement of each office is put into a central data base (Intranet).
    A rating will be carried out, based on the next self assessments 1 ½ years later.

D) Practical experience obtained?

•   Two federal states using ISO as a management system have also practical
    experience with the EFQM-model.

E) What special quality standards are developed?

•   There is a service catalogue, which describes in general the basic service offered
    to the customer group of jobseeker and employer. For some of these services
    quality standard are defined.

•   Additionally in some federal states further quality standards are defined (e.g.: no
    waiting time for the customer if a time for the meeting was fixed, a first matching
    within 48 hour for all new vacancies).

F) How is their achievement promoted and monitored?

•   (New) Standards (e.g. the introduction of the service catalogue) are introduced
    after internal discussion, with a written rule, and an information campaign to the
    staff members. There is a time defined, in which a regular check of these
    standards have to take place.

•   The control system in the whole AMS is mainly focused on quantity data out of
    the EDP-System.

•   Monitoring the results is the task of the office at federal level. In the federal states
    with ISO, the quality standards are systematically supervised by an internal
    control system. In some other federal states there are discussions about a
    systematic monitoring system.

•   The main focus of monitoring the quality standards is the annual customer survey.

G) How do these standards relate to the main policy targets?

•   There are no special quality standards for the main policy targets. There is also no
    systematic monitoring of quality standards referring to the main policy targets.
    These targets are mainly quantitative targets ordered on behalf of the government.
    The same quality standards are valide for this task as for all other business.

Arbeitsmarktservice Oberösterreich
Europaplatz 9
A 4021 Linz

1. The objectives of quality management

Quality management is not an isolated and independent activity.
It is an integrated part of the general policy of the organization and is therefore
following (and supporting) the changes in that policy.
On the other hand it must be emphasized that there is a stabilizing element in quality
management itself. The focus and scope, how fundamentally and extensive the
changes may be, remain -in general terms- the same : a better working organisation
and providing of services, leading to more satisfied customers.

Recent past
As well in the recent past as in the contemporary and future situation the objectives
of quality management are closely linked to the general objectives of more efficiency
and effectiveness. This is leading to other accents in the quality mangement rather
than fundamental changes.

In the recent past the Businessplans 1995 and 2002 were mainly oriented to reinforce
the market position of Arbeidsvoorziening by increasing the turnover of fulfilled
vacancies and mediation of unemployed jobseekers. In the Businessplan 2002,
referring the period 1998 - 2002, is proposed to set up separated businessunits for the
different product-market-combinations. There is one co-ordinating and indivisible
organization with still a relatively strong authonomy of the 18 regions.
The quality management was concentrated on :

• diagnosing and improvement of the internal organization of the 18 regional and 2
  national offices with the EFQM model
• measurement and improving the rate of customersatisfaction
• consolidation of reached levels of quality by certification (ISO)

There was a strong emphasis on supporting the 18 regions in their efforts to improve
the quality of their organization and services.
General objective for the quality management is reaching the level of a system-
oriented organization (phase 3 in the Dutch version of the EFQM model)

In the Businessplan 2001 Arbeidsvoorziening Nederland developed operational goals
on a national scale.
Most of these goals are related to customer satisfaction:

• 80% of all the clients who participated in a project (training, assistance, schooling)
  will find a job within 6 months after the project
• all the employers who have offered their vacancies to the employement office
  receive within one day a note when they can expect applicants
• within one week for 70% of the vacancies applicants, who fit the vacancy, are

• 95% of employers customers are satisfied with the service of the employment
• 90% of the job seeking customers who participate in a project are satisfied with
  the given service
• 90% of the clients who don’t participate in a project have a clear notion of what
  they can expect of the employment office
• 90% of the clients who are typed as “fase 1” (they will probably find a job quickly)
  say that they had assistance of the employement office by finding a job

These goals were measured in 1997 in a 0 situation.
In 1998 and 1999 the goals have been a part of the so called “planning and control
cyclus”. The regional organisations have to make clear in their policy plans how they
want to realise the operational goals. The intention was to monitor the results.
However as a consequence of serious financial problems the budget for the research
programm had to be cut. As a result only a part of these goals could be regulary

On this moment the goals are no longer a leading motive in the management of the
Not only in due of the financial problems but mostly in due of the tremendous
forthcoming changes in the organisation. Besides, it became clear during the process,
that not all of the chosen goals were realistic or customer oriented.
So there is a great need of a new approach.

The near future
The Dutch government has decided to change the field of social security
fundamentally. As a consequence Arbeidsvoorziening Nederland will be divided into
two parts.
The so called basic public service will be a part of the Centra voor Werk en Inkomen
(centres for labour and benefits). Other participants in these centres are the local
authorities and the organizations for benefits for the unemployed.
The other part of Arbeidsvoorziening will be an independent privatised ‘Re-
adaptation Business’ that will compete with other, commercial, entreprises on a free
The 18 regions are clustered in 6 new regions.

The quality management will support the development with a projectplan for the years
unto 2001. In the implementation of this plan the national and regional quality
staffmembers are working closely together. There is an emphasis on quality
improvement on the operational level (local employment office and Centres for
Vocational Training ) as well as on the needs of the two new companies.

The projects are :

• EFQM diagnoses (and improvement) on the level of operational units
• development and controlling the qualitysystem of the Centres for Vocational
• Transparancy and controlling of working processes

• development and implementation of new forms of measurement of the rate of
  satisfaction of different customer groups on the operational level (enabling internal
• identifying and controlling of the new processes for marketing and sales

For both organisations new ‘quality indicators’ for customers are developed.
The next step, that will be taken is to develop a set of quantitative standards to the
indicators. This will be done for all our products.

2. Specific activities

The most important activities are :
• EFQM diagnoses
       • in 1997,1998 and 1999 in all regions; many projects for improvement of the
          internal organization and services provided to customers
       • in 2000 : local employment offices and Centres for Vocational Training
• controlling quality : all 18 Centres for Vocational training, about 50 employment
  offices and some specific units have gained an ISO certificate
• measurement customer satisfaction
       • quality monitor employers
       • jobseekers
       • introduction of a new method -the Customer Review Process- for
          ‘principals’ (mostly local organizations for benefits for the unemployed,
          who pay the employment office for special services)
       • internal customers
• introduction of a national complaint procedure
• introduction of a Manual for products and processes
• introduction in 1998 of the Client Service Standard, describing the customer-
  oriented attitude best befitting the professionals at Employment services. It is an
  aid helping us to adapt even more to the customer in our daily work.
• international activities

3. Organization of Quality Management

Arbeidsvoorziening has a national Quality Manager and a small Quality Team (5
Each of the present 18 regions has one general quality manager and one quality co-
ordinator. It is expected that the number of regional qualitymanagers will decrease
with the reduction of the number of regions from 18 to 6.

The national quality manager is functionally responsible for the quality staff.
The regional management has the hierarchical responsibility for their own quality
The regional quality manager is positioned in the regional staff, close to the
The national unit is now a part of the national marketing- and salesdepartment.
There are regular meetings for all quality managers.

For a better support of the development of the two new companies, in which
Arbeidsvoorziening will be divided, a joint project organization is founded. (see also

4. Gains

• customers are more satisfied than in the past

• concrete improvement projects on the regional level (mostly about the role of
  leadership, the management of processes, the internal communication, the
  customer orientation)
• quality is accepted as one of the leading principles in the organization
• professional and uniform complaint procedure
• ISO certification
• Manual for products and processes for public services and commercial services :
  more unity in dealing with clients

5. Improving the quality management

The most important objectives for the near future are:

• maintaining the concept of integral quality management in both new companies
• a better connection with the general policy
• new instruments for measurement quality and customer satisfaction on a lower
  organizational level
• benchmarking between regions
• continuous professionalization of quality management
• more satisfied customers, especially jobseekers and large accounts

6. Issues for international exchange

• quality management in a free market
• professionalization
• international benchmarking on customer satisfation and controlling quality

Arbeidsvoorziening Nederland
P.O. Box 195
NL 2700 Zoetermeer
Fax: +31.79.360.15.40
B.Schmid@ arbeidsbureau.nl


1) Quels sont les objectifs, visés dans notre dispositif qualité

  Il s’agit de « veiller à réconcilier » l’approche Quantité/Qualité en inscrivant notre
  action dans la durée grâce :

  F à l’amélioration de l’accueil et de la qualité des services proposés aux
    demandeurs d’emploi,
  F à la confiance gagnée d’un grand nombre d’entreprise.

  Dans ce contexte la qualité vise à renforcer nos objectifs généraux en terme
  d’offres recueillies et traitées et de lutter contre la sélectivité du marché.

  Pour cela, nos agences mettront progressivement en oeuvre une offre de service de
  qualité, claire, lisible et différenciée :

  Pour les entreprises :
  F un conseil et une aide au recrutement améliorés ;
  F une information riche et actualisée sur les mesures d’aides à l’emploi ;
  F l’établissement de relations personnalisées et contractuelles pour mieux suivre
    la satisfaction de leurs offres et l’issue de leurs recrutement ;
  F la mise en oeuvre d’une offre de service clarifiant et facilitant les relations.

  Pour les demandeurs d’emploi :
  F l’organisation d’un accueil actif, en allant au devant de leurs besoins, et en
    mettant à leur disposition les informations et les moyens facilitant leur
    autonomie ;
  F un entretien approfondi visant à construire une démarche active dès les premiers
    contacts ;
  F la mise à disposition de services à distance et en auto-délivrance (minitel,
    serveurs téléphoniques, bornes, ...) pour faciliter l’accès à nos services et
    accroître la disponibilité des agents pour les clients ;
  F des pratiques de relations plus contractuelles permettant d’accompagner leurs
    démarches dans le temps et d’évaluer avec eux les résultats.

  Cette offre de service est garantie par des engagements qualité connus de nos
  clients et respectés par tous nos agents qui sont largement diffusés et affichés dans
  les services locaux.

  Pour ce faire 108 points particuliers « de qualités » ont été répertoriés et font
  l’objet d’étude spécifique.

2) Bref catalogue des projets et activités organisés pour animer la qualité

3) Le management de la qualité dans l’organisation

La mise en oeuvre de l’offre de service et de la démarche qualité à l’ANPE :

n Des principes guident la mise en oeuvre

  • mettre les clients (demandeurs-entreprises) au coeur de l’organisation,
  • un projet de changement qui doit être accompagné,
  • toute la ligne management doit se mobiliser pour aider l’agence locale à
  • renforcement des fonctions d’appui par la création d’une fonction de
    consultant interne,
  • c’est le directeur d’agence locale qui est responsable de la mise en oeuvre
    dans son agence.

n Une méthode de mise en oeuvre

  . un référentiel métier (en 108 points),
  . un diagnostic au démarrage (écart par rapport à la cible),
  . restitution du diagnostic,
  . un plan d’action pour atteindre la cible en un an,
  . des outils de pilotage de la mise en oeuvre pour le directeur d’agence
    (enquêtes client - tableau de bord).

n Une procédure de qualification formelle de chaque agence, à la fin de son
  parcours(Certification ANPE)

  La qualification porte sur les services, sur les engagements qualité et sur le
  respect des règles communes de fonctionnement.

  F l’organisation des qualifications implique complètement toute la ligne
    managériale, une démarche permanente de suivi et de contrôle est mise en
    oeuvre pour maintenir
  F et améliorer la qualité des services et des résultats,
  F la démarche et les outils sont communs et partagés par tous.

n La méthode de qualification

  • La qualification d’une agence se fait sur la base de 4 « regards ».

     1. Les clients (enquêtes demandeurs et entreprises),
     2. Les agents (questionnaire d’évaluation),
     3. Les indicateurs de pilotage,
     4. Un observateur externe à l’agence locale (un manager d’une région voisine
        réalise une observation sur la base d’un guide, connu des agents).

    • Chaque agence est dotée de dossiers et outils lui permettant de préparer son
      dossier de qualification.
      Les mêmes outils servent au pilotage en continu de la qualité dans l’agence,
      avant et après la qualification.

      • Une commission de qualification présidée par le directeur régional se rend
        dans l’agence, étudie les synthèses, délibère et restitue au directeur d’agence
        les points forts, les points de progrès, les actions correctives à entreprendre.

      • La qualification est prononcée avec ou sans réserves pour une durée de trois

      • Ensuite, le niveau de service et de la qualité, fait l’objet d’un contrôle en
        continu par l’encadrement.

4) Les gains apportés à l’organisation par le management de la qualité

  1. Le client (demandeur-entreprise) est véritablement au centre de l’activité de
     chaque agence locale.
  2. Chaque collectif (staff) formalise ses procédures concrètes d’organisation locale
     pour assurer les engagements qualité.
  3. Une application réelle et forte de tout le management :
     F les directeurs régionaux président les commissions de qualification : une
        journée complète dans chaque agence avec une méthode.
     F 250 directeurs départementaux et directeurs d’agence ont été formés et
        réalisent des observations (audit) dans les agences locales.
     F le management en général a bénéficié de formation et de journées d’échanges
        de pratiques.
  4. Développement de la fonction de consultant interne dans l’organisation.

  N.B. : un écart de 10 points positifs est constaté dans les enquêtes de satifaction
       clients entre les ALE qualifiées et les autres.

5) Point d’amélioration du processus de management de la qualité à prévoir

  L’ANPE engage une démarche qualité avec les niveaux :
  F régional,
  F direction générale.

  L’enjeu est le suivant : alors, que toute les agences sont engagées dans la démarche
  qualité vis-à-vis des demandeurs et des entreprises, il convient que les autres
  niveaux de l’ANPE, pour les y aider, développent eux aussi leurs valeurs ajoutées
  dans tous les domaines internes.

  Cette démarche, sera professionnelle, outillée avec :
  F un référentiel,
  F une méthode pour mettre en oeuvre
  F une qualification.

  Par ailleurs, un dispositif de veille qualité pérenne est en cours d’élaboration.

  Mme. Marie-Danielle NOUZARETH

Rue Galilée 4
F 93198 Noisy le Grand Cedex


1.   Targets
     In the Swedish Employment Administration we have some targets that can be
     called quality targets. Two concerns customer satisfaction, with quantified
     target levels related to the annual client surveys.
     Now the client survey is becoming modernized. Next survey might not be
     comparable to the previous one.
     Another target is a sort of process target that relates to the percentage of long-
     term unemployed who has an individual action plan.
     But with the holistic approach that Sweden has had to quality management
     almost all targets might be concidered targets to raise quality, i.e government

2.   Activities/projects to raise quality
     Much effort and costs has been layed upon deloping the Internet services or
     banks. The Employment Administration has 1999 won a Internet prize called
     the Golden link, for the development of Internet services to the citizens.
     Another area of quality development has been procedures for education and
     Since two years a project works called the Service garantee project, involving
     about 30 Employment Offices.
     Earlier (1994-1995) there were a TQM approach, testing quality criterias
     through self assessment in 12 work places in different levels of the
     A couple of counties have developed process management in the Employment
     service. By now this has been adopted by more counties and there are
     seminars going on on that issue.
     A national program for better quality in the individual action plans has
     recently been adopted.

3.   Organisational model
     Quality is a management issue. But some people have been given a controllers
     roll, specially in the regional level, and sometimes report directly to the county
     director. Controllers also exist on national level. Some counties have quality

4.   Gains
     More of customer orientation, process orientation and concern about
     Helps to build concepts, processes and products that are professional.
     The latest years the government has become more concerned about quality, for
     instance quality aspects in individual action plans. A new agency with an
     advising role for quality and competence issues has been founded.

5.   Improving quality management
     Further development of Internet services has high priority in the
     administration and the administration has got special resources for it from the
     government. It leads to a rapid change of the professional roles of the staff,

      which today concern staff and managers very much. One question is if the
      Emploment service can benefit from the IT-services and raise itïs effectiveness
      with groups of jobseekers and employers who need individual support. Or if
      the Employment service can do the same job with much less resources.

6.    Contribution expected from international exchange
      Benchmarking activities are valuable. It is more difficult to point out special
      standards or critieria that should add value and would be accepted by all
      Europeen countries. One aspect is the quick development of Internet services
      and what impact this will have on the organisations. Maybe the Internet
      services should be the first area to try quality standards.

Mrs. Marianne LINDMAN
Kungstensgatan 45
S 11399 Stockholm


Quality Standards

• Scope:
  Ø     The basic service delivery to unemployed people
  Ø     The basic service delivery to employers
  Ø     The quality of the pathway-approach

• Types of standards
  Ø     Hard outcomes
  Ø     Control of the processes
  Ø     Satisfaction measurement

Basic Service to unemployed people

• All necessary records of the client are completed within 14 days after date of entry
  (Reaction time)
• The completion of the records of the client can be guaranteed by having not more
  than 2 direct contacts (Efficiency of the contacts)
• Each record of the client should contain an indication of the employability
  (Accuracy of the records)

Basic Service to employers

• The median of placement time after advertising
• Accuracy of the description of the vacancies
• The records of the client are based on a real screening

Pathways to integration

• Effectiveness of the screening
• Waiting time after enrolment
• Effectiveness of the communication between VDAB-members responsible for the
  different modules

Satisfaction measurement

à     Waiting time
à     Access
à     Responsiveness, competence and courtesy
à     Communication
à     Organisation, facilities and equipment
à     Final result

Keizerlaan 11
B 1000 Brussel

                               United Kingdom
This paper sets the scene on progress in introducing the use of the Business
Excellence Model (BEM) in ES and the adoption of recommendations for developing
its use.

In October 1997, it was agreed to adopt a corporate approach to quality management
in ES using the Business Excellence Model (BEM). Through this approach, Regions
and Head Office Divisions were to establish their own timescale ad method for
introducing the use of the Model drawing on existing experience and good practice
from within the ES and from external organisations. One of the key priorities in the
ES Operational Plan is to:
"improve the level of the quality delivered by all parts if ES within the framework of
the Business Excellence Model."

Emùployment Service Board (ESB) personal involvement
A principle of BEM is active engagement by the organisation's leadership. To
continue to show their commitment to and personal experience of the BEM, a
portfolio of related activities, (e.g. Assessor training, attendance at strategic
conferences, involvement in Business Excellence Network meetings, attending BEM
related events in the Field) can be used as the basis for discussions with individual
Directors as to how best they can honour this commitment within their own individual
time constraints.

Evidence based corporate assessment
An evidence based corporate self-assessment was supported, with most support
coming for a corporate assessment to be held in operational year 2000/01, built up
from independent assessments by Regions and Head Office Directorates.
The timescale is as follows:

• Each Region and Directorate has his operational year to prepare themselves for an
  evidence based self-assessment;
• These assessments will be held in the first half of 2000/01 operational year using
  the improved BEM;
• The strengths and areas for improvement from each self-assessment will be
  collected centrally, and emerging key themes identified and used as the basis for a
  corporate assessment to be held in the Autumn of 2000;
• Regions and Directorates will decide themselves whether they want to score their
  self-assessment, although these scores will not be required for the corporate
• The outcomes of the corporate assessment will feed into the ES Operational Plans
  for operational year 2001/02.

ES is currently investigating the methodology for this process and is talking to
consultants and other organisations. The process will need to:

• Give the Field and Directorates the flexibility they require so that their own plans
  for use of BEM are not affected;
• Ensure a minimum level of uniformity to facilitate the collections of date centrally;
• Be rigorous enough to ensure that ES can use the results to improve its business.

Approach for introducing the improved BEM
The Improved BEM reflects the continuing development of best practice in all aspects
of management, with more emphasis on knowledge management, focusing on
customers and partnerships. It also elevates the importance of innovation, creativity,
assessment and review. It was proposed that ES uses the improved BEM from April
2000, giving Regions and Directorate this operational year to plan the transition.
Some regions already have transitional training arranged and we have also organised
3 awareness events for internal customers. It is essential that all parts of the
organisation make the transition in the current operational year, as it will be a
requirement to use the improved BEM for the Regional and Directorate self-
assessments in 2000/01.

Future Corporate Milestones
Future milestones for the use of BEM within ES:

• Develop awareness and understanding during 1999/00, so that a corporate
  evidence based self-assessment can be carried out in 2000/01;
• Apply and integrate the use of the Model into "the way we do things" during
  2000/01, undertaking evidence based self-assessments in subsequent years;
• Seek external validation of corporate assessment in 2001/02.

The vision is to set a challenge to the organisation, that will develop all parts of our
organisation, so that at a point in time, all ES will be at the same level of excellence.
No milestone for ES to apply for the UK Quality Award is proposed.

     Progress within Regions on the introduction and use of the BEM as of
                                February 1999

  ES REGION/        Level       Level       Level       Level        Level       Level      Level
 DIRECTORATE        Zero        One         Two         Three        Four        Five        Six
 East Midlands &                                         X
 London & South                                            X
 Northern                                      X

 North West                                                X

 South West                                                                                  X

 West Midlands                                 X

 Yorkshire &                                   X
 OFFICE FOR                                    X
 OFFICE FOR                                                            X

Definitions of levels of achievements:-

• Level Zero -        little or no awareness or commitment to BEM
• Level One -         basic awareness of BEM; evidence of follow-up, e.g.
                      workshops, "champion" appointed and work begun on
                      developing strategy.
• Level Two -         use of BEM has begun e.g. assessor/facilitator training, work
                      underway on developing strategy, some locations using some
                      BEM criteria or BEM used to address particular issues.
• Level Three -       systematic, soundly based approach; BEM widely understood,
                      all locations using some criteria.
• Level Four -        all criteria used in all locations as part of operational planning;
                      timescale set out for in house self assessment.
• Level Five -        external validation sought, e.g. award submission.
• Level Six -         feedback document used as part of continuous improvement

N.B. For simplicity, each level has been kept broad and thus encompasses a range of
achievement within the given definitions.

Employment Service
Caxton House, Tothill Street
London SW 1H 9NA



Die Bundesanstalt für Arbeit beginnt zur Zeit mit konkreten Überlegungen zum
Aufbau eines Qualitätsmanagements. Dabei kann auf einzelnen Projekten und
Konzepten aufgebaut werden, die bereits bestehen. Aufgrund dieser Ausgangslage
können nicht zu allen Punkten Angaben gemacht werden.

Mit den Maßnahmen zur Qualitätssteigerung sollen in der Bundesanstalt für Arbeit
die folgenden vier grundlegenden Organisationsziele der BA, die im Rahmen des
Reformprojektes Arbeitsamt 2000 erarbeitet wurden, erreicht werden:
• Dienstleistungen stärker am Kunden orientieren
• Dienstleistungen wirksamer erbringen
• Dienstleistungen wirtschaftlicher erbringen
• Zufriedenheit und Arbeitserfolg der Mitarbeiter fördern.

Bisher wurden folgende konkrete Aktivitäten/Projekte zur Qualitätssteigerung
• Erarbeitung eines Dienstleistungkataloges der BA, in dem Qualitätsstandards im
   Sinne von bundesweiten Mindeststandards bezogen auf die Ergebnisqualität der
   Dienstleistungen definiert wurden
• Konzeption und Erprobung von Kunden- und Mitarbeiterbefragungen zur Analyse
   des Ist-Zustandes der Qualität unserer Dienstleistungen
• Konzeption von Qualitätszirkelarbeit zur dezentralen Behebung erkannter

Bisher gibt es keine speziellen Organisationseinheiten, deren Aufgabe das
Qualitätsmanagement ist. Die bisher erarbeiteten Projekte und Konzepte wurden in
vier Projektarbeitsämtern unter der Leitung der Hauptstelle der BA entwickelt und

Da die BA noch ganz am Angang des Aufbaus eines Qualitätsmanagements steht,
können derzeit noch keine Ergebnisse des Qualitätsmanagements quantifiziert werden
und folglich auch noch keine Maßnahmen zur Optimierung des
Qualitätsmanagements hinsichtlich Effektivität und Effizienz genannt werden.

Das Interesse der BA besteht zur Zeit darin, von den Erfahrungen anderer
Arbeitsverwaltungen hinsichtlich der Konzeption und der Einführung von
Qualitätsmanagement zu lernen.

Bundesanstalt für Arbeit
Regensburgerstraße 104
D 90478 Nürnberg
Fax: +49.911.179.2132


Globalisation of labour markets and modification in labour relations over the course
of the current decade, had led OAED to the conclusion that there is a need for radical
reforms and restructuring. Recognising the fact that this phenomenon is neither
temporary, nor accidental, OAED has tried to promote solutions which are relying on
two basic axes:

• On strengthening the employment through effective and innovative employment
  strategies always adapted to the new challenges, and
• On ameliorating and monitoring the effectiveness of out PES through
  modernisation and updating of the infrastructure, in terms of materiel and

The high percentage of unemployment, as well as the threat of long time
unemployment and social exclusion, has led OAED to undertake additional innovative
interventions in the form of: a) new PES and b) Active Labour Market Policies

• "Centres for Promotion of Employment (CPE)"; four offices are operational and
  plans exist for 52 totally. They offer vocational guidance, psychological support,
  vocational consultation, job brokering, computerised search for job position
  facilities, instruction classes for jobseekers on how to fill-out CVs and more.
• The founding of the National Employment Observatory (in 1994) as an agile
  institute, suitable to plan and operate pilot employment programs carry-out
  statistical research, forecasting and produce labour-market related studies.
• Labour market training, youth measures, subsidised employment, measures for the

Competitiveness of labour markets, introduction of new client service standards,
legislation, need for conformity on a European level, demand for cost-effectiveness
are just a few of the reasons that impose the use of Quality Management tools in PES.
No matter if some PES implement this type of strategy or not, this will be the case for
every employment service in the long term.

It is important to identify, analyse, understand the process that takes place within our
P.E.S. (mostly job-finding) and -more important- to consider the individual inputs
and outputs. These three areas (input - process - output) offer the opportunity to
perform measurements, and evaluate the performance.

As inputs we have:

• Clients, bearing status (age, gender, occupation…), history (previous positions)
  and needs
• Labour market status (job offers and demand information)
• Related legislation
• Employers, bearing offers and expectations.

The output should be client satisfaction, usually through job acquisition, but there are
other possibilities too:

•   Job acquisition (salary, occupation, terms)
•   Acquisition of a subsidised job position (for a period)
•   Route to training
•   Subsidisation alone
•   Lay-off (reason)

The process itself, involves:

•   Action: communication - exchange of information
•   Personnel
•   Resources (subsidies, costs)
•   Education.

The following issues demand our consideration:

1. Establishment of a system to evaluate the effectiveness of the previously
   mentioned services (actions) and policies (measures). This can be done by
   calculating suitably formulated indicators, to give the magnitude of success (or
   failure) in a quantitative and comparable way; a score. The EC (EUROSTAT,
   July 1998) is suggesting a set of nine employment indicators called "Basic
   Performance Indicators" to present the current status and trend of employment on
   a national level. The same principle applied on a local level can provide
   information on strategy and PES performance.

2. Assessment of the effectiveness of each employment office is presently done by
   recording basic values such as customer entry and exit dates, ages, gender,
   profession, right to subsidy, reason of exit. Statistical analysis of the collected data
   will reveal possible PES deficiencies.

3. It is however desirable, in order to have 'reference' scores to agree on a European
   level upon a common PES evaluation scheme, i.e. to agree on a set of indicators
   to evaluate the effect, of the discussed services and measures in order to set goals,
   make decisions, and eventually adjust and improve the processes.

4. Operational (not just organisational) structure must be introduced according to the
   principles of Quality Management, that needs it to be adaptive and respond to the
   need of the customer. This way, tracing the causes and making adjustment is
   facilitated. It s necessary to maintain the cause-effect relationship and to be able to
   trace it all the way down to the customer (jobseeker, or employer).

The definition of PES effect indicators, and application of effective remedial
strategies through management, require collaboration between nations and exchange
of experiences, to choose, and bring into effect only the best practices policies.
Moreover, it will bring some streamlining over the European nations and a common
ground to compare, learn and improve.


8 Ethnikis Antistasis –Alimos
EL 16610 Athens
Fax: +30.1.988.92.99



The FAS Placement Service operates with in a ten region structure. Each region also
provides a Training Service, Community Service and a Service to Business; Each of
these services reports to a Regional Director.

The Placement Services in the various regions commenced involvement in QM in
1993 and currently half of the regions have certified quality systems installed and
operating. The Placement Services within each region operates a stand-alone quality
system which allows for some variation in regard to standards and processes. Each
region participating in QM is subjected to an annual external audit operated by
Excellence Ireland, an independent organisation which promotes QM in the public
and private employment sectors.

Aspect No 1


The primary objective is to operate QM as part of the ongoing management of the
service; the principles of QM are integrated into the routine management and work
systems. Responsibility for quality of service rests equally with all staff members
while the manager acts as a Quality Manager and Chair of the Quality Group.

Further Objectives within QM are as follows:

(a) Provide a consistent service within defined standards to various sets of customers
(b) All services are provided in the context of Good Customer Service
(c) Via various feedback mechanisms such as external audits, internal audits,
    customer suggestions, staff suggestions, customer complaints, customer panels
    etc. efforts are made to constantly improve the level of services to customers.

These three objectives have the effect over time of servicing the dual requirements of
efficiency and effectiveness by maximising the use of resources through continual
review and continually improving customer services/satisfaction through action based
on feedback received.

Aspect No. 2

Specific Activities/Projects

(a) Quality Audit
    Annual audit conducted by external certifying body to check compliance with
    work procedures/standards, assess improvements in service and check actions
    taken on foot of feedback receive;
(b) Internal Audits
    Trained auditors carry out (on a part-time basis) an ongoing series of audits of
    various quality procedures in each location of operation.
(c) Quality Group
    Small but representative group of staff meet four times per year to review and
    manage quality system.
(d) Quality subgroups
    Small groups of staff quarterly to review and manage specific aspects of QM-i.e.
    Core Activities, Audits and Feedback.
(e) Staff Training
    Annual Staff Training programmes for all staff on Customer Service and Quality
    System separately.
(f) Communications
    An ongoing strong emphasis on good communications with all staff including
    staff meetings, group meetings, meetings with key service providers (internal and
    external) E-mail, etc.

Aspects No. 3

Practical Organisation of QM
Generally the Placement Services within each region is responsible for the
establishment and maintenance of its own quality system with necessary support from
the Regional Director. The system is managed by a Quality Group, which is
representative of varying locations, grades, trade unions, etc. and is chaired by the
manager of the service. All staff are responsible for adherence to service standards.
No specialist quality staff are employed and there is no quality department. In this
way the sense of ownership is maximised across all staff and the QM aspects became
part of the normal work practices.

As the number of regions involved in QM increases, processes are put in place to
develop consistent levels of service while maintaining a 'Bottom up' approach.

Aspect No. 4
There are internal and external gains for the service through the introduction of the
QM process.

The most obvious internal gains for the staff are;
      Simplified and defined work processes.
      Desire to improve results of annual audits
      Improved morale
      Increased control of processes

         Reduction in mistakes, backlogs and blockages.

Some external gains for the various customers are:
      More efficient services/reduced response times
      Reduced number of errors
      Increased volume of service demands
      Measurable improvement in satisfaction levels over time
      Improved confidence in service on part of jobs seekers and staff seekers.

Aspect No. 5

Improving the Process

Like any business philosophy or management technique QM has to be constantly
renewed and upgraded in order to retain enthusiasm and seek improvements in
service. In the case of longer standing quality systems with the FAS Placement
Service the following progression route has been followed:

Step 1          (1993) Install ISO based quality system (Q mark) with main focus on
                compliance with procedures/standards and development of feedback

Step 2          (1996) In conjunction with above seek and obtain Excellence
                Through People quality standard for staff training and communications

Step 3          (1998) Develop 1 above by moving to an EFQM based process of QM
                (the New Q mark).

Aspect No 6

International Exchange

There is some evidence to indicate that while all PESS have basically the same brief
different models exist within the E.U. both in regard to systems and in regard to use
and development of I.T. Local experience has shown that the introduction of SM on
an integrated basis has tended to bring about standard approaches to particular
activities, which have gravitated towards best practice with ensuing increased levels
of customer satisfaction.

There is also some evidence that the public perception of PES is or as good as it could
be in many countries. If it is assumed that QM is not a passing management fashion
then it is reasonable to believe that QM could be part of a Europe wide effort to
improve the various perceptions of PES.

In the above perspectives the formation of an international exchange which would
have the dual objectives of standardising practices and transferring best
practice/improvement in service is to be recommended.

Mr; Terry McCARTHY
FAS – Training and Employment Authority
Government Buildings, Sullivans Quay, Cork


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