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					      The Middle Ages: An
           Overview
 History 476-1300 A.D.
   Period  that follows fall of Rome and closes
    with Renaissance.
   “Dark Ages” means there was a lack of
    cultural development.
   Associated with chaotic development,
    confusion, barbaric wars.
Why do you think Christianity
over came Greek religion?
Early Philosophy- St. Augustine
(354-430 A.D.)
 Doctrine of Original Sin ( born in sin)
 Only Christ‟s grace can redeem you.
 The best teacher and guide is the Bible.
 Live as a Christian; your reward lies in
  heaven– not on earth
History Makers of Middle Ages
 Constantine
      Converted the empire to Christianity-303 A.D.
      Took the empire east, Constantinople
      Church became a civil bureaucracy
Pope Gelasisus
 Established the Catholic Church as
 ruling power over kings
Pope Gregory I, The Great (590-
604 A.D.)
 Rome becomes church center
 Church reestablishes wealth ( taxes)
 Churches, schools, and hospitals are
 established
Charlemagne (768-814 A.D.)
  Reunited much of Spain, Germany, and France- unified
  government
 Lessens horror of feudalism
 Supported education, church reform, the arts
 United the church and government, crowned by pope in 800
  A.D.
Pope Leo IX (1049-1054)
 Reorganized church with cardinals
 Gave church wide sweeping political
  powers
 Paves way for Crusades
          Ways of Living
 Feudalism
   The  nobles or rich controlled their
    individual territory
   Common people worked as serfs on the
    land
   Leadership was often despotic
                 Church
 Church practices became associated with a
  “money value”
 Many local priests were undereducated, often
  crooks
 Problems included: unlimited simony or
  selling of church offices; benefices or
  appointing of friends to church positions;
 Dispensations or pardons ( forgiveness) for
  sins could be purchased.
               Chivalry
 Developed as the nobles moral code of
  manners in war, love, life.
 Allowed Christians to stop “turning the
  cheek” and start killing the enemy in the
  name of Christ.
              Crusades
 Gave meaning to life for many,
  especially the wealthy noble.
 Three waves led Europeans to fight
  Muslims in southern Europe and Middle
  East to reclaim Holy Lands for
  Christianity
What is Love?
Create your own definition of
“love.”
        What is Love? History
           Do NOT copy
 Background on “love”
   Classical   Greece:
     Classical Greece used at least 16 different
      terms to designate “love.”
    1.Physical love was “Eros”
    2. “Agape” was altruistic love
    3. “Philia” stood for tender or erotic feelings
    4. “Platonic” stood for love of friend
       History of love continued
             Do NOT copy
 Middle Ages Europe:
   Western Culture of the Middle Ages developed the
    notion of Romantic love that we use today.
   Romantic love based on “courtly love” is selfless
    love that is linked to erotic feelings and an
    altruistic belief that the loved one is “the match” for
    you in this world.
   Romantic love “mixes” ( perhaps confuses) Greek
    Notions of love
     History of love continued
           Do NOT copy
 According to Denis de Rougemont:
   “Romanticlove is the single greatest
   energy system in the Western psyche.”

   React   to his statement. (Discussion only)
                   Courtly Love
 A new form of manners developed with noble men at Crusades
 A more feminine code of manners came into being based on
  courtly love.
 Love developed “romantic” connotations symbolized by “hearts.”
 Romantic love was love for love‟s sake.
 Note: it was not physical love, it was associated with
  property.Keep in mind that marriage was „assigned” and based
  on wealth.
Examples of Courtly Love
 Chanson de Chatelaine
 King Arthur
 Tristan and Iseult
Tristan and Iseult (copy 2
things down)
 This story is the basis for our notions of
  romantic love.
 Worlds first great love stories retold in
  many versions.
 It derives from Celtic tales.
          Tristan and Iseult
 It begins with the young knight Tristan being
  assigned by his uncle, King Mark of Cornwall,
  to fetch his bride form Ireland.
 Reluctantly Tristan goes to pick up the
  beautiful Insult
 She is nervous about this assigned marriage
  and her mother secretly mixes up a love
  potion for her and packs it in her bags telling
  her to drink it for the wedding celebration.
            Tristan and Iseult
 On the ship back, both Iseult and Tristan
    become ill form “la mer” or “l‟amour.”
   To calm them, Iseult fetches wine from her
    bags.
    They drink and fall hopelessly, deliriously in
    love.
   Iseult marries King Mark
   From this point forth the story varies by
    author. ( Mallory, Tennyson, E.A.Robinson,
    and Updike)
Chatelaine De Coucy ( copy 2
things from the story)
 The Chatelaine of Castle Renult fell in
  love with the Dame de Fayell
 The Chatelaine writes 8,266 lines of
  love verse to his love.
 He is sent by the jealous husband of the
  Dame de Fayell to the crusades where
  he ( the chatelaine and poet) is killed by
  a poison arrow.
       Chatelaine De Coucy
 Before the Chatelaine dies, he writes a final
  song of love and sends it with his embalmed
  heart to his lady.
 The husband intercepts the heart and has it
  served to his wife for dinner.
 After realizing what she has eaten, the Dame
  de Fayell swears she will never eat again as
  she can eat no finer food. She dies.
 The husband exiles himself to the Crusades
  to fight until death.
    Lancelot and Guinevere
 For background on Lancelot and
 Guinevere see The Once and Future
 King.
Why do people get married in
today‟s society?
Respond in a paragraph.
“Why We Do What We Do”
 Read the article entitled: “ Why We Do
 What We Do”
   List 3 things you found interesting from the
    article down in your journal. Be ready to
    discuss the article in 10 minutes.
Are people rude in today‟s
society? What is the rudest
thing people do?

Respond in a paragraph.
“Rude behavior annoyingly
common”
 Read the article.
 Answer the questions on the back of the
 article. Be ready to discuss in 10-15
 minutes.
              Education
 For wealthy males, at seven
 Children go unnoticed in art and
  literature
 50% of children did not reach
  adulthood.
 Females often learned at home when
  housework was done.
             The Black Death
 Sanitation was terrible ( dead were stacked in the
    streets.)
   Every five to ten years a bubonic plague would strike.
   Plague infected blood stream and caused internal
    bleeding or hit as a virulent pneumonic type, effecting
    lungs.
   Rats and fleas were the unknown carriers
   1/3 to ½ of population could be wiped out
          The Universities
 By the 1000‟s public universities
 (Oxford) were on the rise education
 moved beyond church monasteries
            A New Philosophy
 Abelard (1079-1142) was a moderate
 scientist
   Argued for the right to criticize theology
   Was tolerant of other religions




   St.Thomas Aquinas( 1227-74) brought
   Aristotle back into vogue
        His writings will ignite a scientific revolution
             A New Literature

 Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) wrote the first literature
  using common language for common man, The
  Divine Comedy a visit to Hell with a happy ending)
 Chaucer, first great English writer, wrote The
  Canterbury Tales ( a religious pilgrimage or journey
  form stupidity to wisdom)
Out of the Middle Ages Comes:
 New laws, especially for sanitation and fair
    government
   Unified governments to protect common
    people
   A rising middle class, the beginning of
    capitalism
   Incredible architectural feats seen in gothic
    cathedrals
   The First coded, preserved music

				
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