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Rolihlahla “Nelson” Mandela By Greg Long Project Overview Period1: Early years Childhood, education (through college) Period 2: activity Political Participation with the ANC (African National Congress) Anti-apartheid Arrest/ imprisonment First black president of South Africa Period 3: Aftermath Period 1: Childhood Education Background and Childhood Born into the Thembu Dynasty July 18, 1918 A „clan‟ like tribe Born Rolihlahla Mandela Means one who brings trouble upon himself. Great grandfather was king of the Thembu Dynasty Mandela could not succeed b/c his mother was of the Ixhiba clan. Father had 4 wives, 13 children 4 boys, 9 girls The Thembu later became subject to British control Education 1st of his family to go to school Started at age 7 Attended a Wesleyan mission school Was renamed Nelson After the British Admiral Henry Nelson who found it hard to pronounce Later attended Clarkbury Boarding Institute Where he learned about western culture Studied for his B.A. at Fort Hare University Was later expelled for being involved in a boycott by the Students' Representative Council against the university policies Fled to Johannesburg with a friend to escape arranged marriages Completed his education at the University of South Africa (1942) Period 2: Political Activity African National Congress A social democratic political party Founded to increase the rights of blacks Finally determined that Gandhi's peaceful tactics were not effective against apartheid Fought against South Africa And rival „tribe‟/ clans/ freedom groups These groups were at times employed by the govt. to hinder the ANC‟s progress Mandela‟s Political Activity Participated actively in ANC political movements Defiance Campaign (1952) Congress of the People (1955) He and good friend Oliver Tambo set up a law practice Provided free/low-cost representation for blacks who needed it for whatever cause Mandela was a supporter of the ANC‟s non-violent approach Later arrested along w/ 150 others December 1956 Charged with treason Later Mandela was put in charge of all the ANC‟s guerilla military activities (1961) Coordinated sabotage campaigns against S. African military and government targets Made plans for a guerilla war, just in case sabotage did not end apartheid Anti- Apartheid www.Dictionary.com definition of apartheid 1. A rigid policy of segregation of the nonwhite population. Tried to take on apartheid from a political and non- violent stand point Not successful Put violent pressure on the S. African govt. Arrest and Imprisonment of Nelson Mandela Arrested again August 5th 1962 CIA tipped off S. Africa govt. concerning his location Sentenced to 5 years in jail Imprisoned on Robben Island Remained there for 18 years In prison for a total of 27 years Was offered freedom in return for him calling of the armed attacks by President Botha Release of Mandela Released from Victor Verster Prison in Paarl on February 11, 1990 by president de Klerk And de Klerk also announced the acceptance of the ANC and other anti apartheid groups Mandela recognized this step in the right direction, but did not call off armed strikes President Mandela Mandela and the ANC won the popular vote making him the first black president ever in S. African history April 27 1994 With his presidency he ended apartheid After presidency later won the Nobel Prize for all his efforts Bibliography 1) Waldmeir, Patti. Anatomy of a Miracle: The End of Apartheid and the Birth of a New South Africa. London: Viking, 1997. "African National Congress Homepage." Nelson Rolihlahla MANDELA. ANC. 16 Mar 2007 <http://www.anc.org.za/people/mandela.html>. 3) "frontline: the walk of nelson mandela." PBS.org. May 1999. PBS. 16 Mar 2007 <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows /mandela/>. Picture Bibliography "South African Political Parties." South African Political Parties. 5 Apr 2007 <http://www.atlasgeo.net/fotw/images/z/za%7Danc.gif >. "1990: Freedom for Nelson Mandela." BBC News. 5 Apr 2007<http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/ 11/newsid_2539000/2539947.stm>. "Nelson Mandela." poster de. 6 Apr 2007 <http://www.poster.de/Anonymous/Anonymous-Nelson-Mandela- Freed-2505064.html>. Hart, Vivian. "DEMOCRATIC CONSTITUTION MAKING: THE SOUTH AFRICAN EXPERIENCE." 6 Apr 2007 <http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itdhr/0304/ijde/hart.htm>. "Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela." http://www.soweto.co.za/. 6 Apr 2007 <http://www.soweto.co.za/html/p_mandela.htm>.
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