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LEGAL NOTICE: Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. The views expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reﬂect the views of the European Commission. A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg: Ofﬁce for Ofﬁcial Publications of the European Communities, 2005 ISBN 92-894-8466-7 © European Communities, 2005 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Belgium PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER Preface Renewable energy sources will play an increasingly important role in securing both the Union’s energy supply and sustainable development in the future. Renewable energy sources also make a major contribution to the protection of the environment. The speciﬁc energy targets in the European Union for 2010 (EU-25) are to increase the share of renewable energies from 6% to 12% of gross energy consumption, of green electricity from 14% to 21% of gross electricity production and of liquid biofuels to 5.75% of total fuel consumption. Amongst renewable energy sources, the biggest contribution (63%) comes from biomass. Today, energy from biomass already contributes to about 4% of the total EU energy supply, predominantly in heat, and to a lesser extent, in combined heat and power (CHP) applications. By 2010, biomass is expected to cover as much as 8% of the total EU energy supply. Biomass based energy systems can be implemented using a large variety of feedstock, including waste. They can use many conversion technologies to produce energy, solid, liquid or gaseous fuels and other valuable materials. Biomass is currently the only available renewable energy source that can produce competitively-priced fuels for transport in larger quantities. It is already possible to obtain fuels from biomass that have very similar properties to those of conventional fossil fuels. This minimises the need to adapt end-use technologies. Other beneﬁts include the reduced need to import oil, increased security of supply, reduction of emissions, job creation and an improvement of the local environment. Research and technological development play a key role in the area of bio-energy, and the European Union has supported biomass related research under several successive Framework Programmes. Under FP5, a total of about €140 million was spent by the European Commission on biomass related research, covering the whole chain from production of feedstock to the end- use. The current FP6, ongoing until 2006, will support biomass related research with a similar amount, focused on biofuels, energy from crops, coﬁring, gasiﬁcation and bioreﬁneries. The recently published Commission proposal for FP7 also foresees support for this important area. The objective of this brochure is to illustrate to a wide audience the advantages of using biomass as a renewable energy source in Europe. To this end, it presents background information on biomass and an overview of related technologies and, in particular the main products fuel, heat and electricity. It highlights the opportunities biomass can oﬀer to our energy supply, and shows how research supported by the European Union has contributed to the current state of biomass technology. Pablo Fernández Ruiz Director Table of contents Introduction 7 Biomass resources 11 Biomass conversion 19 Products from biomass 27 Improving the prospects for bio-energy – what the EU is doing 39 Annexes 45 Introduction Energy plays a crucial role in modern Using renewable energy sources in What is renewable energy? life. It is needed for heating, lighting place of fossil fuels reduces emission and cooking in households and for vir- of greenhouse gases and other pol- Renewable energy sources are tually every industrial, commercial and lutants, improves security of supply by those which occur naturally and, transport activity. At the global level, boosting diversiﬁcation of energy pro- unlike fossil fuels, are theoreti- consumption of energy is growing duction, and encourages the creation cally inexhaustible. Examples steadily – by around 2% a year in the of new jobs and businesses. include the sun, biomass, wind, decade 1990-2000 and probably more geothermal heat, and tides, In the 25 countries of the European waves and currents in oceans and in 2000-2020. Union (EU), renewable energy sources rivers. Fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil) currently provided about 6% of total energy re- account for about 79% world energy quirements in 2002. The target is for consumption, nuclear energy for 7% the renewable energy share to reach and renewable energy sources for 14%. 12% in 2010. Global consumption of fossil fuels grew Currently, nearly two-thirds of all the in line with overall energy consump- energy from renewable sources used tion during the 1990s and is expected in Europe comes from biomass and What is biomass? to grow faster than overall consump- this source is set to play a signiﬁcant Biomass covers a wide range of tion in the period up to 2020. Fossil role in meeting the 2010 target. products, by-products and waste fuels have two main disadvantages. streams from forestry and agri- First, when they are burned they emit culture (including animal hus- pollutants, including the greenhouse bandry) as well as municipal and gases that are causing climate change. industrial waste streams. A deﬁ- Second, countries without adequate re- nition adopted by EU legislation serves of fossil fuels are facing increas- is: “...the biodegradable fraction ing risks to the security of their energy of products, waste and residues supplies. from agriculture (including veg- etal and animal substances), for- estry and related industries, as well as the biodegradable frac- tion of industrial and municipal waste...” Biomass thus includes trees, ara- ble crops, algae and other plants, agricultural and forest residues, eﬄuents, sewage sludge, ma- nures, industrial by-products and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. 7 Photosynthesis and the carbon cycle All life on earth is based on green plants that convert carbon dioxide (CO2) and water from the atmosphere into organic matter and oxygen, using the energy of the sunlight. This process is called photosynthesis. Expressed simply, the overall chemical reaction is as follows (in this example glucose is the product): 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2 In plants, the energy from the sun is conserved in the form of chemical bonds. This chemically-stored energy can be used by the plants themselves or by animals and human beings. When biomass is burned or digested, the organic carbon is recycled in a complex global process known as the carbon cycle. In this process, the CO2 that was absorbed as the plants grew is simply returned to the atmosphere when the biomass is burned. Therefore, if the cycle of growth and harvest is maintained, there is, broadly speaking, no net release of CO2. This is why biomass is regarded as an energy source that does not emit CO2 into the atmosphere when burned. Fossil fuels, of course, are also organic matter. However, in their case the matter has been transformed and stored over a long period of time under heat and pressure in the absence of oxygen. When we burn fossil fuels we release in a short period a quantity of CO2 that has been locked up in plants and their follow-up products over millions of years. Biomass has many advantages as an use of bio-energy, i.e. energy derived needs to be done from the policy and energy resource. It can be used to pro- from biomass, have already been in- research viewpoint to ensure full devel- duce a wide variety of product types troduced. Other policy steps needed opment of this sector in the future. – heat, electricity, solid fuels, liquid to allow widespread use of bio-energy Following this introduction the transport fuels, gaseous fuels, and products are being developed. brochure is arranged in three main other products. Biomass raw materi- Of course, not all the existing biomass chapters covering biomass resources, als come in a range of forms which are resource can be used for energy pur- conversion processes and products. abundant in most parts of the world, poses. Food, timber, paper and board These focus on the European situation including Europe. Their use does not and certain high-value chemicals are but, where appropriate, also refer to increase the carbon dioxide (CO2) also derived from biomass. Therefore, activities in other parts of the world. content of the atmosphere. As a result bio-energy production must be inte- A ﬁnal chapter discusses what the EU of work done over the last decade, grated with the other priority applica- is doing to improve the prospects for some excellent modern processes tions. Biomass must be used in a wise bio-energy. It gives information on now exist for converting the raw ma- and sustainable way. the political context to the EU actions, terials to usable products such as the what has already been done in terms of biodiesel and bioethanol blends that This brochure provides an overview of research, legislation, etc., and the chal- can be used in today’s vehicles without the current situation and future pros- lenges for the future. engine adaptation. In addition, some pects for bio-energy in Europe bearing high-technology equipment has been in mind the other priority calls on the developed specially tailored for bio- biomass resource. The overall aim is to mass product use – for example, fully show where and how bio-energy prod- automated boilers suitable for burning ucts can be used right now, the high- wood pellets. A research framework technology nature of today’s processes is in place that will allow further tech- and equipment, the role of research in nological progress to be made. Some developing these, the beneﬁts of using legislative measures to support the biomass for energy purposes, and what 8 Biomass resources Biomass comes in various forms each of The energy that can be obtained from which has speciﬁc properties, uses and a particular resource depends on its advantages. The main sources are wood chemical composition and moisture from conventional and short-rotation content. forestry, other energy crops, residues from forestry and agricultural produc- tion, and by-products and wastes from industrial and municipal processes. Examples of biomass resources Category Examples Dedicated plantations Short-rotation forestry (eucalyptus, willow) Perennial crops (miscanthus) Arable crops (rapeseed, sugarcane, sugarbeet) Residues Wood from forestry thinning Wood felling residues Straw from cereals Other residues from food and industrial crops (sugarcane, tea, coﬀee, rubber trees, oil and coconut palms) By-products and wastes Sawmill waste Manure Sewage sludge Organic fraction of municipal waste Used vegetable oils and fats Availability and potential Total EU land area is around 385 million energy in 2010 much more will need agricultural management and land use. hectares. Forests and woodlands cover to be done both to exploit the existing Integrated production of wood and 137 million hectares and crops 178.5 mil- bio-energy resources and to establish biomass could be introduced where lion hectares. Once the requirements of new ones. It is estimated that by 2010 it the trees are thinned to maximise the the food, wood products and paper sec- should be practicable to mobilise about value of the wood produced and the tors have been met, the biomass resourc- 1.5 EJ a year of the EU’s unused wood and thinnings used for biomass. Increased es from these trees and crops could pro- agricultural residues. New resources in areas of land could be used for culti- vide around 8 EJ energy a year – about the form of energy crops could provide vating energy crops, i.e. short rotation 11% total annual EU energy consump- a further 2 EJ a year – about 60% (1.2 EJ) forestry or non-wood crops. tion. In practice, we are exploiting less as solid biomass for heat and power and Finding the land for growing energy than a quarter of the available resource. 40% (0.8 EJ) as liquid biofuels. crops is an important issue. Various If biomass is to play its expected role in Achieving this level of bio-energy woody and non-woody plant species achieving the EU target for renewable exploitation will require thoughtful are available that are suitable for dif- 11 Heating values of various types of biomass data are given because actual yields Biomass type Higher heating value in GJ/tonne depend on land type and climate. From Dry lignocellulosic 18 the information in the table it can be Wet cellulosic 9 seen that to achieve the 1.2 EJ a year Oils and fats 36 solid biomass mentioned earlier in Ethanol 26 2010 would require something like 6.3 million hectares land. This is little more than the 5.7 million hectares set aside ferent qualities of land. In recent years, subvention of 45 euros per hectare can in the EU in 2001. In that year, only 0.9 surplus food production in the EU has now be given for energy crops for a million hectares of the set aside were led to cropland being left fallow. In guaranteed area of 1.5 million hectares. dedicated to non-food crops. It should 2001, for instance, as much as 15% (i.e. In addition, fallow land can be used for not be diﬃcult to increase that ﬁgure in 5.7 million hectares) of the EU-15 crop- energy crops. the future. land was under voluntary set-aside. Other options may exist, such as grow- Table 1 gives an idea of the crop and The following sections discuss the dif- ing non-food crops. Recent reforms of energy yields that can be expected ferent resources in more detail. the EU’s agricultural policy encourage from diﬀerent types of woody and non- production of energy crops. An extra woody energy crops. Ranges of yield Table 1: Crop and energy yields from some energy crops Crop Yield (dry tonnes/hectare/year) Energy yield (GJ/hectare/year) Woody crops Wood 1-4 30-80 Tropical plantations 2-10 30-180 (with no fertiliser and irrigation) Tropical plantations (with fertiliser and irrigation) 20-30 340-550 Short rotation forestry (willow, poplar) 10-15 180-260 Non-woody crops Miscanthus/switchgrass 10-15 180-260 Sugarcane 15-20 400-500 Sugarbeet 10-21 30-200 Rapeseed 4-10 50-170 (Source: UNDP World Energy Assessment) 12 Wood Wood is a renewable raw material resource available from forests and establish eﬀective logistical systems that can be used not only for making woodlands for energy production con- for harvesting, recovering, compact- timber-based products, pulp and paper sists of residues. In the EU, woody resi- ing, transporting, upgrading and stor- but also as a source of energy. dues are estimated to have the poten- ing the wood. Harvesting and trans- tial to provide 3.8 EJ energy annually. port, in particular, can have signiﬁcant In traditional professionally-managed impacts on energy balance and costs. forests, the normal life cycle of the tree For certain species, the use of short- The trend is to move towards greater includes plantation, a stage of rapid rotation techniques can reduce the mechanisation of harvesting for rea- height growth followed by a stage of life cycle of the tree to 3-15 years. Thus sons of economy and safety. Because steady growth in diameter, height and plantations dedicated to short-rotation ﬁrewood and forest residues are low- volume. The point of harvesting de- forestry can provide an important addi- value commodities, transport costs pends on the species but it is gener- tional source of woody biomass for en- constitute the most important part of ally reached after 30-80 years. Twenty- ergy purposes. The species most com- total production costs. Care must be ﬁve to forty-ﬁve percent of the wood monly used in this way include poplar, taken, therefore, to choose an appro- harvested each year is in the form of salix, willow and eucalyptus. priate method of transport and locate residues, i.e. the wood from forestry the conversion plant as near as possible thinning and the residues from felling. The key to creating an economic ener- to the woody biomass source. Therefore most of the woody biomass gy-from-woody-biomass scheme is to 13 14 Non-woody energy crops The non-woody plants most often used and grasses can be processed together eﬃciency of the farm. The advantages for energy purposes are wheat, barley, with manure or waste to obtain biogas of energy crops over food crops are rye, sugarcane, sugarbeet, leguminous for heat, electricity or fuel. Oil crops can that they do not require the best land plants (e.g. alfalfa or lucerne), grass (e.g. be used to produce biodiesel. and need signiﬁcantly less care, water miscanthus and switchgrass) and oil There are also plants which can be and fertilisers. This is because it is the crops (e.g. rapeseed). Many other spe- processed to give liquid biofuels and quantity, rather than the quality, of the cies have been studied with respect to cellulosic materials simultaneously. An product that is important. agronomy, yield optimisation, harvest- example is sweet sorghum which yields As discussed earlier, it is estimated that ing, storage and processing. These in- both bioethanol and dry cellulosic ma- it should be possible for some 2 EJ clude high-yield ﬁbrous plants such as terial for other bio-energy use. energy a year to be produced in the giant reed (arundo donax) and a form Some of the plants listed above are pe- EU from new woody and non-woody of globe artichoke (cynara). rennials. Others are annuals. All can ﬁt energy crops by the year 2010. These plants can provide biomass into conventional agricultural practice. suitable for direct combustion or ther- Cultivating crops for energy use does mochemical or biological conversion. not preclude a farmer from growing Wheat, barley, rye, sugarcane and sugar food crops as well – or vice versa. Food beet, for instance, are generally con- and energy crops can usefully be grown verted to ethanol. Leguminous plants hand-in-hand to maximise the overall 15 Agricultural residues and by-products As indicated above, the residues from that only about 20% of total straw can forestry thinning and felling constitute be used for energy purposes, to ensure a major biomass resource. To this must that the demands of the agricultural be added the diﬀerent types of residue sector and other markets can be ful- and by-product that come from process- ﬁlled. Animal manure is another useful ing wood, e.g. sawdust, bark chippings, resource coming from the farming sec- wood shavings, plywood residues and tor. Together, these resources have the black liquor. (The latter, a by-product of potential to provide the EU with 6.75 EJ paper manufacture, can be burned or energy a year – 56% from wood residues gasiﬁed to produce fuels for transport.) and by-products, 8% from straw, 25% Residues from the harvesting and pro- from other crop residues, and the rest cessing of food and other crops – cere- from animal manure. It should be prac- als, sugarcane, tea, coﬀee, rice, cotton, ticable to mobilise 1.5 EJ of the 6.75 EJ rubber trees, coconut palms – are also potential annually by 2010. important. It should be noted, however, Marine biomass Plankton, algae and other marine-based organisms constitute a biomass resource that has not yet been exploited. This area is, however, the subject of continued re- search. Bearing in mind the volume of the sea, this resource could provide a major carbon-neutral source of energy for the future. 16 Wastes Municipal solid waste (MSW) is primar- ﬂicting claims on the diﬀerent streams. ily waste produced by domestic house- In general, for wastes with a high energy holds although it also includes some content, the major part will be used for commercial and industrial wastes that power and heat production. Incinera- are similar in nature. Each EU citizen pro- tion oﬀers one route for doing this. In duces on average more than 500 kg of 2002 there were approximately 340 MSW a year. The total MSW resource in incineration plants in the EU handling the EU is therefore of the order of 225 between them 50 million tonnes waste million tonnes a year. a year. Recent installations tend to be eﬃcient in generating power or produc- The organic fraction of MSW has a sig- ing combined heat and power. Another niﬁcant heat value. Typically, MSW has a option is to convert the waste to solid, heat value of 8-12 MJ/kg, about a third liquid or gaseous fuels that can be more the heat value of coal. A tonne MSW will easily transported and used to produce give about 2 GJ electricity. heat or power or to drive vehicles. Decisions on whether to use MSW as an The biodegradable part of MSW can be energy resource are linked to local and used to produce compost or digested national waste management policies along with other suitable wastes to give and the views of the public on, say, recy- biogas. Biogas is another useful source cling and incineration. of energy. It can be recovered from land- The choice of MSW treatment for a par- ﬁll sites or produced by digesting not ticular locality must take into account, only parts of MSW but also sludge from among other things, the composition sewage treatment, livestock manure and and properties of the input waste, the suitable agricultural and agro-industrial available technologies, and the market eﬄuents. It has been estimated that the for the various outputs. The whole pro- total energy content of all the above cess must be integrated to avoid con- resources capable of producing biogas in the EU exceeds 3.35 EJ. It should be possible to mobilise 0.63 EJ of this a year by 2010 and 0.75 EJ a year by 2020. Actual production in the EU-25 in 2004 was 0.17 EJ – 24% higher than in 2003. Biogas is largely methane – one of the greenhouse gases. More widespread ex- ploitation of biogas would also be in line with European environmental policy since it would reduce emission of meth- ane, a powerful greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. 17 Biomass conversion Except for cases where straightfor- the processing of woody residues into be used to drive a motor or a fuel cell. ward combustion is appropriate, it is bundles, pellets and chips, the cut- The bio-oil can be further transformed not usually possible to use biomass ting of straw and hay into pieces, and into gaseous and liquid fuels. raw materials as they stand. They have the squeezing of oil out of plants in a Fermentation and digestion are ex- to be converted in some way to solid, press are all examples of mechanical amples of biological processes. These liquid or gaseous fuels that can be used processes. Such processes are often use microbial or enzymatic activity to to provide heat, generate electricity or used to pre-treat a biomass resource convert sugar into ethanol, or biomass drive vehicles. This conversion is gener- for further conversion. They are there- to solid fuels or biogas. ally achieved by some type of mechani- fore discussed, where relevant, later cal, thermal or biological process. in this brochure in conjunction with The following sections highlight some other methods of conversion, or when major thermal and biological conver- Mechanical processes are not strictly describing the ﬁnal products. sion processes. conversion processes since they do not change the nature of the biomass. Combustion, gasiﬁcation and pyrolysis They are commonly used in the treat- are examples of thermal processes. ment of woody biomass and waste. They produce either direct heat or a The sorting and compaction of waste, gas or oil, such as bio-oil. The gas can 19 Thermal processes Processes where biomass conversion Factors to be considered when de- of biomass. Finally, the char oxidises, is achieved by heat are the most signing a biomass combustion system leaving ash. The technical aspects of commonly-used technologies. include the characteristics of the fuel heating and large-scale combustion are to be used, environmental legislation, discussed in more detail in the section Combustion the cost and performance of available on heat and power production from equipment, and the output required. biomass, below. Combustion is the most ancient and frequently-applied way of using bio- During combustion, a biomass particle mass as an energy source because of its ﬁrst loses its moisture at temperatures low cost, ease of handling and high reli- up to 100°C using heat given oﬀ by ability. The biomass can either be ﬁred other particles. Then, as the dried par- directly (as when ﬁrewood is burned for ticle heats up, volatile gases contain- heating or waste is incinerated) or co- ing hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide ﬁred with fossil fuels. Modern coal-ﬁred (CO), methane (CH4) and other gas- plants are increasingly being designed eous components are released. In the for co-ﬁring in order to reduce carbon combustion process, these gases con- dioxide emissions. tribute about 70% of the heating value 20 Thermochemical processes The basic thermochemical processes substances that may act as catalysts. low-molecular weight fragments, many are gasiﬁcation and pyrolysis. Both At one extreme, processes can be opti- of which combine to form char. Hot char processes involve heating the feed- mised to produce charcoal. At the oth- will react with steam to produce carbon stock in the presence of less oxygen er, they can be designed to produce a monoxide and hydrogen, giving a gas than is required for complete com- mixture of hydrogen and carbon mon- with a high heating value. Some of the bustion and produce a mixture of gas, oxide (synthesis gas) suitable for use in low-molecular weight compounds may liquid and char. Yields of the various the catalytic formation of a variety of be swept from the reactor, recombining outputs depend on the nature of the liquid fuels. to form tars as they cool. Fine particles biomass used, the rate of heating, the of ash and partly carbonised biomass highest temperature reached, the way In pyrolysis, an external source of heat may also be carried in the gas stream. in which oﬀ-gases react with hot sol- is used with no oxygen. Heat causes the For these reasons, the gas requires ad- ids, the amount of water (as steam) biomass molecules to break down to vanced cleaning before it can be used and the presence or absence of other form water (steam) and highly-reactive in a combustion engine or turbine. Fast pyrolysis is a high-temperature Liquefaction is a low-temperature, used because this would lead to a prod- process in which small particles of bio- high-pressure thermochemical conver- uct of high heating value consisting mass are heated rapidly in the absence sion process carried out in the liquid mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, of oxygen causing them to decompose phase which has the potential to pro- methane and carbon dioxide. However, to give vapours, aerosols and some duce high quality products. It requires most biomass gasiﬁers use air for costs char. After cooling and condensation, a the use of either a catalyst or hydrogen reasons so the output is diluted with ni- dark viscous liquid (bio-oil) is obtained. under high pressure. trogen and therefore has a lower heat- It has a heating value about half that of Gasiﬁcation is a high-temperature ther- ing value. Whichever process is used conventional fuel oil and can substitute mochemical process carried out under the product can, after appropriate treat- for the latter in combustion systems or conditions that lead to a combustible ment, be burned directly or used in gas engines for heat or power generation. gas, rather than heat or a liquid. Mod- turbines or engines to produce electri- Further processing of the oil by hydro- ern gasiﬁers can use a large variety of city or mechanical work. The process genation or using a catalyst will give a feedstocks. The process involves partial can be varied to give a hydrogen-rich higher-quality product close in speciﬁ- combustion of the biomass feedstock gas or synthesis gas which can be used cation to petroleum-derived fuels oils. with a restricted supply of air or oxy- to make other fuel products. This product can be used in diesel-ﬁred gen at temperatures in the range 1200- vehicle engines. 1400°C. Ideally, pure oxygen would be 21 Gas cleaning This is a critical step in both combus- tion and gasiﬁcation systems. The aim is to reduce emissions in ﬂue gases, reduce the level of damaging contami- nants (e.g. hydrogen sulphide and mer- captans) in biogas and landﬁll gas, and remove particles and tars from gas gen- erated by chemical processes. A wide range of techniques is available, in- cluding: gas scrubbing with water and chemical solutions; ﬁltration, electro- static precipitation or use of cyclones to remove particles; use of molecular sieves or chilling to remove water and other impurities; and use of iron, calci- um or zinc oxide or chemical reduction to remove sulphur compounds. In par- Biomass gasiﬁer (Courtesy of Güssing) ticular, tars may be cracked by passing the gas stream back through the gasiﬁ- be used to reduce levels of carbon di- industry. They may not, however, be er bed, or through a second stage, with oxide. Most of these processes are com- economically feasible when applied to external heating. Scrubbing with water mercially viable when used on a large small biomass-based facilities. or various proprietary liquids may also scale, as they are in the petrochemical 22 Non-thermal processes A number of processes are available react together to generate methane, which use some type of biochemical in methanogenesis. Millions of small process, rather than heat, to achieve anaerobic digesters have been built in biomass conversion. rural areas worldwide with methane generation as their primary aim. In anaerobic digestion, a process which takes place in the absence of Fermentation is one of the oldest oxygen, a mixed population of bacteria biological processes used by mankind. catalyses the breakdown of the poly- It normally uses yeast (an organism mers found in biomass to give biogas. which secretes catalytic enzymes) to This primarily consists of methane and initiate chemical reactions that lead carbon dioxide but may also contain to the desired outputs – ethanol and ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and mer- carbon dioxide. Ethanol has a use not captans, which are corrosive, poisonous only for alcoholic drinks but also as a and odorous. The process takes place in solvent, additive and fuel. Bioethanol several stages. First, polymers such as as a transport fuel is discussed in more Modern laboratory fermenter for use with cellulose, starch, proteins and lipids are detail later in this brochure in the sec- lignocellulosic feedstock hydrolysed into sugars, amino acids, tion on liquid biofuels. The main pro- Breakdown of the biomass into useful fatty acids, etc. These are then convert- ducers are Brazil (which uses sugarcane products can be speeded up by the ed to a mixture of hydrogen gas, low as feedstock) and the US (which uses use of enzymes other than yeast. These molecular weight acids (primarily acetic corn). Some fuel alcohol is produced enzymatic conversion processes are acid) and carbon dioxide, in the process in Europe using wheat, molasses and mainly used for degradation of starch, of acetogenesis. Finally, these products petrochemical feedstocks. cellulose, proteins or lipids feedstocks. 23 The bioreﬁnery A bioreﬁnery is deﬁned as a facility for the required speciﬁcation for the diﬀer- In the immediate future, bioreﬁnery achieving large-scale integrated pro- ent applications. The ﬁnal conversion to products will not, as a rule, compete in duction of fuels, power and chemicals energy, fuels, or other products is carried costs terms with products made from from biomass. It is analogous to a petro- out using a range of thermochemical and fossil fuels. Rather, their main competi- leum reﬁnery which produces multiple biochemical processes – some of which tive advantage comes from environ- fuels and products from petroleum. The are already at a stage of commercial de- mental sustainability. In particular, biore- possibility of integrated production of velopment while others require further ﬁnery products are near-neutral in terms a number of products from biomass is a research and technological development. of greenhouse gas emissions. Assessing concept that is gaining increased atten- the ﬁnancial advantage this will bring in A range of products is delivered with tion in many parts of the world. In the ten or more years’ time is very diﬃcult. multiple end uses, including: low- EU, the developments towards a car- volume and high-value speciality For bioreﬁneries to succeed, diﬀerent bon-constrained economy and evolv- chemicals that have niche uses in the sectors of the economy – agriculture, ing agricultural policy make the idea food and other industries; high-volume forestry, agro- and wood-based indus- particularly interesting. No large-scale and low-value liquid fuels for wide- tries, chemical, food, transport and bioreﬁneries exist at present but they spread use in the transport industry; energy industries – will need to coop- are regarded as being an important heat; electricity, etc. The diversity of erate to develop processes for making element in the future of biomass. Work the products gives a high degree of new biomass-based products and bring has been carried out in the EU, the US ﬂexibility to changing market demands them to market. There is a need for ex- and elsewhere on the design and fea- and allows the plant operators many tensive research and technological de- sibility of such facilities. The concept is options for gaining revenues and velopment to test and prove the supply explored in the following paragraphs. achieving proﬁtability. of biomass feedstocks, the extensive A bioreﬁnery is based on a number of range of bioreﬁning technologies, the In addition, there are economies of conversion processes. end uses of the products, etc. Research scale. Advanced conversion of biomass institutes and universities are therefore The bioreﬁnery requires year-round sup- (gasiﬁcation, pyrolysis, etc.) has proved also important stakeholders. Policy- ply of biomass feedstock preferably of costly to date. The large-scale operations makers, regulators, and law-makers will a speciﬁc quality. Possible sources of conducted in the bioreﬁnery oﬀer cost also play an important enabling role in feedstock include agricultural crops and savings by, for example, allowing pre- establishing the bioreﬁnery concept. residues, wood residues and woody and conversion feedstock treatment facilities non-woody energy crops. If supplies are to be shared. A large-scale operation has As discussed later in this brochure, of heterogeneous type and quality, the greater buying power when acquiring today’s hydrocarbon-based economy feedstock has to be mechanically sepa- feedstocks: it can source biomass over a could well evolve into a bio-based econ- rated into fractions and, where necessary, larger geographical area and negotiate omy where bioreﬁneries play a very im- pre-treated to give interim products of cheap long-term contracts. portant role. 24 25 Products from biomass As explained above, biomass can be ing combustion is used up in evaporating NOx will also be formed at low tempera- converted by a variety of processes to a the water. For a fuel to be capable of be- tures because of the presence of nitrogen wide range of products – including heat, ing ignited and having energy extracted in the biomass itself. The quantity of NOx electricity and solid, liquid and gaseous from it, its moisture content must be formed can generally be controlled by us- biofuels. The following sections give below 55%. The moisture content of bio- ing appropriate combustion techniques. more information on these products mass sources ranges from less than 10% Wood-based solid biofuels and the ways in which they can be made, for straw to 70% for forest residues and supplied and used, and the current sta- wet waste. The moisture content of bark Wood is the most commonly-used solid tus of their application in the EU. Solid and sawmill products is in the range 25- biofuel. The raw material can be in the and gaseous biofuels are discussed ﬁrst 55%. By contrast, the moisture content of following forms: logs, stems, needles because their main applications are as processed wood pellets is less than 10%. and leaves from the forest; bark, saw- intermediates in the preparation of the dust and redundant cuttings from the Ash content is signiﬁcant because it other products, i.e. heat, electricity and sawmill; chips and slabs from the wood determines the behaviour of the bio- liquid biofuels. At the end of this chapter industry; and recycled wood from de- mass at high temperatures: quantities is a short note on biomass products that molition. These can be used directly as of molten ash can, for instance, cause are not energy-related. a fuel, where this is appropriate. Alterna- problems during combustion. The ash tively, they can be processed into forms contents of biomass can range from Solid biofuels 0.5% for wood, through 5-10% for that allow for easy transport, storage and combustion such as chips, pellets, Solid biofuels can be derived from energy crops, to 30-40% for agricultural briquettes and powder. Firewood is for- many biomass resources such as wood residues such as husks. est fuel in the form of treated or untreat- and wood residues and byproducts, When subjected to heat, biomass de- ed stem wood. A new technique that agricultural crops and residues, and the composes into volatile gases and char. allows for easier handling is bundling, combustible part of solid wastes. The volatile matter content of a re- where branches are pressed together source is described by the proportion into log-like bundles of equal size. The quality of solid biofuels that volatilises at 400-500°C. Typically, Wood powder consists of ground wood The quality of solid biomass as a fuel is biomass has a volatile matter content of raw material. Wood chips are pieces of related to properties such as moisture over 80%, compared with 20% for coal. wood about 1-5 cm in diameter. Pellets content, heating value, ash content and The formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are short cylindrical or spherical pieces content of volatile matter. during combustion can be a particular is- with a diameter less than 25 mm. Pellets The higher the moisture content of a sue with biomass fuels. When any fuel is are produced from sawdust, cutter shav- fuel, the lower its heating value. This is subjected to combustion in the presence ings, chips or bark by grinding the raw partly because fuels with a high mois- of air, some NOx will be formed as a result of material to a ﬁne powder that is pressed ture content have, by deﬁnition, a lower the reaction of the nitrogen in the air with through a perforated matrix. The friction content of combustible material. It is also the fuel at temperatures above 950°C. In of the process provides enough heat because some of the heat liberated dur- the case of biomass fuels, however, some to soften the lignin present. During the Samples of pellets (Courtesy of BIONORM-project) Samples of briquettes (Courtesy of BIONORM-project) 27 subsequent cooling, the lignin stiﬀens panies would undoubtedly improve Gaseous biofuels and binds the material together. Wood the overall eﬃciency of the scheme. briquettes are rectangular or round If, for instance, bulky materials with The most commonly-used biofuels are pieces made by pressing together in a a high moisture content have to be biogas and hydrogen. Both are pro- piston press ﬁnely ground sawdust, cut- transported far, the costs of using solid duced from biomass wastes by bio- ter shavings, chips, bark, etc. biofuels are increased considerably. chemical processes. The energy content of pellets and bri- Biogas Solid biofuels from agricultural quettes is around 17 GJ/tonne with a Chemically, biogas comprises a mixture crops and residues moisture content of 10% and a density of hydrocarbons (mainly methane) and 3 of around 600-700 kg/m . To replace oil, It is possible to use many agricultural other gases. It can be produced by an- one needs about three times its volume crops and residues as solid fuels. Ex- aerobic digestion of sewage sludge, in pellets. amples are straw, husks, stalks, bagasse grass and other ley crops, manure and from sugarcane, and grass. Using these agricultural and food wastes, including To use wood-derived biofuels instead residues as fuels can in addition solve those from slaughterhouses, restau- of fossil fuels is helpful from the view- the problem of how to dispose of them. rants, grocery stores, and wastes from point of aiding sustainability, reducing the pharmaceutical industry. It can also greenhouse gas emissions and improv- Solid biofuels from waste be extracted from landﬁlls, where it is ing quality in forestry. Since the major formed spontaneously and, if left, would users of solid biofuels are companies As described earlier, the initial sorting cause environmental problems since concerned with heat and electricity of municipal solid waste results in the methane is a powerful greenhouse gas. production, better integration of the recovery of combustible solids which forestry industry with energy com- can be used as fuels. 28 (Courtesy of Energattert-Project) (Courtesy of Energattert-Project) (Courtesy of Energattert-Project) Biogas production plants based on ag- bilities for hydrogen in the Community’s present) bacteria are able to convert ricultural wastes can be found in the future energy supplies. Its potential is the biomass to hydrogen, biogas and countryside in most EU member states. thought to be considerable. Hydrogen ethanol. Their unique smell has given rise to the is a clean fuel that does not emit any Typical yields are in the range 0.6 to unfortunate and untrue notion that bio- greenhouse gases during combustion: 3.3 molecules hydrogen per molecule mass is not a clean source of energy. the remnant of combustion is pure wa- of glucose, depending on the particu- ter. Hydrogen can be burned directly to The availability of landﬁll as a source of lar bacteria used. Thermophylic bacte- produce heat and electricity. It can be biogas will, of course, vary from mem- ria that operate at temperatures up to used as a transport fuel. It also makes ber state-to-member state according to 70°C give higher yields than bacteria an ideal input for fuel cells where it is national policies on the use of landﬁll as that operate at ambient temperatures. converted directly to heat and power a means of disposing of organic wastes. A typical chemical reaction is: with high eﬃciency. Further informa- In some countries, landﬁll gas is recov- tion is given in the electricity section C6H12O6 + 2H2O = 2CO2 + 2CH3COOH + 4H2 ered with fully industrial technologies. later in this brochure. The yields can be increased further by Frequently, biogas is used close to the Biomass is potentially an important using phototropic bacteria that convert place where it is produced. Its main ap- source of renewable hydrogen. Hy- acetic acid to hydrogen, as follows: plications are for production of heat, drogen can be produced from a broad electricity and combined heat and pow- CH3COOH + 4H2O = 2CO2 + 4H2 range of biomass sources containing er. Further information on these are giv- carbohydrates, cellulose or proteins As a rule, biological processes require en later in this brochure. Biogas’s main using biological processes. Under an- modest investments and are eﬀective advantage over other biomass-derived aerobic conditions (i.e. when no air is even on a small scale. fuels is that it can be burned directly in any gas-ﬁred plant. It can also be inject- ed into the natural gas network. In addition, biogas can be used as a transport fuel for vehicles adapted to run on gas. The environmental beneﬁts of replacing petrol or diesel by biogas are considerable. However, although the cost of biogas is signiﬁcantly lower than petrol per unit of energy, one has to equip the vehicle with an extra gas tank. Biohydrogen The EU devotes part of its energy re- search budget to exploring the possi- 29 Heat In 2002, around 1.6 EJ heat were pro- space. Commonly-available appliances duced from biomass in the EU. The tar- include ﬁreplaces, heat storage stoves, get is to achieve some 2.6 EJ biomass- pellet stoves and burners, and central derived heat annually by 2010. heating furnaces and boilers for wood logs and wood chips. Wood-based solid biofuels are the bio- mass sources most commonly used in There is also a range of automatically- heat production. Combustion is the operating appliances for wood chips normal conversion method. Tradition- and pellets on the market. ally, of course, ﬁrewood was used for The excellent handling properties of thousands of years to provide heat pellets make them a good fuel for do- for domestic purposes, i.e. local heat- mestic and other small-scale use. Good ing and food preparation. Today, the automatic pellets-fuelled boilers with availability of biomass-derived fuels in low emissions and high eﬃciencies Scheme of automated woodlog stove. clean and convenient forms (e.g. chips, (Courtesy of IEA Bioenergy Task32) have been on the market for about 10 pellets and briquettes) and of modern, years now. Existing oil-ﬁred boilers can automatically-operating combustion be adapted for pellets use by replacing equipment have created renewed in- the existing burner by one constructed terest in the use of solid biofuels for to take pellets. If this burner-boiler domestic heating. The use of liquid bio- combination is well designed, an ef- fuels is also making headway for small- ﬁciency of over 90% can be achieved, scale heating. For the commercial and which is comparable to the eﬃciency industrial sectors, ﬁxed-bed, ﬂuidised- of a modern oil burner. Changing an oil bed and dust combustion equipment burner for a pellets burner – or replac- now available allow eﬃcient produc- ing electric heating with a pellet-burn- tion of heat from biofuels of diﬀerent ing stove – can be proﬁtable. A pellets types and forms on the larger scale. Co- boiler takes a little more eﬀort to run ﬁring of biofuels with coal is also practi- Two pellet boilers in a school in Denmark. than an oil boiler because the chimney (Courtesy of IEA Bioenergy Task32) cable. All these processes are discussed has to be swept and the ash removed in more detail below. a few times a year. Apart from this, the Pre-treatment system is completely automatic and therefore requires less eﬀort than a tra- For domestic, commercial and indus- ditional wood-ﬁred boiler. Environmen- trial combustion equipment, it is ad- tally, a good pellets burner is preferable visable to use solid biofuels that have to a fossil fuel burner. Pellets burners undergone some form of pre-treat- meet the demands of national and in- ment and processing (e.g. washing, ternational eco-label schemes. Their drying, size reduction and compacting) emissions are well below the building to achieve greater uniformity and ease regulations requirements of most EU of handling and reduce the moisture member states and will not contribute content to an acceptable level. This is Two 3.2MW grate furnaces for wood chips. to the greenhouse eﬀect. A further ad- (Courtesy of IEA Bioenergy Task32) discussed in more detail earlier in this vantage of moving from fossil fuels to brochure under solid biofuels. biofuels for small-scale heating is that it Small-scale heating will help the rural economy. At the domestic level, appliances that The use of liquid biofuels and blends of burn wood and similar biofuels are these with liquid fuels for heating do- popular because they not only pro- mestic properties is also gaining ground. vide heat but also help creation of a Standards for biodiesel for heating ap- pleasant atmosphere and decorative plications have just been put into force. 30 Large-scale combustion The biofuels-based systems available ﬂexibility regarding fuels, although at- the category of indirect co-ﬁring. for industrial and commercial heating tention has to be paid to particle size. One indirect system, known as a hy- can be categorised under the headings brid system, uses 100% biomass ﬁring Dust combustion systems are suitable of ﬁxed-bed, ﬂuidised-bed and dust to generate steam. This steam is then for biofuels, such as wood dust, that combustion and co-ﬁring. mixed with the steam coming from the is in the form of small, dry particles. A conventional coal-ﬁred boiler for send- Fixed-bed combustion includes grate mixture of fuel and air is injected into ing to the steam turbines for electricity furnaces and underfeed stokers. Grate the combustion chamber. Combustion generation. A second type of indirect furnaces, which generally have capaci- takes place while the fuel is in suspen- system involves burning the biomass in ties up to 20MWth, are suitable for burn- sion. Fuel gasiﬁcation and charcoal a pre-furnace and feeding the resulting ing biomass with a high moisture con- combustion take place simultaneously ﬂue gases into the existing coal boiler. tent. Primary air passes through a ﬁxed because of the small particle size. Quick In a third type, the biomass is gasiﬁed bed where drying, gasiﬁcation and load changes and eﬃcient load control and the resulting combustible gas fed charcoal combustion take place in con- can be achieved. to the coal combustion chamber. secutive stages. The combustion gases Co-ﬁring of biomass with coal in tra- are burned in a separate combustion Emissions treatment ditional coal-ﬁred boilers is becoming zone using secondary air. increasingly popular, as it capitalises Appropriate techniques exist for treat- Underfeed stokers, which represent a on the large investment and infrastruc- ing all the emissions that emerge from cheap and safe technology for systems ture associated with existing fossil-fuel biomass combustion plants. For large up to 6 MWth, are suitable for biofuels based power systems and at the same installations, ﬂue gas cleaning is eco- with low ash content and small particle time reduces the emission of tradi- nomically viable. As explained in the size such as wood chips, pellets and saw- tional pollutants (sulphur dioxide, ni- section on solid biofuels, NOx emissions dust. The fuel is fed into a combustion trous oxide, etc.) and greenhouse gases can usually be controlled by appropri- chamber from below by screw convey- (carbon dioxide, methane, etc.). Up to ate combustion techniques. Secondary ors and transported upwards to a grate. 10% biomass can be added to nearly all reduction measures to remove SOx are coal-ﬁred plants without major modiﬁ- not usually necessary because biomass Fluidised-bed combustion systems cations. Wood chips, willow chips, saw- combustion does not yield as much of are suitable for large-scale applications dust and organic waste are the forms of these pollutants as does coal combus- exceeding 30MWth in size. The biomass biomass most often used. tion. Solid ash and soot particles are, is burned in a self-mixing suspension of gas and solid bed material (usually Co-ﬁring is normally realised by what however, emitted by biomass combus- silica sand and dolomite) in which air is termed direct co-ﬁring, i.e. ﬁring tion. As these cause aerosol formation, for combustion enters from below. The the biomass and coal together in one additional gas cleaning is required to high heat transfer and mixing encour- combustion chamber of the power remove them. age complete combustion. Fluidised- plant boiler. However, a number of bed systems allow a good deal of other systems exist which come into 31 Electricity In 2002, some 43 TWh (i.e. about 0.15 EJ) Suitable steam engines are available electricity were produced from biomass for electricity production in the range in the EU. The target is to achieve some 50kWe to 1MWe and steam turbines for 162 TWh (0.58 EJ) biomass-derived the range 0.5MWe to 500MWe. electricity annually by 2010. About a The conventional steam turbine route third of this is expected to be achieved has a number of disadvantages. For in- via biomass-based combined heat and stance, the steam boiler has to be oper- power plants. ated at high temperatures and there can The usual route for producing electric- (Courtesy of EHN) be erosion of the turbine blades due to ity from biomass has two stages. The the presence of moisture. Turbogenera- biomass is converted to heat, which tors that work on the Organic Rankine is then used in generation of electric- Cycle (ORC) present a useful alterna- ity (or combined heat and power) us- tive. The ORC is similar to the cycle of a ing technology originally developed conventional steam turbine except that for conventional power production. the ﬂuid that drives the turbine is an or- A more modern approach, still at the ganic ﬂuid which can operate eﬃciently research stage, involves the use of fuel at lower temperatures to produce elec- cells. The biomass is converted to hy- tricity in the range 0.5MWe to 2MWe. The drogen, biogas or methanol which are organic ﬂuid operates in a closed cycle. then fed to suitable fuel cells, the out- It is vaporised in an evaporator by an (Courtesy of EHN) puts being heat and electricity. Further external heat source (such as biomass- information on both is given below. derived heat), The vapour expands in Biomass-based processes for the turbine and is then condensed and conventional power production pumped back to the evaporator. An example of biomass-based genera- tion of electricity by a process similar In the simplest route, the biomass is In a development which is applicable to that used in conventional power converted to heat by combustion, the to small-scale electricity production, production is the straw-burning power heat used to produce steam, and the lat- heat from biomass combustion is used plant which went into operation in ter used to drive steam piston engines as the external heat source for operation Sangüesa, Navarra, Spain in 2002. or turbines. Basic information on the of a Stirling engine. A 30kWe prototype conversion of biomass to heat is given plant has been built which has achieved With an installed capacity of 25MWe, earlier in this brochure. The subsequent around 20% electricity eﬃciency in com- it will, when operated for 8000 hours steps involve well-proven technologies. bined heat and power production. a year, consume 160,000 tonnes grain 32 straw and produce 720 TJ electricity. It duction for heating purposes, normally was designed to burn 100% grain straw for district or industrial heating. or 50% straw and 50% wood waste. When biomass is employed as fuel for Typical production costs for biomass- CHP plants, the availability of a stable based power were found to vary in 2002 and suﬃcient feedstock supply within between 7 and 20 €cents, depending a reasonable distance from the plant on feedstock and country. is essential. The use of biomass in CHP plants is one of the best options for Feedstock collection costs increase achieving simultaneously increased Hydrogen Fuel Cell roughly with the square of the distance bio-energy utilization and signiﬁcant from the plant. For this reason, the up- reductions in emissions. Renewable en- per size limit of a biomass-based power ergy sources, mainly biomass, already derived hydrogen, biogas or methanol. plant lies somewhere between 30MWe account for 13% of all fuel inputs to CHP Information on methods of converting and 100MWe. In general, they are below in the older member states. In the new biomass to these chemicals is given ear- 30MWe. This comparatively small size member states the ﬁgure is just 1%, in- lier in this brochure. Fuel cells require favours their operation as combined dicating that these countries have large very clean fuels and are sensitive to cer- heat and power plants (see below). unexplored opportunities to increase tain substances present in biomass, e.g. These can meet the district heating and their use of biomass fuels for CHP. sulphur. Therefore the major problem electricity needs of small communities. to be resolved by the research relates Fuel cell processes to the gas and methanol puriﬁcation. Combined heat and A research topic which is currently re- power production ceiving a good deal of interest is simul- Combined heat and power (CHP) plants taneous production of electricity and use the waste heat from electricity pro- heat by fuel cells driven by biomass- 33 Liquid biofuels The major market for liquid biofuels is els will depend to a large extent on how sociated with liquid biofuels manufac- in the transport sector, although prod- far the member states decide to take up ture are good: around 16 jobs per 1000 ucts have also been developed for di- this option – or, indeed, introduce ﬁscal tonnes biofuel can be created, mostly rect use in boilers and engines for heat and support measures of other kinds. in rural areas. and electricity production. As a result of technological develop- The following sections discuss some of In modern society, transport of people ments carried out over the past few the diﬀerent types of liquid biofuel in and goods plays a signiﬁcant role in years, transport biofuels come in a more detail. economic development, and requires variety of types, notably bioethanol, increasing amounts of energy. biodiesel and synthetic fuels (biomass- Bioethanol to-liquid or BTL fuel). Biodiesel is already Currently, some 98% transport fuels Bioethanol, a colourless liquid, is the well-known. BTL, on the other hand, is at used in the EU are petroleum-derived. most widely produced biofuel in the the beginning of its development. At the moment, the only technically world with Brazil and the US being the viable way of using renewable energy Manufacture is from agricultural re- leading producers. In 2003, world pro- resources to reduce EU dependence sources of diﬀerent kinds – currently, duction was 18.3 million tonnes. In the on fossil fuels in the transport sector is grain, sugar, oil crops, etc. For the fu- same year in the EU, 310,000 tonnes to increase the consumption of liquid ture, processes are being developed to were produced – some 17.8% of total biofuels. In 2004, the latter constituted allow lignocellulosic biomass to be a EU liquid biofuels production. (The close to 1% (corresponding to 2.4 mil- major additional source. Yields vary ac- major biofuel production in the EU is lion tonnes) of total EU petrol consump- cording to feedstock: about 1.2 tonnes biodiesel.) Despite the EU’s modest tion. However, production is growing at bioethanol can be produced from a production compared with other parts 26% a year and there are already a num- hectare of wheat and 4.1 tonnes from of the world, steady growth has been ber of players in the EU liquid biofuels a hectare of sweet sorghum. Generally achieved in the last decade. market. The EU target is to increase the speaking, production costs today are Bioethanol is mostly obtained by fer- share of liquid biofuels to 5.75% total high compared to petroleum-derived mentation of sugar beet, sugarcane, petrol consumption by 2010. Liquid products. It costs around twice as much corn, barley, wheat, woody biomass or biofuels can be used neat, or blended to make a litre of biofuels compared to black liquor. Production is generally in with petroleum-derived products. The a litre of petroleum-derived diesel (this large-scale facilities, such as those in possibility of using tax incentives to ratio obviously depends on the price of Abengoa in Spain. encourage more widespread use of crude oil), and it requires on average biofuels has been introduced into a EU 1.1 litres of biofuel to replace 1 litre of Most of bioethanol production today is Directive. The future fate of liquid biofu- diesel. The employment prospects as- based on feedstocks from food crops. 34 For the future, lignocellulosic biomass by 60-80% compared with pure petrol. A is expected to be an important feed- 10% ethanol-90% petrol blend reduces stock and its use would reduce com- emissions by up to 8%. The exact ﬁgure petition between the food and energy depends on the feedstock used to make industries for raw materials. the ethanol; a 10% blend using ethanol made from sugar, for instance, reduces Because the characteristics of lignocellu- harmful gases emissions by only 4%. losic biomass diﬀer from those of other forms of biomass, technologies for bio- Ethyl t-butyl ester (ETBE) is a biofuel, Biodiesel Plant Zistersdorf fuels production have to be adapted for made from bioethanol, with an octane (Courtesy of IEA Bioenery) its use. Over the past 30 years, consider- rating of 112 that can be blended with able research eﬀort has been put into petrol in proportions up to approxi- this area. The focus has been to produce mately 17%. Methyl t-butyl ester (MTBE) fermentable sugars from the lignocellu- has similar properties. losic material that can subsequently be converted into ethanol. Biomethanol Normal vehicles can run on a 15% blend Biomethanol is similar to bioethanol of bioethanol and gasoline. To use pure but is much more toxic and aggres- bioethanol, they need modiﬁcation. sive to the engine material. It can be Choren Plant (Courtesy of CHOREN) Flexible fuel vehicles adapt automati- produced from synthesis gas made by cally to run on fuels ranging from pure gasiﬁcation of biomass. petrol to a blend of 85% bioethanol- Biodiesel has the largest share of the Biodiesel 15% petrol known as E85. The additional EU’s liquid biofuels market: it accounted costs of manufacturing such vehicles on Chemically, biodiesel consists of methyl for some 79.5% of EU total liquid biofu- a mass scale, compared to normal vehi- (or ethyl) esters of fatty acids. (This can els production in 2004. Eight member cle manufacture, amount to 150€ a car. be abbreviated to FAME.) states have production facilities. Using ethanol in vehicles is beneﬁcial to In response to its established market for Biodiesel is produced by a chemical the environment because the emissions diesel engines, the EU is the principal process – the esteriﬁcation of fatty from ethanol are cleaner than those from region of the world with a developed acids produced from vegetable oils. petrol. A 85% ethanol-15% petrol blend market for biodiesel. Growth rates have Rapeseed oil is the most commonly- can reduce greenhouse gas emissions been 34% a year for over a decade. used feedstock because as much as 35 1-1.5 tonnes rapeseed oil can be pro- converted to bio-oil by pyrolysis as de- Other products duced per hectare of rape. However, scribed in the section on thermochemi- sunﬂower oil or, indeed, used cooking cal processes earlier in this brochure. Any consideration of biomass as an oils are also used as feedstock. This can be carried out in decentralised energy resource would be incomplete units close to the place of feedstock without a reference to its use as a feed- Like bioethanol, biodiesel is manufac- stock for non-energy products. This production. The bio-oil is then gasiﬁed tured in large facilities. is touched on in the discussion of the under high pressure (30 bar) and tem- Practically all diesel engines can run peratures (1200°C to 1500°C) to a high Bioreﬁnery earlier in the brochure. A on biodiesel or blends of biodiesel quality clean synthesis gas. Conversion few more details are given here. A wide with normal diesel. Using recently-de- of the latter to liquid fuel is carried out range of chemicals and materials can be veloped additives it is also possible to using a catalytic process known as the derived from biomass. This includes the blend diesel with ethanol for use in Fischer-Tropsch process that was origi- traditional plant-based products – for trucks. Emissions of carbon dioxide, the nally developed to produce liquid fuels example, oils, starch, ﬁbres, drugs – for major greenhouse gas, are 2.5 kg per from synthesis gas derived from coal. which there are already major estab- litre less for biodiesel than they are for lished industrial bases. It also includes The ﬁrst commercial plant for BTL-die- many other possibilities. For instance, fossil fuel diesel. Emissions of hydrocar- sel in the world is to be commissioned lubricants made from biomass oﬀer bons and soot are also lower for biodie- in 2009 in Freiburg, Germany. The ca- signiﬁcant environmental advantages sel than for fossil fuel-derived diesel. pacity will be 13000 tonnes a year. over their fossil fuel-based counter- In addition, biodiesel releases fewer solid particles and, because it contains Because of the high quality of the prod- parts. Printing inks, polymer additives, no sulphur, does not create SO2 which uct and ﬂexibility regarding feedstocks, and polymers can also be made from contributes to acid rain. NOx emissions, BTL-fuel is set to made a major contri- biomass. Linoleum, for example, can on the other hand, are somewhat high- bution to the EU biofuels market in the be made from linseed oil. Surfactants er because of the presence of nitrogen future. are another group of products capable in the biomass raw material. of being made from biomass. Some or- Bio-oil ganic solvents can also be vegetable- Synthetic fuel (BTL-fuel) derived as can some pharmaceuticals, As indicated in the discussion on BTL- colorants, dyes and perfumes. BTL fuel is a short term for biomass- fuel above, bio-oil’s main use is as a to-liquid fuel. Typical examples are valuable intermediate for production As indicated earlier, biomass has to be BTL-diesel and dimethylether (DME). of other products. However, it also has used wisely as an energy resource in a BTL-diesel has exceptionally good fuel a direct application in boilers and fur- way that allows optimal manufacture characteristics – high cetane index and naces for heat production and in static of other priority products – not only low sulphur and aromatics contents. It engines for heat and electricity genera- the chemicals and materials described meets all the standards for normal die- tion. In the future, it may have an appli- above, but also of food, wood products, sel fuel. DME is a fuel of diesel quality cation as a source of hydrogen. paper and board, etc. with physical characteristics similar to The yield of bio-oil from the solid biomass liquiﬁed petroleum gas (LPG). feedstock is about 75%. Bio-oil is much An advantage of BTL-fuel is its ﬂexibil- cleaner than the fossil fuel-based original ity regarding feedstocks. It is produced because it contains 100 times less ash. As in a two-step process involving, ﬁrst, a liquid, it makes a versatile energy carrier preparation of synthesis gas (a mixture since it can be pumped, stored, transport- of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) ed and burned without diﬃculty. Its en- from a biomass feedstock and, second, ergy density is about 20 GJ/m3 compared conversion of the synthesis gas into with 4 GJ/m3 for solid biomass. liquid fuel. The biomass feedstock is 36 Improving the prospects for bio-energy – what the EU is doing The previous chapters of this brochure European Commission in its White Pa- in the EU” published on 26 May 2003, have described the potential that ex- per “Energy for the future: renewable the Commission analysed the state of ists for using biomass as an energy re- sources of energy”, COM(97)599, pub- achievements in the individual sectors. source in the EU. Many diﬀerent types lished in 1997. For biomass, it recognised that eﬀec- of biomass feedstock exist that can be tive use of bioenergy in the future will The objective was reinforced in 2000 converted by a diversity of routes to depend on appropriate interactions when it was recognised that increas- useful products. Many of these process- between all related policies, such as ing the renewable energy share of the es are already being exploited. Others those dealing with energy, agriculture, energy mix would help meet the goal are currently being considered for pos- waste, forestry, rural development, en- set by the European Council of Lisbon sible use. There is a will on the part of vironment, ﬁscal aﬀairs and trade. The that the EU should become the most the EU and its member states to en- subsequent actions to encourage more competitive and dynamic knowledge- able widespread production and use of widespread bioenergy use therefore based economy in the world. It was es- biomass-derived energy in the future. encompass all these areas. timated at that time that, if renewable Since 1997, the EU has had an objective energy were to contribute 12% of the In July 2005, the Commission launched of meeting 12% of its total energy re- energy requirements of the EU member a four-year campaign to raise public quirements from renewable energy of states, some 500,000 to 650,000 people awareness on all aspects of sustainable some kind and has recognised that the would be employed by the renewable energy. This campaign aims to raise most of the renewable energy share will energy sector. awareness of decision-makers at local, need to come from biomass. In the pe- riod since 1997, many steps have been regional, national and European level, The 12% target was further underlined taken to support achievement of this spread best practice, ensure a strong in 2001 when the European Council of target. Much highly-successful research level of public awareness, understand- Gothenburg agreed a strategy for sus- has been carried out to develop and im- ing and support, and stimulate an in- tainable development and added an prove processes, reduce costs, support crease in private investment in sustain- environmental dimension to the Lis- the development of standards, etc. In able energy technologies. bon process. In its conclusions the 2001 addition, a good number of legislative Council invited industry to take on the Biomass will remain the EU’s main re- measures have been put in place. Re- development and wider use of environ- newable energy resource for years to cent analyses, however, have revealed mentally-friendly technologies in sec- come. The Commission is therefore that development is still too slow for tors such as energy and transport. also bringing forward in 2005 a co-or- the 12% objective to be met by 2010. In 2002, the idea that renewable energy dinated Biomass Action Plan to secure Further initiatives are therefore being could play a crucial role in sustainable adequate supplies of biomass through formulated. The following sections dis- development and climate change was European, national and regional action. cuss in more detail the political context, acknowledged at the world level in the The plan will co-ordinate and optimise the research and legislative steps that United National World Summit on Sus- Community ﬁnancial mechanisms, re- have been taken in the last few years tainable Development held in Johan- direct eﬀorts within all relevant policies to support the development and use of nesburg. and tackle the obstacles to the deploy- biomass for energy purposes, and the ment of biomass for energy purposes. challenges for the future. The European Commission is aware In the light of the high and so far un- of the challenges that face the EU in exploited biomass potential of many Political context reaching the targets for renewable of the new member states, the action The goal of meeting 12% of the EU’s energy use by 2010. In its communica- plan will pay speciﬁc attention to these energy requirements from renewable tion to the Council and European Parlia- countries. energy was ﬁrst introduced by the ment “The Share of Renewable Energy 39 Steps already taken Research Biomass has long been a subject of EU- An idea of the extent of this exciting projects were still ongoing. An analysis, funded research. For instance, the Fifth portfolio can be obtained by looking however, shows that important results Framework Programme for Research at the 2003 publication European Bio- are emerging and that the programme and Development (1998-2002) – FP5 Energy Projects 1999-2002, EUR 20808, is contributing to a large degree to the – has supported all aspects of bio- which can be seen on the Commission’s improvement and development of the mass-related research, committing a Directorate-General Research website technologies discussed in this bro- total budget of 140 million euros. Over at http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/ chure. Full details of the project results a hundred projects have been car- energy/pdf/european-bio-energy-proj- will be obtainable through the Cordis ried out by consortia of partners from ects.en.pdf. At the time of publication website http://www.cordis.lu/en/. member states and other countries. of the current brochure many of the A small sample of the many FP5 projects relevant to the discussions in this brochure In the area of biomass resources, the project Bio-energy chains for perennial crops in South Europe (BIO- ENERGY CHAINS) has been evaluating the performance of energy crops in an integrated bio-energy chain in order to identify the best options for bio-energy resources in southern Europe from the ﬁnancial, social and environmental viewpoint. Four energy crops are being studied – miscanthus, switchgrass, giant reed and cynara cardunculus (cardoon) – in small and large ﬁelds in Greece, Spain and Italy. Preliminary ﬁndings show that the switchgrass, giant reed and cardoon are readily established while miscanthus is more sensitive to soil and climate. All four crops show combustion and gasiﬁcation characteristics that are more similar to straw than to woody biomass. Among the projects on biomass conversion, the project Catalyst development for catalytic biomass ﬂash pyrolysis producing promising liquid bio-fuels (BIOCAT) has been developing an innovative ﬂash pyrolysis procedure involving the use of porous catalysts for converting various biomass feedstocks to high quality bio-oil without the use of external hydrogen, and testing the bio-oil in diesel engines and in the production of phenol-formaldehyde resins. Also in the area of biomass conversion, the project A new approach for the production of a hydrogen-rich gas from biomass: an absorption enhanced reforming process (AER-GAS) has been developing a new, eﬃcient and low-cost single-step gasiﬁcation process for conversion of a wide range of biomass feedstocks into a hydrogen- rich gas with a low tar content that is suitable for hydrogen fuel cell applications, fuel synthesis, etc. As indicated earlier, gas cleaning is a critical step in gasiﬁcation processes. The project Degradation of tarwater from biomass gasiﬁcation (DETAR) has been developing a process for treating eﬄuents from cleaning the output gas of biomass gasiﬁcation. The process involves supercritical wet gasiﬁcation and oxidation, assisted by catalysts. If liquid biofuels are to gain ground in the domestic heating market, availability of suitable boilers will be essential. The project Application of liquid biofuels in new heating technologies for domestic appliances based on cool ﬂame vaporization and porous medium combustion (BIOFLAM) has been developing a prototype boiler based on a cool ﬂame vaporisation process coupled to a ceramic porous burner that can use 100% conventional heating oil or blends with <20% biofuels. 40 The potential beneﬁts of co-combustion of solid biofuels along with coal in large-scale power stations have been discussed widely. However, the biofuels can introduce signiﬁcantly higher concentrations of toxic metals into the combustion process. The project Reduction of toxic metal emissions from industrial combustion plants – impact of emission control technologies (TOMERED) has been investigating emissions of metals such as mercury during co-ﬁring and developing control strategies for their reduction. As explained earlier, most of bioethanol production to date has been based on feedstocks from food crops. The ability to manufacture of bioethanol from lignocellulose would widen the usable feedstocks’ range. The project Technological improvement for ethanol production from lignocellulose (TIME) has been working to reduce the costs of bioethanol production by 10-20% in the medium- to long-term by improving the pre- treatment, enzyme development and process integration of the lignocellulose-to-bioethanol route. The importance of standards in developing the biofuels market is discussed later in this chapter. The project Pre-normative work on sampling and testing of solid biofuels for the development of quality management (BIONORM) has been established to support the work of the CEN Technical Committee concerned with standardisation in the ﬁeld of solid biofuels. The current programme, the Sixth - pre-normative research and standar- On 6 April 2005, the Commission ad- Framework Programme for Research disation opted a proposal for the Seventh Frame- and Development (2002-2006) – FP6, is - energy from bioresidues and energy work Programme (2007-2013) – FP7. It focusing on improving technologies and crops is designed to help realise the renewed reducing costs. For the short term, the Lisbon objectives of building the know- - biomass fractionation processes for programme is demonstrating new and ledge society and leveraging knowledge chemicals, energy and fuels (i.e. the improved technologies for electricity and innovation for growth and jobs. bioreﬁnery) production and the production and pro- - new methods for cost-eﬀective pro- Even if at the time this brochure is pub- cessing of liquid and gaseous biofuels. duction of clean biofuels for use in lished the proposal is still under discus- The main target for the medium to long combustion engines and fuel cells. sion between the institutions of the EU term is to reduce the costs of biofuels to and the member states, it is clear that 10€/GJ (i.e. 36 €cents per kWh) by 2020. A recent initiative, a technology platform research eﬀorts in the area of bioenergy The work programme for the medium- on biofuels that involves key players will be given a priority. to long-term research has the following from agriculture and forestry, the chemi- objectives and priority topics: cal and oil industries, vehicle manufac- - reliable and cost-eﬀective gasiﬁcation turers, etc., aims at increased research systems eﬀort in this important area. 41 Some large FP6 bioenergy projects Renewable fuels for advanced powertrains (RENEW) is an ambitious Integrated Project co-ordinated by Volkswagen, Germany. It is aimed at developing sustainable and eﬃcient transport fuels. The work is being carried out by 31 partners from industry, academia and European associations. The cost target is 70 cents/ litre gasoline equivalent. The emphasis is on products that can use the present distribution infrastructure. Wood, straw and energy crops are all being used to produce a spectrum of fuels including DME, methanol, ethanol and BTL using thermochemical and enzymatic conversion technologies. Two of the fuels (DME and BTL) will be produced at pilot scale for use in extensive motor tests by four leading European car manufacturers. Sixteen partners from 7 member states are collaborating in an Integrated Project Hydrogen from biomass (CHRISGAS), co-ordinated by the University of Växjö, to develop and optimise an energy-eﬃcient and cost- eﬀective method of producing hydrogen-rich gases from biomass. The process involves steam/oxygen gasiﬁcation, followed by hot gas cleaning to remove particulates, and steam reforming of tar and light hydrocarbons to further enhance the hydrogen yield. The Växjö Värnamo Biomass Gasiﬁcation Centre is being used as a pilot plant facility for the research work. The product gas can be upgraded to commercial quality hydrogen for use in fuel cells or converted to synthesis gas for further processing to liquid fuels such as DME, methanol or diesel. The Integrated Project New improvements for lignocellulosic ethanol (NILE), co-ordinated by IFP, France, aims at decreasing costs of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose using new engineered enzyme systems and removing constraints in the conversion of fermentable sugars to ethanol by constructing inhibitor- tolerant pentose-fermenting yeast strains. The centre of interest is on new enzymes and yeasts, e.g. those able to convert xylose to ethanol. Co-processing of upgraded bio-liquids in standard reﬁnery units (BIOCOUP) is an Integrated Project co- ordinated by VTT, Finland. Involving 18 partners from 7 countries, it is aimed at developing a chain of process steps to allow a range of diﬀerent biomass feedstocks to be co-fed to a conventional oil reﬁnery to produce energy and oxygenated chemicals. BIOENERGY NoE is a Network of Excellence co-ordinated by VTT, Finland, that involves eight leading European bioenergy institutes. The aim is to achieve integration of the partners’ research and development activities to build a comprehensive bioenergy R&D centre that will help Europe build a world-class bioenergy industry. Legislation Both fuels and wastes are strictly regu- - The promotion of electricity produced - The promotion of biofuels or other re- lated in most individual EU member from renewable energy sources (Di- newable fuels for transport (Directive states. In addition, a number of Euro- rective 2001/77/EC) 2003/30/EC). This is the key EU text pean directives which relate in some in the promotion of carbon-neutral - The limitation of emissions of certain way to biomass, its conversion process- fuels. It aims to raise the share of bio- pollutants into the air from large com- es and products, are important for the fuels sold in the EU to 2% by the end of bustion plants (Directive 2001/80/EC) whole Community. These cover: 2005 and to 5.75% by 2010. Member - A scheme for greenhouse gas emis- states are required to report to the Eu- - The landﬁll of waste (Directive sions allowance trading within the EU ropean Commission each year on the 1999/31/EC) (Directive 2003/87/EC) measures taken to promote biofuels, - The incineration of waste (Directive and the share of biofuels placed on 2000/76/EC) the market the previous year. 42 - Restructuring the Community frame- Challenges for the future and the work being carried out inter- work for the taxation of energy nationally through, say, bilateral eﬀorts products and electricity (Directive Despite all the achievements of re- and the International Energy Agency 2003/96/EC). This sets minimum rates cent years, much has still to be done if not only in biomass energy but also, of taxation for motor fuel for industrial biomass is to play a signiﬁcant role in where relevant, in other areas of ap- and commercial use, heating fuel and meeting the EU’s long-term needs for plied biotechnology, materials, phar- electricity. It states that, for as long as heat, electricity and fuels while reduc- maceuticals and agriculture. Community law does not lay down ing environmental problems through The overall objectives of the future mandatory targets, member states fewer emissions of greenhouse gases. research should be to provide cost- may exempt biofuels from fuel taxes, New energy crops, including marine eﬀective carbon-neutral fuels including or apply a reduced tax rate. Member biomass, will need to be introduced. renewable hydrogen. Of particular states’ decisions are for a maximum of Increased areas of land will need to be importance is the development of ad- six years (renewable). allocated for energy crop production. vanced technologies which improve Bioreﬁneries will need to be established eﬃciencies, enhance technological Legislation provides a solid base for reach- to allow integrated production of biofu- integration, and widen the range of ing the EU’s ambitious goals. In 2004, the els, high-value materials and chemicals. usable feedstocks. Research topics combined production of liquid biofuels in Biochemicals from lignin, and biohy- that would improve the competitive- the EU-25 was around 2.4 million tonnes/ drogen from cellulosics are two exam- ness with fossil fuels include, for exam- year (80 PJ/year). If, however, the objec- ples. Investment and production costs ple, halving of biomass-based power tives of the biofuels directives above will have to be reduced. At the moment generation costs, improving plant eﬃ- were achieved, the contribution of biofu- the costs of biofuels are up to two to ciencies by use of combined heat and els would increase by another 17 million three times the costs of petrol or diesel. power, production of biofuels from tonnes/year (796 PJ/year) by 2010. A biomass plant is more expensive than lignocellulosic materials and improved Standards fossil fuel plant for heating by a factor biochemical conversion processes us- of two. The diﬀerential between bio- ing new bio-catalysts and enzymes. Without standards there would be no mass and fossil fuels would be reduced market rules to govern the composi- During the present standardisation by improved conversion processes and tion and quality of biofuels – and con- work on solid biofuels considerable plant eﬃciencies and an increase in fos- sequently there would be no market. gaps in knowledge have been identiﬁed sil fuel prices. The existence of standards simpliﬁes that are hindering the writing of stan- communication between fuel suppli- Research, including pre-normative re- dards. It has been widely recognised ers and customers, enables equipment search, and policy adjustments all have a that additional pre-normative research and fuels to be designed for each other, crucial role to play in meeting these chal- is needed to remove obstacles to more ensures that delivered fuel meets tech- lenges. They are discussed brieﬂy below. widespread use of solid biofuels in the nical requirements, provides users with EU. This includes, for instance, the de- Research tools for determining the economic velopment of quality management sys- value of delivered fuels, etc. The EU is already a leader in world tems for the solid biofuels chain from terms in the scientiﬁc and technologi- production to the ﬁnal customer. Development of European standards cal aspects of biomass resources and for biofuels is carried out by the Euro- Policy development conversion. It has a high level of know- pean Standards Organisation (CEN), how and a strong research base. How- As explained earlier, use of biomass for generally under mandate from the Eu- ever, the reinforcement of EU research energy purposes depends on public ropean Commission. eﬀorts in strategic areas will be vital if policies in the ﬁelds of energy, agri- European standards for use of biodiesel realisation of the full potential for bio- culture, waste, forestry, rural develop- as an automotive fuel and as a heating mass is to take place. An integrated ap- ment, environment and trade. For the fuel were put into force in 2003. Stan- proach will need to be developed that biomass to take its anticipated place dards are under development for bio- includes sectors that could use and as an energy resource in the future, the ethanol for use in blends with gasoline, increase the value of bio-energy and interactions between these must be and for some of the blends themselves. biomass-based products. There should carefully thought through. Community Standards for solid biofuels are also be- also be increased collaboration with institutions will play a key role in imple- ing formulated. member states national programmes menting any needed adjustments. 43 Annexes Energy units conversion Petajoule (PJ) Megatonne oil equivalent Gigawatthour (GWh) (Mtoe) Petajoule (PJ) 1 2.388.10-2 277.8 Megatonne oil equivalent (Mtoe) 41.87 1 11630 Gigawatthour (GWh) 3.6.10-3 8.6.10-5 1 Unit abbreviations EJ exajoule = 1000 PJ = 1018 J PJ petajoule = 1 million GJ = 1015 J GJ gigajoule = 1 billion J = 109 J MJ megajoule = 1 million J = 106 J kWh kilowatthour = 3.6. MJ MWh megawatthour = 1000 kWh = 3.6 GJ TWh terawatthour = 1000 MWh = 3.6 TJ toe tonne oil equivalent Mtoe million tons oil equivalent MWe megawatt electric power MWth megawatt thermal power ha hectare km2 square kilometer 45 Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the following persons and organisations. J. Stammers Consultant K. Maniatis European Commission, DG TREN A. Lappas CPERI CERTH I. Vasalos CPERI CERTH F. Seyfried Volkswagen AG M. Rudloﬀ Choren M. Kaltschmitt IE Leipzig M. Parikka Swedish Agriculture University P. Claassen Wageningen University C. Panoutsou CRES R. Bendere Waste Management Association of Latvia W. Prins University Twente M. Sciazko Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal IEA Bioenergy Task 32 IEA Bioenergy Task 36 46 European Commission EUR 21350 – BIOMASS - Green energy for Europe Luxembourg: Ofﬁce for Ofﬁcial Publications of the European Communities 2005 – 46 pp. – 21.0 x 29.7 cm ISBN 92-894-8466-7 SALES AND SUBSCRIPTIONS Publications for sale produced by the Ofﬁce for Ofﬁcial Publications of the European Communities are available from our sales agents throughout the world. You can ﬁnd the list of sales agents on the Publications Ofﬁce website (http://publications.eu.int) or you can apply for it by fax (352) 29 29-42758. Contact the sales agent of your choice and place your order. KI-NA-21350-EN-C The brochure provides an overview of the current situation and future prospects for bio-energy in Europe taking into consideration the overall picture and diﬀerent uses of biomass resources. The brochure explains the beneﬁts of using biomass for energy purposes, the high-technology nature of today’s processes and equipment, and the roles of research and policy-making in the full development of this sector in the future. The text is divided into three main chapters covering biomass resources, conversion processes and energy products. The focus is on the European situation and, where appropriate, activities in other parts of the world are also described. The ﬁnal chapter presents what the EU is doing to improve the prospects for bio-energy. It gives information on the political context of the EU actions, what has already been achieved in terms of research, legislation, standardisation and the challenges for the future.