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					Rolihlahla “Nelson” Mandela
         By Greg Long
                  Project Overview
 Period1: Early years
    Childhood, education (through college)
 Period 2:
              activity
     Political
        Participation with the ANC (African National Congress)
        Anti-apartheid
        Arrest/ imprisonment
        First black president of South Africa
   Period 3: Aftermath
Period 1:

 Childhood

 Education
         Background and Childhood
   Born into the Thembu Dynasty
    July 18, 1918
        A „clan‟ like tribe
   Born Rolihlahla Mandela
         Means one who brings trouble
         upon himself.
   Great grandfather was king of the
    Thembu Dynasty
        Mandela could not succeed b/c his
         mother was of the Ixhiba clan.
   Father had 4 wives, 13 children
        4 boys, 9 girls
   The Thembu later became subject
    to British control
                               Education
   1st of his family to go to school
      Started at age 7
   Attended a Wesleyan mission school
        Was renamed Nelson
           After   the British Admiral Henry Nelson who found it hard to pronounce
   Later attended Clarkbury Boarding Institute
        Where he learned about western culture
   Studied for his B.A. at Fort Hare University
        Was later expelled for being involved in a boycott by the Students'
         Representative Council against the university policies
   Fled to Johannesburg with a friend to escape arranged marriages
        Completed his education at the University of South Africa (1942)
 Period 2:

Political Activity
African National Congress
                A social democratic political
                 party
                Founded to increase the
                 rights of blacks
                Finally determined that
                 Gandhi's peaceful tactics
                 were not effective against
                 apartheid
                Fought against South Africa
                     And rival „tribe‟/ clans/
                      freedom groups
                        These  groups were at times
                          employed by the govt. to
                          hinder the ANC‟s progress
      Mandela‟s Political Activity
   Participated actively in ANC political movements
        Defiance Campaign (1952)
        Congress of the People (1955)
   He and good friend Oliver Tambo set up a law practice
        Provided free/low-cost representation for blacks who needed it for
         whatever cause
   Mandela was a supporter of the ANC‟s non-violent approach
        Later arrested along w/ 150 others December 1956
           Charged   with treason
   Later Mandela was put in charge of all the ANC‟s guerilla military
    activities (1961)
        Coordinated sabotage campaigns against S. African military and
         government targets
        Made plans for a guerilla war, just in case sabotage did not end
         apartheid
                      Anti- Apartheid
   www.Dictionary.com
    definition of apartheid
       1. A rigid policy of
        segregation of the nonwhite
        population.
   Tried to take on apartheid
    from a political and non-
    violent stand point
     Not    successful
   Put violent pressure on the
    S. African govt.
         Arrest and Imprisonment of
               Nelson Mandela
   Arrested again August 5th
    1962
        CIA tipped off S. Africa govt.
         concerning his location
        Sentenced to 5 years in jail
            Imprisoned   on Robben Island
        Remained there for 18 years
        In prison for a total of 27 years
   Was offered freedom in return
    for him calling of the armed
    attacks by President Botha
Release of Mandela
          Released from Victor
           Verster Prison in Paarl on
           February 11, 1990 by
           president de Klerk
          And de Klerk also
           announced the acceptance
           of the ANC and other anti
           apartheid groups
          Mandela recognized this
           step in the right direction,
           but did not call off armed
           strikes
President Mandela
            Mandela and the ANC won
             the popular vote making
             him the first black
             president ever in S.
             African history
              April   27 1994
          With his presidency he
           ended apartheid
          After presidency later won
           the Nobel Prize for all his
           efforts
                Bibliography
 1) Waldmeir, Patti. Anatomy of a Miracle: The End
  of Apartheid and the Birth of a New South Africa.
  London: Viking, 1997.
 "African National Congress Homepage." Nelson
  Rolihlahla MANDELA. ANC. 16 Mar 2007
  <http://www.anc.org.za/people/mandela.html>.
 3) "frontline: the walk of nelson mandela." PBS.org.
  May 1999. PBS. 16 Mar 2007
  <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows
  /mandela/>.
              Picture Bibliography
   "South African Political Parties." South African Political Parties. 5
    Apr 2007 <http://www.atlasgeo.net/fotw/images/z/za%7Danc.gif >.
    "1990: Freedom for Nelson Mandela." BBC News. 5 Apr
    2007<http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/
    11/newsid_2539000/2539947.stm>.
   "Nelson Mandela." poster de. 6 Apr 2007
    <http://www.poster.de/Anonymous/Anonymous-Nelson-Mandela-
    Freed-2505064.html>.
   Hart, Vivian. "DEMOCRATIC CONSTITUTION MAKING: THE
    SOUTH AFRICAN EXPERIENCE." 6 Apr 2007
    <http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itdhr/0304/ijde/hart.htm>.
   "Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela." http://www.soweto.co.za/. 6 Apr 2007
    <http://www.soweto.co.za/html/p_mandela.htm>.

				
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