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					  CHILD POVERTY

IMPACT ASSESSMENT
1. Contents of these Guidelines

The Child Poverty Impact Assessment has been developed from the Office for
Social Inclusion, Ireland “Poverty Impact Assessment” guidelines as a part of the
work of Save The Children’s Local Authority Child Poverty Project. At a national
level there is a need for integration of impact assessments, the Child Poverty
Impact Assessment was developed to assist Councils to explore specific child
poverty issues and determine for themselves whether this impact assessment is
valid for use within their organisational processes.

These guidelines are intended to be a practical tool to assist policy makers to
carry out Child Poverty impact assessment. Section 2, the main section of the
Guidelines, defines the Child Poverty impact assessment and describes when,
why and how it should be performed.

In order to carry out Child Poverty Impact Assessment effectively policy makers
should have an understanding of what is meant by Child Poverty and the
associated terminology, as well as Child Poverty measurement. It is also
important to have an understanding of the current position with regard to Child
Poverty in Wales and the UK. This information is contained in other sections of
the online Child Poverty Toolkit which includes definitions of Child Poverty and
related terms, and issues associated with Child Poverty measurement, data and
indicators.

“A Fair Future for Our Children” The Strategy of the Welsh Assembly Government
for Tackling Child Poverty” classifies child poverty into three areas:

INCOME POVERTY

Low income denies children opportunities, and both children and adults agree
that better sustainable job opportunities are the main route out of the poverty.

PARTICIPATION POVERTY

Children from poor families often feel left out of activities others enjoy. This can be
even more acute for disabled and ethnic minority children. We are working to ensure
that all children can participate fully in play, leisure, sporting and cultural activities as
well as the full range of learning opportunities. Our plans are set out in the paper:
“Children and Young People; Rights to Action.”

SERVICE POVERTY

Developing joined up public services that are tailored and integrated to meet
the needs of children and young people through strong partnership
arrangements.

It is important that when conducting the Child Poverty Self Assessment the three
areas of child poverty are considered.
2. What is Child Poverty Impact Assessment?
Child Poverty Impact Assessment can be defined as:

The process by which government departments, local authorities and the public
assess policies and programmes at design, implementation and review stages in
relation to the likely impact that they will have or have had on Child Poverty and
on inequalities which are likely to lead to Child Poverty, with a view to reduce
Child Poverty.

The primary aim of the process is to identify the impact of the policy proposal on
those experiencing Child Poverty or at risk of falling into Child Poverty so that this
can be given proper consideration in designing or reviewing a policy or
programme. It is not intended that all policies be fundamentally transformed so
that they are explicitly targeted at the disadvantaged, but rather that any possible
negative impacts be identified and measures put in place to ameliorate them.
Likewise it is important that positive impacts are identified so that they can be
enhanced if possible.

The potential effects of some policy proposals may be ambiguous in the sense
that the policy may have a positive effect on some groups and a negative (or no)
effect on others. In such cases, all potential effects should be highlighted. When
considering the effects on particular groups these should be considered in the
context of the research evidence that identifies the following groups regarded as
being most at risk of Child Poverty include lone parent families and families with
large numbers of children; Travellers; migrants and members of ethnic minorities;
families containing an adult with a disability, the homeless; the unemployed;
persons living in areas of urban or rural disadvantage etc. However, this list is not
exhaustive and there may be other groups who, depending on the policy being
assessed and the local issues could be particularly at risk.

In carrying out Child Poverty impact assessment it is important to recognise that,
while income adequacy is a key aspect of Child Poverty, it is not the sole concern
in the development of policies to alleviate Child Poverty. For example,
unemployment, education, health and housing policies are also key
considerations.

While the secondary effects of some proposals (particularly those which are not
directly aimed at alleviating disadvantage) may not be immediately apparent, they
may still have an impact on those at risk of Child Poverty. It is important for that
reason that decisions made in relation to the steps listed in section 2.2 below are
supported by appropriate data and indicators.

2.1 When is Child Poverty impact assessment carried out?

A Child Poverty impact assessment, based on the template set out in section 2.2
below, could be conducted where new policies or practices are developed, where
changes to existing policies, programmes or practices are proposes, when
conducting expenditure reviews and programme evaluations, where there are
proposals to withdraw services, policies and programmes and business planning
. Child Poverty impact assessment should not be considered as something to be
performed after a decision has been made but rather as an inherent part of the
policy development process.
 SUMMARY OF STAGES IN THE CHILD POVERTY IMPACT
                ASSESSMENT

Child Poverty Impact Assessment: Screening Stage
Is the policy, programme or proposal significant in terms of:

         Overall national policy;
         Overall agency policy;
         The level of expenditure involved;
         The change it will bring about in an existing policy or procedure;
         Its relevance to groups regarded as being most at risk of Child Poverty
          and social exclusion.




Full Child Poverty Impact Assessment
Step 1 – Consultation
Step 2 – Define policy aims and target groups
Step 3 – Identify available data and research
Step 4 – Assess impacts and consider alternatives
Step 5 – Make decision and arrange monitoring
2.2 How to carry out a Child Poverty Impact Assessment

Stage 1 of the process is the screening stage, during which the screening tool
explained below should be used to determine whether it is necessary for the
policy or programme to be subjected to a full Child Poverty impact assessment.
The screening tool asks whether the programme or policy is significant (or likely
to be significant) in terms of overall national or departmental policy; the level of
expenditure involved; the change it will bring about in existing policies or
procedures and its relevance to those groups identified as being most vulnerable.

Where it is found that the programme or policy is likely to be significant in any of
these areas the policy maker should proceed to Stage 2 which is the full Child
Poverty impact assessment.

Stage 2 is the full Child Poverty impact assessment which consists of the
following five steps:

   1. Formal consultation;

   2. Definition of policy aims and target groups;

   3. Identification of available data and research;

   4. Assessment of impacts and consideration of alternatives;

   5. Decision making and arrangement of monitoring;

It should be noted that, although listed separately above, there may be some
overlap between these steps.

In answering the questions set out in the following pages, policy makers should
include the basis of the assessment, for example, administrative data sources,
performance information, working group or task force reports etc. The indicators
which will be used to measure progress of the proposed policy should also be
specified.

When considering impacts, particular attention should also be paid to other
inequalities which compound Child Poverty. These could arise in the context of
gender; marital status; family status; age; disability; race; sexual orientation;
religious belief; or membership of the Traveller community.

The steps to be followed in carrying out Child Poverty impact assessment are set
out in detail in the following pages. In answering the questions set out in these
steps policy makers should refer to the information in Section 3 on Child Poverty
Issues.
        STAGE 2 Full Child Poverty Impact Assessment – Summary

Step 1: Consultation
To ensure the process is transparent and that Child Poverty impact assessment
is integrated into the policy making process it should be incorporated into the
consultation process. Stakeholders may include staff in other departments or
agencies, non-governmental organisations or individuals who may be directly
affected by the policy or programme.

Step 2: Define Policy Aims and Target Groups
2.1 What is the primary objective of this policy / programme / expenditure
proposal?
2.2 Who is the proposal aimed at and how will the proposal affect those persons
or groups?
2.3 What are the differences within the target group/between the target groups
which might lead to them benefiting from the policy/programme in different ways
and how could these be addressed?

Step 3: Identify Available Data and Research
Consider what data is available within own organisation, other departments or
agencies or from alternative sources. Identify data or indicators against which
progress can be measured.

Step 4: Assess Impacts and Consider Alternatives

4.1 What type of impact on Child Poverty (either in terms of numbers in Child
Poverty or level of Child Poverty) would the proposal have, in particular for the
vulnerable groups identified?)

4.2 If the proposal would have no effect on Child Poverty what options might be
identified to produce a positive effect?

4.3 If the proposal would have a positive effect would it help to prevent people
falling into Child Poverty, reduce the level (in terms of numbers and depth) of
Child Poverty or ameliorate the effects of Child Poverty? (Specify). Explain how
these positive effects are achieved and consider whether the position could be
improved upon.

4.4 If the proposal would have a negative effect (i.e. it would increase either the
numbers in Child Poverty or the level of Child Poverty experienced) what options
could be considered to ameliorate this effect?

4.5 Would the proposal contribute to the achievement of the Welsh Assembly
Government Child Poverty goals and targets
http://cymru.gov.uk/dsjlg/publications/childrenyoung/implementplanphase1/report
?lang=en. If yes, explain how this is the case and whether the position can be
improved further. If no, can anything be done so that it does contribute to the
goals and targets?

4.6 Would the proposal address the inequalities which may lead to Child
Poverty? If not, can anything be done to address inequalities? Consider also any
potential negative implications for any group named under equality legislation to
ensure that the policy does not adversely affect these groups or discriminate
against them. If it is found to adversely affect these groups can anything be done
to ensure this is not the case?

Step 5: Make Decision and Arrange Monitoring

5.1 Will this proposal be adopted? If the proposal needs any amendment then
such changes should be Child Poverty impact assessed to ensure that the
alteration is now effective. (Proposal may be adopted without change, after
necessary change or not at all, based on findings of the PIA)

5.2 If the proposal is to be adopted, how will its impact on Child Poverty be
monitored?
       STAGE 2 Full Child Poverty Impact Assessment – Summary 2/2


                              Step 1: Consultation

Consultation with stakeholders is an important part of policy or programme
development and review. In order to ensure that Child Poverty impact
assessment is integrated into the policy making process it should be incorporated
into the consultation process. Although listed as a first step consultation can also
take place during other stages of the process.

Stakeholders may include staff in other departments or agencies, non-
governmental organisations and the individuals who are likely to be directly
affected by the programme or policy. The consultation could take the form of a
seminar, workshop or focus group, questionnaires could be circulated or
submissions could be requested.

The effective benefits of consultation are that it can assist with defining policy
objectives and impacts, and ensuring that the process is as transparent as
possible.

Consultation should not be seen in isolation but rather as a mechanism to inform
the other steps in the process. It may not be necessary to arrange a separate
specific consultation process but likely impacts on Child Poverty as well as
procedures to mitigate any possible negative effects could be considered
specifically in the general consultation process which would normally be held
during development of the policy or programme.

Step 2: Define Policy Aims and Target Groups

2.1 What is the primary objective of this policy / programme / expenditure
      proposal? Consider its intended outcomes.

2.2 Who is the proposal aimed at and how will the proposal affect those
      persons or groups?

Who is the proposal primarily aimed, list persons or groups, and what are the
expected outcomes for these persons?

2.3 What are the differences within the target group/between the target
groups which might lead to them benefiting from the policy/programme in
different ways and how could these be addressed?

It is important to recognise the diversity that may exist within the target group as
this will have implications for an individual’s capacity to access the programme or
benefit from the policy. In some cases there will be more than one target group
and they may be reached in different ways and to different extents. For example,
in the case of an educational programme specifically targeted at young adults
those with children may need additional services in order to participate, migrants
may need additional language supports; those with literacy problems may also
need additional supports.
Consideration should be given to any measure which could be put in place in
order to improve the position of those target groups which may not receive the full
benefit of the programme or policy as it is currently designed.

Step 3: Identify Available Data and Research
3.1 Importance of Data
Access to adequate, appropriate and up to date data is necessary if Child
Poverty impact assessment is to be carried out effectively. There is no doubt that
the absence of appropriate data and disaggregated (e.g. by gender/age) data in
particular is often a problem in policy development or review and Child Poverty
impact assessment is no exception in this regard. In addressing the questions
outlined in Step 4 below the basis of the assessment should be made clear.

3.2 Data Sources

The public sector holds a vast amount of data about their own organisation and
their clients. WAG report Eradicating Child Poverty – Measuring Success’ highlights
Some useful data sets relating to child poverty. Useful web sites holding data
include Stats Wales, Local Government Data Unit - Wales, and the Department
for Works and Pensions. Appendix 1 highlights some useful data sets.
Previous research such as working group reports or expenditure reviews may
also be a useful source of information.

3.3 Indicators
It is important that indicators against which progress will be measured are
specified. Indicators do not necessarily have to relate simply to earnings or
income.
Examples of indicators include: employment rates for various age groups;
numbers of early school leavers participating in training programmes; number of
homeless people; low birth weight babies; and attainment at key stage 2.

Step 4: Assess Impacts and Consider Alternatives

Consider whether the proposal has any impact on Child Poverty, e.g., on the
numbers of people at risk of Child Poverty, numbers of individuals suffering from
Child Poverty, or the depth of Child Poverty experienced.

It is important to remember that it is not just monetary effects in terms of Child
Poverty but, because of the Welsh Assembly Government definition of Child
Poverty used, there are wider aspects that should be considered. In that regard it
should also be remembered that some effects may not be immediate but could
occur in the medium to long term and so it is important to take a long-term view.
For example facilitating access to educational services could have a positive
impact in the medium to long term in that the beneficiaries of such a programme
would be expected to be more likely to find employment than they would
otherwise have been.

4.1 What type of impact on Child Poverty (either in terms of numbers in
Child Poverty or level of Child Poverty) would the proposal have in
particular for the vulnerable groups identified?
                   CHILD POVERTY IMPACT ASSESSMENT

STAGE 1 SCREENING FORM –
This will inform the policy maker as to whether or not it is necessary to carry out a
full Child Poverty impact assessment. A brief overview or background of the
proposal should be set out at this stage.
                              Screening Tool
 Is the policy, programme or proposal        YES                    NO         POSS
 significant in terms of:                                                      IBLY
 Overall National/Departmental Policy
 The level and/or proportion of expenditure
 involved.
 The change it will bring about in an existing
 policy or procedure (specify).
 Its relevance to those groups who have been
 identified as being most vulnerable to Child
 Poverty e.g.

    Lone parent families

    Families with large numbers of children

    Families with an adult who has disabilities

    children in couple families where one
     adult works part-time
    Workless and Unemployed Families

    Families with Mothers who have no
     qualifications

    People experiencing rural disadvantage

    People experiencing urban Child Poverty

    Homeless families and young people

    Migrants and Ethnic minorities
 • Others … specify ADD
 .

 If the answer is NO in all cases then it is not necessary to carry out a full Child
 Poverty impact assessment.


 If the answer is YES or POSSIBLY to any of the above a full Child Poverty
 impact assessment should be carried out following the steps outlined in Stage 2.
      STAGE 2: FULL CHILD POVERTY IMPACT ASSESSMENT FORM

Where it has been determined (following the screening stage) that is necessary
to carry out a full Child Poverty impact assessment, the seven steps described in
the following pages should be followed.

                             STEP 1: Consultation




            STEP 2: Define Policy Aims and Target Groups

2.1 What is the primary objective of this policy / programme / expenditure
proposal? Consider its intended outcomes.




2.2 Who is the proposal aimed at and how will the proposal affect those
persons or groups?
Who is the proposal primarily aimed, list persons or groups, and what are the
expected outcomes for these persons?




2.3 What are the differences within the target group/between the target
groups which might lead to them benefiting from the policy/programme in
different ways and how could these be addressed?




                STEP 3: Identify Available Data and Research
 3.1 Importance of Data

 3.2 Data Sources

 3.3 Indicators


             STEP 4: Assess Impacts and Consider Alternatives

4.1 What type of impact on Child Poverty (either in terms of numbers in
Child Poverty or level of Child Poverty) would the proposal have, in
particular for each of the vulnerable groups listed in the table?

Vulnerable            Likely impact of the programme/project in terms of
Group                 Child Poverty
                      None                Positive         Negative
                      See Q.4.2           See Q.4.3        See Q.4.4
Lone parent
families
Families with large
numbers of
children
Families with
someone who has
a disability
Workless and
Unemployed
Families
children in couple
families where
one adult works
part-time
Families with
Mothers who have
no qualifications
People
experiencing rural
disadvantage
People
experiencing
urban Child
Poverty
Homeless families
and young people
Migrants and
Ethnic minorities

4.2 If the proposal would have no effect on Child Poverty what options
might be identified to produce a positive effect?
Consider whether any changes could be made so that it would have a positive
effect




4.3 If the proposal would have a positive effect would it help to prevent
people falling into Child Poverty; reduce the level (in terms of numbers and
depth) of Child Poverty and/or ameliorate the effects of Child Poverty?
Explain how these positive effects are achieved and consider how the position
could be improved upon.




4.4 If the policy/programme/proposal would have a negative effect (e.g., by
increasing the numbers in Child Poverty or the level of Child Poverty
experienced) what options could be considered to ameliorate this effect?
Explain how the negative effects occur and consider whether it would be possible
to amend the proposal in order to prevent these negative effects or whether
additional measures could be put in place to counteract the negative effects.




4.5 Would the policy/programme/proposal contribute to the achievement of
the Community Plan aims and targets?
If it does contribute to the achievement of the targets, explain how this is the case and
consider whether the position can be improved further. If it does not, consider whether
anything can be done to reverse the position. In this regard, consideration should be given as
to whether the programme is specifically aimed at groups experiencing Child Poverty or at
risk of Child Poverty, i.e., whether it is intended as an anti-Child Poverty measure.
4.6 Would the programme/policy/proposal address the inequalities which
may lead to Child Poverty? The relationship between Child Poverty and
inequality is quite a complex one (see also Section 3.3). Equality legislation in
Wales recognises that inequality can occur under any of the following grounds:
gender, family status, marital status, age, disability, sexual orientation, race,
religion, and membership of the Traveller community etc.

Consideration should be given to whether the programme or policy has a
particular relevance to people in any of these categories, whether it could
increase inequality or discrimination experienced by them, and, if so, whether the
policy can be amended or refocused to address this.
               STEP 5: Make Decision and Arrange Monitoring

5.1 Will this proposal be adopted?
When the impacts of the proposed options have been assessed and alternatives
considered to counteract any negative effects have been identified a decision can
then be made as to whether or not to proceed with the policy or programme.
Where changes to the policy have been made these should also be subject to a
Child Poverty impact assessment.




5.2 If the proposal is to be adopted, how will its impact on Child Poverty be
monitored?

Arrangements should be put in place to monitor whether (and to what extent) the
expected impact is actually occurring. The indicators against which progress will
be monitored should be specified here. This section should also make clear
which office/unit will be responsible for the monitoring. The frequency with which
the indicators will be monitored should also be noted.

 If a programme or policy is being put in place to counteract any negative impacts
resulting from the original programme it should also be monitored and details of
how that will be undertaken should also be included here.
Appendix 1 Data Sets (source Local Government Data Unit)

 Eradicating Child Poverty - Measuring Success

 TARGET                                               TARGET             DATA SOURCE                                           PUBLICATION DATE
                                                      SOURCE
  1.INCOME & WORK
 The number of children in relative low-income        New                Possible from Living in Wales surveys - if precise    Data for 2004, 2005 currently
 households                                                              definition. Probably only available at Wales level.   available: 2006 by July/Aug 2007;
                                                                                                                               2007 by Jun 2008; 2008 by Jun
                                                                                                                               2009.
 The percentage of children living in workless        New                Possible from Living in Wales surveys - if precise    Data for 2004, 2005 currently
 households                                                              definition. Probably only available at Wales level.   available: 2006 by July/Aug 2007;
                                                                                                                               2007 by Jun 2008; 2008 by Jun
                                                                                                                               2009.
 The number of people reliant on incapacity benefit   DWP's Incapacity
 in Wales                                             Benefit Reform
                                                      paper
 The number of lone parents who receive help and      DWP's Incapacity
 support into work in Wales                           Benefit Reform
                                                      paper
 The number of lone parents in employment in          DWP's Incapacity   Labour Force Survey
 Wales                                                Benefit Reform
                                                      paper
 The number of children with a parent in              DWP's Incapacity   Possible from Living in Wales surveys - if precise    Data for 2004, 2005 currently
 employment in Wales                                  Benefit Reform     definition. Probably only available at Wales level.   available: 2006 by July/Aug 2007;
                                                      paper                                                                    2007 by Jun 2008; 2008 by Jun
                                                                                                                               2009.
 The number of children lifted out of poverty in      DWP's Incapacity
 Wales                                                Benefit Reform
                                                      paper
TARGET                                             TARGET         DATA SOURCE                                             PUBLICATION DATE
                                                   SOURCE
The number of 2 year-old children living in the    New
areas of greatest disadvantage in Wales provided
with high quality part-time care
The number of children who have access to a free   New
part-time education nursery place from the term
following their third birthday
The number of childcare places in the West Wales   New
and the Valleys Objective 1 Convergence area

2.EDUCATION
The percentage of pupils achieving the core        The Learning   National Indicator EDU/003 - % of pupils eligible for   2006/07 data to be published in
subject indicator (Welsh or English, Maths &       Country 2      assessment at end of KS2, not % of all 11 year olds.    October 2007.
Science in combination) through teacher                           OR:                                                     OR
assessment by age of 11                                           WAG school stats annual bulletin - most recent          October 2006
                                                                  SDR130/2006


The percentage of pupils achieving the core        The Learning   National Indicator EDU/004 - % of pupils eligible for   2006/07 data to be published in
subject indicator through teacher assessment by    Country 2      assessment at end of KS3, not % of all 14 year olds     October 2007.
the age of 14                                                     OR:                                                     OR
                                                                  WAG school stats annual bulletin - most recent          October 2006
                                                                  SDR130/2006


The percentage of 15 year olds achieving 5         The Learning   WAG School stats annual bulletin - most recent          Nov-06
GCSEs or vocational equivalent at grades A*-C      Country 2      SDR164/2006. N.B. % of pupils not all 15 year olds.

The percentage of pupils who left full time        The Learning   WAG school stats annual publication - most recent is    Dec-06
education with no recognised qualification         Country 2      bulletin SDR178/2006
TARGET                                              TARGET         DATA SOURCE                                              PUBLICATION DATE
                                                    SOURCE
The percentage of 15 year olds achieving the core   The Learning   WAG School stats annual bulletin collects '% of pupils   Nov-06
subject indicator                                   Country 2      in final year of compulsory education who achieved
                                                                   grades A*-C in each of the core subjects' - most
                                                                   recent SDR164/2006
The percentage of 16-18 year olds in employment,    The Learning   WAG DELLS annual bulletin - most recent                  Apr-07
education, or training                              Country 2      SDR53/2007
The percentage of young people by the age of 25,    The Learning
to be ready for high skilled employment and/or      Country 2
further or higher education
The percentage of working age adults with level 1   The Learning
or above functional basic skills in literacy        Country 2

The percentage of working age adults with level 1   The Learning
or above functional basic skills in numeracy        Country 2

The percentage of adults of working age with a      The Learning   WAG Post 16 education stats annual bulletin - most       Dec-06, revised Jan-07
qualification equivalent to an NVQ Level 2 or       Country 2      recent SDR 79/2006 (see NQF level 2)
above
The percentage of adults of working age with a      The Learning   WAG Post 16 education stats annual bulletin - most       Dec-06, revised Jan-07
qualification equivalent to an NVQ Level 3 or       Country 2      recent SDR 79/2006 (see NQF level 3)
above
The percentage of adults of working age with a      The Learning   WAG Post 16 education stats annual bulletin - most       Dec-06, revised Jan-07
qualification equivalent to an NVQ Level 4          Country 2      recent SDR 79/2006 (see NQF levels 4-6)
TARGET                                               TARGET         DATA SOURCE                                           PUBLICATION DATE
                                                     SOURCE
3.HOUSING
The number of families with children living in       National       Data collected in WHO12 form - brokeb down by a       Quarterly
temporary accommodation in Wales                     Homelessness   number of categories with children, but could be
                                                     Strategy       amalgamated to 'with children'
The number of families with children living in B&B   National       National Indicator HHA/001a - data is collected       2006/07 data to be published in
accommodation in Wales                               Homelessness   according to peeople having used it during the year   October 2007.
                                                     Strategy       rather than currently living in it.

                                                                    Also collected on the WHO12 form - by various         Quarterly
                                                                    categories
The number of children living in overcrowded                        Living in Wales survey                                Relevant data first collected on 2004
conditions in Wales                                                                                                       Living in Wales survey but not
                                                                                                                          analysed - this only became a
                                                                                                                          requirement last year. The 2007
                                                                                                                          survey also collects the relevant
                                                                                                                          data and will be available for
                                                                                                                          analysis around the middle of 2008.

				
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