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					 New Monarchies

Age of Exploration



   NO NOTES!
      (for now)
           True of False?
• 50% of foods we eat today were of American
  origin.

• FALSE. It’s actually closer to 30%.

• Name two important food items from the
  Americas.

• Corn and Potato
Why were Europeans resistant
 to eating American foods?
• There were rumors that these foods
  might cause the Plague.

• The Plague make recurring visits every
  couple of decades after the 1300s.
Before the Age of Exploration,
    what luxury goods were
    upper class Europeans
        accustomed to?
• Spices
• And Silk

• These came to Europe via the
  Silk Road
   What inventions were the
      “Key to Power?”

• Better ships, capable of carrying defensive
  weapons
• Better navigational tools
• Better maps
• Gunpowder and metalwork made much
  better weapons
• This all created a powerful military
  advantage over other civilizations
• “Unprecedented ability to kill and
  intimidate from a distance.”
  What year was Columbus’
“discovery” of the Americas?
• 1492

• What did Vasco da Gama explore?
• India (1498)

• What did Magellan do?
• Sailed around the world, discovering
  Indonesia and the Philippines in 1521.

• Who are the Philippines named after?
• Phillip II of Spain (named in 1543)
 Why did the British, Dutch,
  and French “aim North”?


Spain and Portugal already had
  claimed large parts of South
  America and the Caribbean
Time to Take Notes . . . Again!
What is the Columbian Exchange?
 • Exchange of Diseases
   – Smallpox and measles (old to new)
   – Syphilis and Yellow Fever (new to old)
   – 50-80% of native population killed
   – Where?
      • Central, South America
      • Polynesia and the Pacific Coast
 • Exchange of Goods
   – Corn, potatoes to Old World
   – Horses and Cows to New World
  What is Mercantilism?
• Don’t import goods – EXPORT
• Take resources from colonial
  areas
• Produce finished goods at home
• Export to colonies or sell to other
  countries without resources
     What is a Dependent
         Economy?
• Produces low-cost goods
  – Precious metals
  – Cash crops: sugar, spice, tobacco,
    cotton
  – Uses slave labor
  – Receives finished/manufactured
    goods from Europe
      Which countries
specifically chose to be out
  of the World Economy?
• Japan
  – No foreign travel or trade
• Korea
• China
  – Trade and contact with the West
    through Macao only
     Minor players in world
             trade

•   India
•   Ottoman Empire
•   Russia
•   Africa
 Impact of Colonialism on
     Western Europe
• Rivalries added to existing hostilities
• More wealth and capital
• Increasing emphasis on manufacturing,
  reduced dependency on agriculture
• Items produced in colonies in great
  numbers become widely available to
  more social classes
   – Sugar
      • Before – a costly luxury item
New Monarchs
    and
 Exploration
Characteristics of the New Monarchies
 • Guarantee law and order
 • Hereditary monarchy is the most
   legitimate form of public power.
   – Tolerated no resistance
 • Support of the urban middle class
   – Final decline of local power of feudal
     nobles
 • Centralized government
   – National Laws
   – National Taxes
   – National Church
     More Characteristics
•  Reduced power of clergy
•  Lack of “hereditary” rights for most
•  Reduced emphasis on “common law”
  – Law derived from statutes and
     constitutions instead of judicial
     decision
  – “What pleases the prince has the force
     of law”– Monarchs have the authority to
     make laws
• Made the middle classes more powerful
  – Their wealth helps stabilize the economy
  – They demand political power
Examples of New
  Monarchies
  England (Tudors)
       France
  Spain (Phillip II)
The Divine Right of Kings
  • Rule by the will of God, not the will of the
    people, a parliament, or other nobility.
  • Any attempt to restrict the powers of a
    monarch is contrary to the will of God
  • A king cannot be removed due to
    “misrule”
  • Tradition goes back to St. Augustine: a
    monarch is appointed by God to protect
    the “City of Man”
  • Monarchs believed they were “God’s
    representatives on earth.”
The Tudors
                  Henry VIII
• Annexed Wales in
  1535
• Catholic property
  taken by Henry
• Various Acts of
  Succession
  – 3rd Act (1543): puts
    Mary and Elizabeth in
    line behind Edward
    and any further
    children by Henry
Sir Thomas More
      Humanist, Catholic

      Author of “Utopia”

      Convicted of Treason
       because he refused to
       support Henry’s divorce
       from Anne.
      Executed 1534
   Thomas Cranmer: “Unity without
            Uniformity”
• Author of “10 Articles” –
  Main points of the new
  Church
• Wrote the Book of
  Common Prayer
• Executed as a heretic by
  Mary Tudor
  – She wanted to reconcile
                              Archbishop of Canterbury
    Church of England with    for Henry and Edward
    Roman Catholicism
                 The Wives
•   Katharine of Aragon
•   Anne Boleyn
•   Jane Seymour
•   Anne of Cleves
•   Katharine Howard
•   Katharine Parr – outlived Henry
    Edward Tudor
• 1537-1553
• King at 9 years old
  – England ruled by greedy
    advisors
• Anglo-Scottish wars
• Enclosure Movement began

• Protestant reform
  – Act of Uniformity: 1549
     • BCP is sole form of worship in
       England
     • Anti-Catholic notes
Lady Jane Grey
• Gr. Grand-daughter
  of Henry VII
• Father in law is an
  advisor to Edward
  – Manipulates marriage
    to place his son and
    Jane on the throne
• Ruled for 9 days in
  1553
• Executed by Mary
  Tudor
                      Mary Tudor
• Catholic, crushed Protestant
  rebellion
   – Executed 300 “Bloody Mary”
   – Unpopular: repealed laws
     passed by Edward
   – Heretics killed, property
     returned to Church
   – Protestant rebels rally around
     Elizabeth
• Plantation of Ireland to
  solidify claim
• Married to her cousin, Phillip
  II of Spain (age 37)
   – No children
   – Unpopular marriage
• 1558-1603
                              Elizabeth I
• Religious settlement
  of 1559
  – Act of Supremacy
     • E. is supreme
       governor of the
       Church of England
  – Act of Uniformity
     • Church attendance
       required
     • But some
       consideration given
       to Catholic elements
       of the new Church
Mary, Queen of the Scots
           • Became queen of
             Scotland at 6 days old
             (1542)
           • Was betrothed to
             Edward Tudor, her
             cousin
           • Alliance fell apart and
             Mary married the future
             French king (no
             children)
           • Later married for love
• Valid claim to the English
  throne after Elizabeth         Mary Stuart
• Catholic. Faced religious
  war in Scotland.
   – Calvinists vs. Catholics
• Married Lord Darnley (who
  also had a claim to the
  English throne).
   – Their child inherits a
     strong claim
   – Eventually James I of
     England
• Captured by disloyal troops,
  imprisoned, executed for
  treason against Elizabeth
  after 18 years
Mary I of     Father:          Paternal           Paternal Great-
            James V of       Grandfather:          grandfather:
Scotland
             Scotland        James IV of        James III of Scotland
                               Scotland           Paternal Great-
                                                   grandmother:
                                                Margaret of Denmark
                               Paternal         Paternal Great-
                            Grandmother:         grandfather:
                            Margaret Tudor    Henry VII of England
                                                 Paternal Great-
                                                 grandmother:
                                                Elizabeth of York
              Mother:          Maternal       Maternal Great-grandfather:
            Mary of Guise    Grandfather:      René II, Duke of Lorraine
                            Claude, Duke of        Maternal Great-
                                Guise               grandmother:
                                                  Phillipa of Guelders
                               Maternal       Maternal Great-grandfather:
                             Grandmother:     François, Count of Vendôme
                             Antoinette de         Maternal Great-
                               Bourbon              grandmother:
                                                 Marie de Luxembourg
      The Scottish Inheritance
• Elizabeth will die without an heir
• Some branches of the family are not
  acceptable heirs:
  – Catholics
  – Relatives of Lady Jane Grey
• The Scottish King, James VI, is the only
  reasonable alternative
England –
 James I
   James VI of Scotland, James I of
            Great Britain
• 1603-1625
• The True Law of Free Monarchies
   – Divine right of kings
• Dissolved parliament many times
• Sold titles to raise money
   – Favored “new” nobility – more loyal
   – Denied privilege to “old” nobility – tied to
     past and primarily Catholic
• Religious troubles
   – Puritans want more reform
   – Religious tolerance: permitted Catholicism
     in England and Calvinism in Scotland
England – Court of the Star Chamber
 • TUDOR ERA: law court beginnings as
   meetings of the king’s royal council

 • Heard appeals from lower courts
   – Cases of public disorder
   – Property rights – especially land related
   – Public corruption
   – Trade and government

 • Could order torture, prison and fines, but not
   the death sentence
Court of the Star Chamber
• STUART ERA: power grew
   – Tool of the king -- misuse and abuse of
     power
   – James I and his son Charles used the court
     to:
      • suppress opposition to royal policies
      • try nobles too powerful to be brought to
        trial in the lower courts
• Secret sessions, no right of appeal, punishment
  was swift and severe to any enemy of the
  crown.
• Abolished in 1641
 France
  in the
   15th–
   16th
centuries
                 France
• Becomes less feudal, more centralized
  – Strong, absolute monarchy
  – Divine Right of Kings

• Rise of the Valois monarchs
The Valois Dynasty in
       France
Louis XI – the “Spider King”
        • Born 1423- Died 1483 (Ruled
          from 1461)
        • Ousted own father from power
        • Removed power from nobles,
          clergy to enhance his power
        • Beginnings of strong French
          state
           – Large army to secure
             borders
           – Taxes
              • Revenue used to
                purchase political
                support
“His Majesty” Francis I
     • 1494-1547 (Ruled from 1515)
     • “Absorbed” last independent
       fiefdoms (Burgundy)
     • French -- official language
     • State councils greater power than
       Church councils
        – Estates General – never called
        – King’s Council – ruled on
          justice, taxes, military
        – Counseil des Affaires
           • Small advisory group
           • Clashed with the Parlement
             de Paris –weakened
             Provincial parlements owe
             loyal to king
     Francis and Finances
– Taxes
   • Taille: direct tax on people and property.
     Doubled.
   • Gabelle: salt tax. Tripled.
   • Why? Palaces and wars were extremely
     expensive
   • 1542: Rebellion over Gabelle

– Raised revenue:
   • Sold crown jewels
   • Sold crown lands
   • Sold political offices
     Francis and Religion
• Early Reformation: Francis was tolerant of
  Protestants
   – Reformers in Paris are condemned by
     Parlement; therefore, Francis supports
     them

• Concordat of Bologna
  – 1516. Francis can appoint 600 church
    offices
  – Increases king’s power
  – Diluted power of Parlement de Paris
                    Henry II
• Married Catherine de
  Medici
• Wars with Austria (in
  Italy)
• Liberate Italy from
  Charles V
• 1559: Wars shift to the
  Low Countries
• Henry loses                  Long-term
   – Must relinquish claims    affair with
     to Italy                  Diane de
                               Poitiers
• Gruesome death
   Francis II
• Married Mary Stuart
• France hopes to gain
  control of Scotland through
  Mary.
• Their children will have a
  claim to France AND
  England (through Mary)
• King at 15
• Dead at 16
        Charles IX and Henry III
• Charles – King at 10, dead at 24
• Physically weak, Mother claimed he was
  crazy

•   Henry – Favorite of Catherine de Medici
•   Well Educated
•   No Children
•   Assassinated by a Catholic Monk
           The End of
      the Valois Kings . . .

The Beginning of the Bourbon Kings
Huguenots: Protestants in France
• 1562 = French Wars of Religion
   – Partly dynastic struggle between Bourbon and
     Guise
• St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre – 1572
   – 1000’s killed in Paris, 100,000 in countryside
• Edict of Nantes – 1574
   – Henry IV grants equality between C. and H.
   – But . . . no new H. churches
• Edict of Fontainebleau – 1685
   – Revokes Nantes
                      Henry IV
                      1553-1610
             • A Huguenot
             • Catholic League attempted to
               deny his claim.
                – Catholic League: “Ultra
                  Catholics”: the Pope and
                  Phillip II
                – Elizabeth I supported him
             • Converted to Catholicism
               during Wars of Religion
 “Paris is   • Edict of Nantes: offered
well worth     religious toleration for French
               Protestants
 a mass”
      France: Royal Council
• Appointed by the king from among the
  following:
   – Princes of the Blood (the most senior
     nobles)
      • Everyone descended directly from the
        Capet line of kings (from 900 AD)
   – Senior prelates
      • “prelate” = preferred member of the clergy

            Sets up a system of unequal
                   representation
       French Parlement
• Court of appeals – ruled on king’s
  laws on a local level.

• Francis I began selling the right to be
  on a parlement.

• Became a hereditary position
  France: Estates-General
• Estates-General was an assembly of
  the different classes of French society

• Only gathered when the king saw
  benefit (to raise taxes, for example)
England and France -- Differences
• England: stability
  – Parliament has some control over king

• France: constant warfare and long-lasting
  effects from the 100 Years War left a sense of
  instability
         – No unity of purpose
         – King used representatives in the
           provinces to govern for him (parlements)
         – Local traditions, ancient privilege still
           played an important role, even though
           kings reduced the roles of nobility and
           clergy
Empire of Charles V
The Habsburg Dynasty
Charles V

   • 1500-1558

   • Most powerful man
     in Europe

   • Abdicated in 1559

   • Habsburg Empire
     split in 2
Structure of the Holy Roman
           Empire
• Voltaire: “Neither holy, nor Roman, nor
  an Empire”
• Cross between a state and a religious
  confederation
• No strong unity
• Dwindling power
• Leaders chosen by Princes (Electors)
• Eventually becomes a Hapsburg hereditary
  title
Charles V: Religious Problems
• Rift in the Church
  – Diet of Worms – 1521
  – Peasant’s War – 1524-26
  – Schmalkaldic League
  – Council of Trent – 1545
     • Beginnings of the Counter-Reformation
  – Peace of Augsburg – 1555
     • Each prince chooses his religion
        Charles and Spain
Several domestic problems
   – Because he ruled so much of Europe, his
     Spanish subjects distrusted him
• Mostly an absentee ruler
   – nobles attempted to gain power
   – Charles appointed friends and relatives to
     powerful positions in Spain
• Demands more money from Spain to
  finance war against France and Ottomans
• Revolt is inevitable
    Charles V: Political and
     Economic Problems
• Wars with France
  – Italian Wars


• War with the Ottoman Empire
  – Turks press westward, nearly to Vienna
Kingdoms of Spain: 1492
   Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain
• Reconquista – Since the Muslim invasion,
  Catholics pushed out Moors and Jews (mostly
  middle class)
• Two types of Conversos:
   – Moriscos: New Christians of Moorish origin.
      • Moors were given the choice to become
        Catholic or leave Spain for North Africa

  – Marranos: Spanish Jews
     • Secretly maintained ancestral traditions
     • Many leave Spain for Venice and Ottoman
       Empire
             Inquisition
• Inquisition -- Keeps Spain Catholic, not
  Protestant
   – Keeps out modern ideas, reform
   – Targets conversos, especially Jews
      • Begins anti-Semitism in Europe
      • 4000 Jews murdered in Portugal
      • 1509: Germany begins persecuting Jews

• By 1600, Spain as a nation begins to decline
  – As wealth from New World increases, less
    attention is paid to nation-building.
 Phillip II of Spain and Portugal
           1526-1598      Son of Charles V
International problems
   – With Netherlands: Revolt

  – With France: Joined the Pope in French Wars of
    Religion (1562)

  – With England (1588): Spanish Armada, death of
    Mary Stuart

  – Ottoman Empire
     • Control of the Mediterranean
        – Turks finally defeated at
          Lepanto in 1571
The Empire of Phillip II
Phillip II and Domestic Problems
  – Spain is still not truly united
     • Each province has its own Cortes –like
       France -- Inefficient government
  – Agriculture: de-emphasized farming,
    leading to reliance on food imports
  – Middle/Lower classes pay taxes, upper
    classes and clergy are exempt
  – Industry suffers, due to high taxes
  – Spain becomes dependent on revenue
    from the New World
  – Economy falters
      El Escorial 1563-1584
•   Baroque
•   Monastery
•   Art Museum
•   Royal Apartments
    Phillip II and the Spanish
          Armada -- 1588
• 130 ships, 30,000 men
• Sent to eliminate
  English support for
  Spanish territory in the
  Low Countries
• Discourage attacks on
  Spanish possessions in
  the New World
• Supported by the Pope –
  Why?
Elizabeth Speaks to the Navy
August 8, 1588
“I have come amongst you as you see, at this time,
  not for my recreation and disport, but being
  resolved in the midst and heat of the battle to
  live or die amongst you all, to lay down for
  my God and for my kingdom, and for my people,
  my honour and my blood, even in the dust. I
  know I have the body of a weak and feeble
  woman, but I have the heart and stomach
  of a king, a king of England.
               The Battles
• Cadiz: Before ships even set sail, Drake sails to
  Spain and sinks Spanish ships!
• Gravelines (near Flanders). Why sail there first?
   – Only 3 Spanish ships sank
   – 2000 Spanish deaths, only a few hundred
     British
   – Spanish ships still a threat as they attempt to
     retreat
• “Protestant Wind”
   – Armada must sail around northern England
   – Storms – most ships wrecked
      • 5000 Spanish dead
      • No English ships lost
   – Remainder of fleet returns to Spain
The Growth of the Ottoman Empire
          Ottoman Empire
• Peak of Power: Invaded Constantinople in 1453

• Dominant naval force in the Mediterranean until
  1571

• Helped evacuate Muslims and Jews from Spain
  – Various ethnic groups could exist side-by-side

• Economic alliance with France
   – Common enemy: Charles V
   – France could trade within the Ottoman Empire
     without taxation
            The Decline
• Decline: Part 1
  – Naval superiority challenged by
    Europeans with modern technology
     • Lepanto 1571
  – Two long wars: Persia and Austria-
    Hungary (war on two fronts)
  – Inflation leads to severe domestic
    problems – especially rebellion

• Decline: Part 2
  – Long, slow decline
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571
             • Ottomans vs. Holy League
               (Venice, Portugal, the
               Hapsburgs, Spain, Papal
               States)

             • Significance: Signals end
               of Ottoman superiority in
               the Mediterranean

             • Ottoman Casualties
               – 9,000 dead
               – 30,000 wounded
               – 137 ships captured
               – 50 ships sunk
    Commercial Revolution
        1500-1700
• Roots in Middle Ages (Hanseatic
  League)
• Population of Europe increases 20
  million between 1500 and 1600. More
  consumers than ever.
• States wanted to increase their
  economic power – trade flourishes
• The middle class encourages capitalism
   Commercial Revolution
• Banking
   – Germany, Antwerp, Amsterdam become
     centers for economic activity (Loans)
• Chartered Companies
   – State-run monopolies in certain areas
      • British and Dutch East India
        Companies
      • Very powerful: own navies, armies,
        soldiers
• Joint Stock Companies
   – Investors pool resources for a common
     purpose
   Commercial Revolution
• Enclosure Movement (England)
   – Wealthy landowners enclose land
   – No longer can any man graze his livestock just
     anywhere
   – Forces poorer classes to seek jobs
• Cottage Industry
   – Small-scale production of textiles at home
   – Work with a middle-man
• New Industries
   – Cloth, lace, mining, printing, ship building
• New consumer goods
   – Sugar, rice, tea, tobacco
The Lacemaker,
 Jan Vermeer,
     1669
             The Fuggers
• Ambitious German
  banking family

• Jakob Fugger
   – Loaned money to
     Charles V to
     purchase his
     election as Holy
     Roman Emperor
     over Francis I of
     France.
              Capitalism
• Economic system
  – Means of production are mostly privately
    owned

  – Capital (money) is invested in the
    production, distribution, and trade of
    goods and services for profit.

  – Developed in Europe between the 16th and
    19th centuries

  – The Western world's dominant economic
    system
              Mercantilism
• Main Idea: There is only a fixed amount of wealth
  in the world. All nations are in competition for a
  share of it.
• Goal: nations want a self-sufficient economy
• Strategy: create balance of trade that favors
  exports over imports
   – Take resources from colonial areas
   – Produce finished goods, export
• Bullionism: acquire as much gold and silver as
  possible
   – Nations did not want all their valuable gold
     flowing to another nation
       Significance of the
     Commercial Revolution
• Gradual transition from rural to urban

• Peasants in western Europe can improve their
  economic and social condition by taking jobs

• Wealth can be taxed
  – This funds public works

• Taxes also help fund exploration

• The “Price Revolution” causes even more to be
  produced
          Price Revolution
• Increasing population > increasing need for goods >
  increasing prices

• Inflation stimulates production
   – producers can get more for their money due to
     increased demand
   – Increases wealth
   – Consumers don’t have a choice, must pay higher
     cost if they want/need the product

• Middle class increases status with increase in
  wealth
• Peasant farmers: can sell excess crops for a higher
  profit
• Nobility: standard of living decreases (their income
  from rent and taxes cannot change rapidly)
       Middle Classes – the
          “Bourgeoisie”
• First seen in Italian city-states
• Netherlands: Most powerful class (mostly
  due to trade and banking)
• France: power grows at expense of nobility
• England: members of parliament, political
  power grows
• “Richer” standard of living
   – More variety in food (including “exotic”
     items from trade
   – Better housing, clothing, education
The Tulip: a status symbol
       • Introduced by the Dutch in the
         16th century (from Turkey)
       • Wildly popular, very expensive –
         the best status symbol
       • In 1623, a single bulb of a famous
         tulip variety could cost as much
         as a thousand Dutch florins when
         the average yearly income at the
         time was 150 florins.
       • Tulips were also exchanged for
         land, valuable livestock, and
         houses
       • The Tulip market crashed in 1637
      The Working Poor
• Unskilled laborers, unemployed,
  unemployable, and paupers
• Illiterate
• Unpleasant, physically demanding, or
  dangerous jobs
• English Poor Law of 1601
• The poor are seen as a public
  nuisance
  England: Poor Law 1601
• Relief for the poor funded through taxes
• Families were paid to take in orphans or
  young children whose parents could not
  afford to keep them
• Food and clothing was provided to those
  unable to work (disabled, ill, old)
• Children were sent to be apprentices
• Able-bodied beggars were sent to jail
• Able-bodied poor were sent to a workhouse
  – Housing, food in exchange for work
The Beggars, Pieter Brueghel, 1568
Peasant Wedding, Pieter Brueghel, 1568
   Life in the 16th/17th Centuries
• Education or
  wealth = moving up
  the social ladder

• Rapid urban
  population growth
  slows by 1650

• Food and Diet:
   – Poor rely on
     bread
   – Upper classes
     have plenty of
     cheese, meat,
     sweets
                       Vermeer: “The Milkmaid” -- 1660
         Life in the 16th/17th
               Centuries
• Family Structure:
   – Nuclear, patriarchal
   – Lifespan among poor = 27 for men, 25 for
     women
   – Children work for parents
   – Marriage delayed at this point until mid-late
     twenties
       Entertainment




Peasant Dance, 1568, Pieter Brueghel
    Education in the 16th/17th
            Centuries
• Elementary: reading (vernacular and Latin),
  writing, arithmetic, religion
• Universal elementary schooling is the ideal, but
  wars, insufficient resources, make this difficult
• Schools = instruments of social reform
• Secondary schooling: emphasis on Christian works
• Schools under church control
• Use of the vernacular – “real world” language
• Growth of Realism and Empiricism
   – interest in observation of natural world
   – scientific method
   – gaining control over nature
   – Francis Bacon, "Knowledge is power"
Eastern Europe in 1550
          Eastern Europe
• Only the aristocracy benefits from the
  commercial revolution

• Peasants gradually become serfs – tied to
  the land and landowner
   – Without a strong central government, the
     local lord is the serfs ever know
   – Cannot leave the manor, marry, or learn
     a trade without the lord’s permission
   – Owe at least 3-4 days of labor for the lord
Age of Exploration
       Early Explorations
Islam & the Spice Trade  Far East


1405-1431 : Chinese (Ming Dynasty)
  Economic reasons (trade)
  Social/Political reasons – extend sphere of
  influence
  Thirst for knowledge
  Went as far as Mecca
A Map of the Known World -- pre- 1492
• 1325: still no regular sea traffic between
  northern and southern Europe by way of the
  Atlantic
• 1500: all this had changed


• 1350: same amount of time to sail from one
  end of the Mediterranean to the other as it had
  1000 years before


• 1400: Europeans knew little more of the
  world's surface than had the ancient Romans
Why did Europeans begin
 exploring at this time?
      Population Issues?
• Overcrowding is NOT a factor

• Europeans were not motivated to leave
  Europe in the 15th century as they
  would be in the late 19th century
  Reason 1 – Strong National
        Governments
• Explorations were encouraged by strong
  monarchies
   – Monarchs are wealthy and organized enough to
     finance such a venture

• Italy and Germany lacked centralized governments,
       No Exploration

• Europeans might have reached the new world
  earlier if they had not they been held back by lack
  of technology, political disunity, and poorly
  developed economic systems.
   – For example, the Portuguese had found the
     Azores in 1350 and these islands were one-third
     of the way to the new world
   Reason 2 – Scarce Items
• Europeans were looking for the things they
  could not produce themselves
   – Spices, silk, cotton cloth, and precious stones
   – The Venetian monopoly in spices set very high
     prices
      • Between 1495-99, the price of pepper doubled
      • Vasco da Gama found pepper costing 80
        ducats in Venice could be had for only 3 in
        India

• John Cabot of England was looking for cod
   – Cod supplies were dwindling in the North Sea
   – North Banks Cod off Newfoundland is bigger,
   – The oil is what makes the profit, not the meat
 Reason 3 – The Renaissance
• Middle Ages: Europeans had no desire to look
  beyond the boundaries of Christendom

• Renaissance and Humanism: curiosity as to what
  lay beyond their known world

  – Rediscovery of Ptolomy's “Geography” in
    1409
     • Believed the earth to be a sphere
     • Renewed interest in exploring “the other side
       of the world”
Reason 4 – New Inventions
• Improved magnetic compass

• Astrolabe permitted the plotting of latitude

• Better maps

• Better weaponry to protect sailors

• Printing press: published accounts of early
  explorers, including Marco Polo (China)
Reason 5 -- Commercial Revolution
 Investments in overseas exploration




Reason 6 - -Religious Reasons
Religious desire to convert pagan peoples in the
New World




Reason 7: A Population on the Move
The Reformation refugees – displaced people
          Other Reasons
• Reason 8: Christian Crusaders in 11th &
  14th centuries created European interest in
  Asia and Middle East

• Reason 9: Rivalry: Portugal and Spain
  wanted to break the Italian monopoly on
  trade with Asia.

• Reason 10: Fame and Fortune: Explorers
  had an innate desire to discover something
  only dreamed of. It’s human nature.
    New Maritime Technology




    Astrolabe
     A circular
instrument used to
    observe and
   calculate the
position of celestial
       bodies           Better Maps

Known to Greeks, it
 had been improved
in the 15th Century.
New Weapons Technology
Shipbuilding Technology
– Galleys: Pre-Renaissance, narrow open boats
   • Rowed by large crew
   • one small mast
   • Acceptable for the Mediterranean Sea which
     was well mapped, but they would have sunk
     quickly in the rough seas of the Atlantic

– The Portuguese developed the caravel in the
  15th century
   • Three-masted ship – better use of wind power
   • Smaller than a galley, but could actually hold
     more cargo, and could be sailed by as few as
     12 men
Prince Henry, the Navigator
             Curiosity about the world
              (not destined to rule –
                he was the 4th son)
               School for Navigation,
                       1419
               Financed voyages for
                Portugal’s glory and
              wealth, but also for God.


              Under his direction, the
             caravel, a better seafaring
                ship was developed
                    Portugal
• Geography: Isolated, looking away from Europe.

• Moved southward along the African coast, looking for
  route around Africa to India
   – Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)

• Discovered the West African gold and slave trade
   – First slaves in Europe: 1444

• 1488: Dias goes around the Cape of Good Hope
• 1490s: da Gama reaches Indian Ocean, returns with
  spices
   – Sea routes much safer than overland Silk Road
   – Accidentally discovered Brazil in 1500
• Portuguese Empire dependent on sea power
   – Trading ports from Africa to China
   – No attempt to create permanent settlements
   “Christopher Columbus,” aka
Cristofo Colon, Cristofero Columbo
• Genoese by birth

• Financed by the Catholic monarchs (Isabella and
  Ferdinand)

• Ultimately located all the major islands in the
  Caribbean

• Results:
   – Converts to the Church
   – Gold
   – New Land to settle by hidalgos
      • Expected the Spanish crown to give them land
        and wealth following the fall of Granada but
        there was none to give
       Spain: Columbus’ Voyages




Traveled about 90-100 miles per day

Voyage 1: 33 days at sea, Hispaniola
Voyage 2: 21 days (Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico)
Voyage 3: Revolt by Spanish settlers, Columbus sent
back to Spain as a prisoner
Voyage 4: South to Panama
Columbus’
  Four
 Voyages
1492-1504
       Columbus and Gold
• Gold was not mined on a grand scale
• Placer Mining
   – Tedious
   – Indian labor
   – Disease and overwork:
     • population of Hispaniola fell from one million in
       1493 to 100,000 by 1510
  – Black slaves imported from Guinea to do the
    mining
  – Mining results were small. Voyages not
    financially profitable.
  – Forces many to believe the myth of “El Dorado”
        Treaty of Tordesillas
• 1493, 1494

• Divided the world
  outside of Europe
• Exclusive to Spain and
  Portugal

• The lands to the east
  (Africa and India) would
  belong to Portugal and
  the lands to the west to
  Spain.


1529: Treaty of Zaragoza
  Line was extended through both poles and
  encompassed the entire world.
   Other Spanish Explorers
• 1513, Balboa saw an ocean after crossing the
  isthmus of Panama

• Magellan: Sent to find a sea route to the “new”
  ocean
   – Precarious: 38 days to pass through the
     straights
   – The ocean he found on the other side was so
     calm, he named it the Pacific
• Arrived in the Philippines about 1516/1517
   – Killed

   – Result:
      • Proved the earth was round
      • Larger than once thought
      • No wealth like the Portuguese
Ferdinand Magellan & the First
Circumnavigation of the World
 Spanish Maritime Empire
• Discovered all major people of the New
  World – Mayas, Incas, Aztecs
• Discovered immense wealth, thriving
  civilizations
• Three G’s: God, Glory, Gold
• Conquest and Colonization – NOT
  trade
• In the end, stronger than Portugal.
  – Portugal annexed by Spain in 1580.
Spanish
possessions




              Portuguese
              Possessions
Other Voyages of Exploration
  England and Exploration
• 1497: John Cabot travels to Newfoundland. First
  English claim to New World

• 1577-1580: Sir Francis Drake. First English
  circum-navigation
   – 3 years, 30,000 miles

• 1585: “Lost Colony” of Roanoke
   – Royal land grant to Sir Walter Raleigh

• 1607: Jamestown founded

• 1609: Henry Hudson (financed by the Dutch)
  changes European perception of North America.
  Decides the geography/climate is not an
  impediment, but a benefit (furs, forests, fish)
   France and Exploration
• 1534-35: Jacques Cartier
  – Searched for the Northwest Passage – a direct
    trade route from the Atlantic to China
  – Explored much of eastern Canada
  – Helped found Montreal


• 1603: Samuel de Champlain
  – Still looking for Northwest Passage
  – Helped found Quebec “Father of New France”
     Back to Spain

The Search for El Dorado
Rise of the Conquistadores
• Ambitious young men: Spain had poorly
  developed domestic economy
   – Little chance for success in Spain
   – Great chance for success in the New World
   – Hidalgo: An honorary title given by the Spanish
     king
      • Exempt from taxes
      • But, no real purpose in life (Don Quixote was
        one)

• Spain had little industry, no middle class
   – Destroyed after 1492
   – Money begins to flow to other European
     countries
      • Spain must import too many goods
   – The Spanish monarchs encourage more
     exploration
                   Hidalgo
• A hidalgo, was an aristocrat who thrived during the
  reconquest of Spain.
• Renaissance Man:
   – Impossible tasks through sheer physical courage
     and tenacity
   – Strict code of honor
   – Respected men who had won riches by force of
     arms rather then manual labor.
• Eventually this concept of the hidalgo would
  spread across all segments of society as the ideal of
  masculinity.
• Impact on conquest of the New World.
 The Typical Conquistador
• Supplied their own equipment and provisions in
  exchange for a share in whatever the expedition
  could plunder.

• No direct connection with the royal army, unless
  they were the leader

• Most had no professional military training or
  experience

• All social classes: Artisans, merchants, clergy,
  lesser nobility, urban and rural residents, and
  freed blacks
Strategy of Conquistadores

• Depended on military advantages
  – Steel weaponry
  – Horses

• Divide-and-conquer strategy that
  exploited pre-existing indigenous political
  rivalries.

• Often captured an indigenous leader and
  held him hostage until a ransom was paid.
  Famous Conquistadores
• Cortes in 1519 captured the Aztec empire

• Pizarro captured Peru and conquered the
  Incas between 1531-1536
  – Found the richest silver mines in the new world
                El Dorado
• As explorers returned to Spain, they retold the
  story of El Dorado

• Began as an Andean legend and gradually
  imagined as a real place

• 1542: Coronado’s Expedition
   – Sent north from Mexico to look for the North
     American equivalent (Seven Cities of Cibola)
 The First Spanish Conquests:
          The Aztecs



                  vs.




Fernando Cortez         Moctezuma II
   Cortes vs. Moctezuma: 1519
• Cortes                         • Moctezuma &
   – Convinced Aztecs he was a     Aztecs
     God                            – Outnumbered
                                      Spanish
   – On his way to Tenochtitlan,    – Domestic
     Cortes burned and
                                      problems divided
     plundered
                                      Aztec Empire
                                    – Defeated by
                                      European
   – Exploited discontent             technology,
     between                          Spanish
     Moctezuma/Nobles/people          organization

   – Captured Moctezuma,
     eventually killed him
 Mexico Surrenders to Cortes
Superior
European
technology easily
defeats Aztecs

Results: Cortes
personally
controlled
territory larger
than Spain

Native population
decreases from 25
million to 2
million
        Spanish Conquests:
         The Incas, 1537


                    vs.




Francisco Pizarro         Atahualpa
The Incas
                   The Incas
• Pizarro                  • Incas
   – Used the horse to        – Geography makes
     great advantage            exchange of ideas
   – Steel vs. Bronze           difficult – No clue about
                                previous Spanish
   – Knowledge of History:
                                conquests
     Cortez and defeat of
     the Aztecs
                              – Inca ruler taken
                                prisoner, released after
                                a “room of gold and
                                silver” was paid to
                                Pizzaro

                               – Eventually killed
       Europe: Results of the
         Spanish Conquest
• Unbelievable amounts of gold and silver flow to
  Europe

• This influx of gold (bullion) led to price increases
   – Production cannot keep up with demand
   – Large amounts of money, but very few consumer
     goods
   – In some places, inflation was 100%

• Scarcity: Merchants profited and prospered
  because they could raise prices
        Spanish Gold
   How Europe was Affected
• Wages of workers lagged behind the
  inflation rate
   – By 1620, a common laborer's
     income could buy only one-half of what
     it could in 1500

• The price of food rose sharply

• By 1600, wheat cost five times what in had
  in the late 1400s
        Spanish Gold:
   How Europe was Affected
• Money fuels industry

• Wealthy merchants begin purchasing farm
  land for additional profit

• Farms: Efficient, profitable
  – Leads to Agricultural Revolution (16th-19th
    Century)
  – Money is put into improving agriculture
  – Fewer people are needed to work land (better
    farming practices)
  – “Extra” laborers move to the city to work in
    manufacturing
  – Leads to Industrial Revolution
Spanish Cycle of Conquest
    and Colonization

      Explorers




      Official
      European
       Colony!
  The Columbian Exchange:

The most significant result of
    Spanish colonization
                What is It?
• Developed by historian Alfred W. Crosby in 1972

• Describes the transfer of materials between Europe
  and the Americas
   – Wealth
   – Food
   – Disease
      • Smallpox

• This transfer was both devastating and beneficial
  at the same time
             The Columbian Exchange
   Squash      Avocado             Peppers      Sweet Potatoes
   Turkey      Pumpkin             Tobacco
   Cocoa       Pineapple           Cassava      POTATO
   Peanut      TOMATO              Vanilla      MAIZE
                Syphilis




                                                                                       Trinkets
                                                                                       Liquor
                                                                                       GUNS



                           Olive                  COFFEE BEAN         Banana               Rice
                           Onion                  Turnip              Honeybee             Barley
                           Grape                  Peach               SUGAR CANE           Oats
                           Citrus Fruits          Pear                Wheat                HORSE
                           Cattle                 Sheep               Pigs                 Smallpox
                           Flu                    Typhus              Measles              Malaria
                           Diptheria              Whooping Cough
Food and the Columbian Exchange
 • The potato
    – Grows where nothing else could
    – England, Ireland, and Germany have wet soils
      and short growing seasons -- wheat cultivation
      is difficult

 • By the 19th century, it had become the most
   important crop in all of Europe

 • Northern Europeans
    – Suspicious
    – Not mentioned in the Bible
    – Blamed it for causing disease, especially leprosy
    – Becomes most important staple crop
            Other Foods
• The tomato
  – Valuable source of vitamin C


• Corn
  – Excellent strains – high yield
  – Corn helps feed Europe
             The Sugar Trade
• Sugar brought to Europe by Arabs (8th century)
• Shapes the New World economy
   – Begins use of plantation system
• Brazil (first sugar planted in1516)
   – 1630: Slaves to Brazil by Portuguese
       • Resistant to malaria, yellow fever, and some European
         diseases
•   1660: Sugar productions shifts to Caribbean
•   Sugar is a high profit crop
•   90% of European sugar comes from New World
•   Sugar industry creates the need for other products
     – Early stages of Industrial Revolution
       • Need for steel gears, levers, axels necessary to press
         sugar cane
  Population and the Columbian
            Exchange
• Native Americans had no built-in immunity to
  diseases that most Europeans saw as irritating,
  but not necessarily life-threatening

• Measles, smallpox, the mumps, and pneumonia
  were devastating

• Native populations suffered a 90% or higher
  mortality rate within a decade of first contact
  with Europeans
    Treasures
from the Americas
              Potosi (Bolivia)
• 12,000 feet above sea level

• Highest city in the world. Most Spanish silver
  came from this city.

• Founded 1546 as a mining town. Finally died out
  in 1980s.

• Most Spanish silver came from here

• Indian labor died here by the thousands
   – Overwork
   – Disease
   – “Every peso coin minted in Potosi has cost the life of
     10 Indians who have died in the depths of the
     mines” --- Franciscan friar, 1638.
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
            The Slave Trade
Existed in Africa before the coming of the
   Europeans.


Portuguese brought first African slaves to the
   New World – 1518
     Replaced dwindling Indian population


Between the 16th & 19th centuries, about 10
   million Africans shipped to the Americas.
  Slavery in the New World
• Africans were already familiar with slavery, having
  practiced the system against one another for
  centuries

• Eventually it becomes impossible for African tribes
  to reproduce themselves or their cultural patterns
  from one generation to the next
   – Become weaker politically and militarily
   – More susceptible to further slave trading by Europeans

• Most Europeans in the New World saw slavery as
  morally wrong but economically essential
The Spanish System in the
       New World
    The Colonial Class System
                                    Creoles:
  Peninsulares: Spanish-
                                 American-born
 born, residing in the New
                                 Spaniards. Can
 World. Can hold highest
                                   hold high
positions, such as Viceroy.
                                  government
                                 positions. Own
                                most of the land.
  Mestizos: Mixed
    European and
   Indian descent.                   Mulattos:
  Can enter clergy.                 Spanish and
                                      African
                                      descent



           Native Indians     Black Slaves
  Spanish Colonial Hierarchy:
          Audiencia
• The conquistadores brought great wealth to Spain,
  but posed a threat to king
   – Distance from Spain is great
   – Difficult for king to control uprisings, political
     problems

• The audencia was used to bring Spanish settlers
  and conquistadores under royal control.
   – Spanish settlers reported directly to a
     representative of the royal court: the Viceroy.
   – The Audencia is a political, military, and judicial
     entity overseen by the Viceroy
          Paternalism
The practice of controlling or managing
    people in a nation in a paternal
 manner, by taking care of their needs
      but giving them virtually no
             responsibility.

Essential to maintain the relationship
     between conqueror and the
              conquered.
Administration of the Spanish
   Empire: Encomienda
• Feudalism, adapted to the New World
• The Spanish monarchs grants large parcels of land
  to Spaniards. The native population is part of this
  gift.
• The land owner is responsible for the protection,
  education, and religious training of the Indians.
  He is a moral guide.
   – Not allowed to mistreat Indians
   – Indians are paid for work
   – Released after 3-5 years
   – Supposed to create “good Christians”
   – Reality: created a very cheap labor source
The Influence of the Colonial
      Catholic Church
                            Created mission
                            settlements and
                            universities

                            Spread Spanish culture




Guadalajara Cathedral



          Spanish Mission
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
    Worked for the rights of
         native people
    1510-1511 Denounced
the Encomienda system –
it’s not just wrong, but also
          a mortal sin
     His reform movement
 leads to the “New Laws”
 that require Indians to be
         treated fairly
    New Laws are eventually
  revoked because they are
        unenforceable
Las Casas and the “Black Legend”
• Conflict between the image of “peaceable, childlike,
  innocent Indians” vs. the “Cruel, self-serving
  Spaniard”
   – Spanish come to the New World with a legacy of
     cruelty
      • Reconquista           Inquisition

• In 1550, Las Casas took a leading part in Spanish
  royal inquiries into the treatment of the Indians in
  the New World.
   – Indians are seen as sub-human – fit to be slaves
   – De Las Casas believed them worthy of dignity

• Las Casas's condemnation of his Catholic injustice
  encouraged Protestants to argue for less Spanish
  presence in the New World
Impact of European Expansion
Native populations ravaged by disease.
Influx of gold, and especially silver, into
   Europe created severe inflation, leading to
   the “Price Revolution”
New products introduced across the
  continents -- “Columbian Exchange”
Deepened colonial rivalries

				
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