Docstoc

h1n1 swine flu

Document Sample
h1n1 swine flu Powered By Docstoc
					DISTRIBUTED BY

www.medicalppt.blogspot.com
Info gathered by Mona Youssef

2009 H1N1
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

"quadruple reassortant" virus

Study has shown virus to be different from the normally circulating North American pig virus.

It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia , avian genes and human genes.

How is it then that it made its first appearance in Mexico and the US?
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Genomic mapping of the virus revealed that it has been present and circulating in pigs for the past 7.5 to ten years (obviously undetected due to laxity in surveillance of pigs).

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Charecteristics
• • Influenza virus can survive on environmental surfaces and remain infectious for up to 2-8 hours after being deposited on the surface. Virus is destroyed by: o heat 75-100 degrees Celcius. o chemical germicides: chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, detergents (soap), iodophors (iodine-based antiseptics), and alcohols. *wipes or gels with alcohol in them should be rubbed into hands until they are dry.

A person can sneeze on someone’s luggage in an airport, and start an outbreak in a country without even entering it!
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Swine flu virus (Not novel H1N1)
• • • Like all influenza viruses, swine flu viruses change constantly. Pigs can be infected by avian influenza and human influenza viruses as well as swine influenza viruses. When influenza viruses from different species infect pigs, the viruses can reassort (i.e. swap genes) and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or avian influenza viruses can emerge. Over the years, different variations of swine flu viruses have emerged. There are currently four main influenza type A virus subtypes that have been isolated in pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. Most of the recently isolated influenza viruses from pigs have been H1N1 viruses.

•

•

H3 subtypes infect older population and tend to be more severe.
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Drinking water?
• No completed research for novel H1N1 virus.

•

Free chlorine levels typically used in drinking water treatment are adequate to inactivate highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza.

•

It is likely that other influenza viruses such as novel H1N1 would also be similarly inactivated by chlorination.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Swimming Pools
• No completed research for novel H1N1 virus.

•

Free chlorine levels recommended by CDC (1–3 parts per million [ppm or mg/L] for pools and 2–5 ppm for spas) are adequate to disinfect avian influenza A (H5N1) virus.

•

It is likely that other influenza viruses such as novel H1N1 would also be similarly inactivated by chlorination.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Dealing with the Deceased
• Transport of deceased persons does not require any additional precautions when bodies have been secured in a transport bag. Hand hygiene should be performed after completing transport. For deceased persons with confirmed, probable, or suspect novel influenza A (H1N1): o limit contact with the body in health care settings to close family members o Direct contact with the body is discouraged o Necessary contact may occur as long as hands are washed immediately with soap and water.

•

NO need for mass burials yet….
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

Autopsy: o Standard Precautions. o Additional respiratory protection is needed procedures that generate aerosols (e.g., use of oscillating saws). o minimize the number of personnel participating in post mortem examinations. o Follow standard safety procedures for preventing percutaneous injuries during autopsy.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

'Patient Zero' in Swine Flu Outbreak Identified as 5-Year-Old Mexican Boy:

He says icecream made him feel better, and Thank God has now recovered full health. But the rest of the planet has a quick – paced pandemic marching on….

Edgar Hernandez
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Timeline
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Mexico
MidMarch: La Gloria,Veracruz, 60% of the town's population is sickened by a respiratory illness of unknown provenance.

April 16 : Mexico Authorities notify the PAHO (Pan American Health Organization) of the atypical pneumonia.

Canadian labs
April 23 : S-OIV (swine origin influenza virus) confirmed, same strain detected in two California children as in Mexico. PAHO informed of Mexico cluster of S-OIV

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

WHO
• April 24: 2009 H1N1 first disease outbreak notice.

• •

April 25: WHO Director General declares a formal “Public health emergency of international concern”

•

April 27: “containment of the outbreak is not feasible” pandemic alert raised from phase 3 to phase 4.

•

April 29: phase 4 to phase 5. During this time interim, the WHO was vastly criticized for not announcing phase 6

•

June 11: phase 5 to phase 6.
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

WHO REPORTED CONFIRMED NOVEL H1N1 CASES
45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 17410 15000 10000 7520 5000 0 367 44287

WHO Report 95 AFFECTED COUNTRIES Nothing’s holding this virus back…….!!!
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

A pandemic means an epidemic of an infectious disease, that spreads throughout a large number of people and can spread worldwide.

A pandemic begins when: there is person-to-person sustained transmission on multiple continents.

keyword

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

The World Health Organization uses a six stage phase for alerting the general public to an outbreak

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Phase 1 – animal to animal transmission. Phase 2 – an animal influenza virus is capable of human infection. Phase 3 - small outbreaks among close populations but not through human to human contact.

Phase 4 - Human to human transmission

Phase 5 - spread across two countries or more in one of the WHO regions (continents).

Phase 6 – spread across two countries or more in one of the WHO regions plus spread to another WHO region.
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

W.H.O. identifies the following six epidemiological sub-regions.

- African Region - Eastern Mediterranean Region - European Region - Region of the Americas - South-East Asian Region - Western Pacific Region

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Even an island in the middle of the ocean isn’t out of its reach….

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Graveness of the situation
In one week, the United Nations agency raised the alert level twice, from phase 3 to phase 5, in response to the sustained transmission

of H1N1 in Mexico and the United States.

(

1976 swine flu Hsw1N1 outbreak never passed phase 3.
The vaccine developed caused 10 per million Guillain Barre syndrome as compared to the 1-2 per million with the seasonal flu vaccine and was banned.)

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Country

Cumulati ve total
Cases

Newly confirmed since the last reporting period
Dea Cases ths
918 2199 8 2 12 4 19 1 11 96 1 2 4905 4 3125 519 60 149 15 1 5 22 1 93 86 29 160 5 13 131 1 1 238 31 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 185 87 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 17 0 0 856 0 790 137 7 0 8 0 1 7 0 0 0 3 35 1 1 13 0 0 43 8 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

19/6/2009 Dea ths

Country

Cumulati ve total
Cases

Newly confirmed since the last reporting period
Dea Cases ths
153 108 7 4 30 16 219 88 14 690 2 84 18 1 12 2 23 7624 8 87 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 113 0 0 25 8 3 0 0 4 67 16 2 24 0 19 0 1 1 0 6 1383 5 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

19/6/2009 Dea ths

Country

Cumulati ve total
Cases

Newly confirmed since the last reporting period
Dea Cases ths
5 3 18 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0

Dea ths

Argentina Australia Austria Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belgium Bermuda, UKOT Bolivia Brazil British Virgin Islands, UKOT Bulgaria Canada Cayman Islands, UKOT Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia Finland France French Polynesia, FOC Martinique, FOC Germany Greece

Guatemala Honduras Hungary Iceland India Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Korea, Republic of Kuwait Laos Lebanon Luxembourg Malaysia Mexico Morocco Netherlands Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao

Portugal Qatar Romania Russia

Samoa
Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovakia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Suriname

1
22 77 3 1 512 1 11

0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0
5 28 0 1 13 0 11

0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Sweden
0 0 0 5 0 0

43
27 518 18 20 1 2 1752

0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1

6
0 208 13 4 0 1 291

0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Switzerland Thailand Trinidad and Tobago Turkey Ukraine United Arab Emirates

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

* Netherlands Antilles, Sint Maarten New Zealand Nicaragua Norway Oman Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland

3

0

2

0

United Kingdom Isle of Man, Crown Dependency Jersey, Crown Dependency United States of America Uruguay Venezuela Viet Nam

1 216 144 17 3 272 1 27 141 311 7

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 89 26 4 3 0 1 2 29 118 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

0

0

0

1 17855 36 60 27

0 44 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 15 0 3 3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

West Bank and Gaza Strip 5 Yemen 4

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com13 Grand Total 44287 180 4667 0

Country

(19/6/2009)

Newly confirmed since the Cumulative total last reporting period (17/6) Cases Deaths Cases Deaths 7624 17855 113 44 1383 0 5 0

Mexico United States of America

Countries of origin.
Australia Chile 2199 0 87 0 0

3125 2 790 Mixing of NH1N1 with seasonal flu virus could result in a strain resistant to tamiflu(NH1N1 is already resistant to other antivirals 29 0 3

Egypt

0

Mixing with H5N1 could produce strains capable of human to human transmission(Death toll of H5N1 is app. 66%)
Grand Total 44287 180 4667 13

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

And then Fate has it that the first detected viral strains resistant to tamiflu would show up in China! NOT Australia, and Not Chilli

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Consequences of a declaration of a full
pandemic
Institution of pandemic response plans, which may include measures affecting hospitals, schools or public events.

Provision of support for developing countries including: drugs, diagnostic tests, and medical staff

WHO would be expected to make an announcement to specify whether manufacturers should switch from making seasonal to pandemic flu vaccines.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

June 5 CDC Report:
Testing •CDC has developed a PCR diagnostic test kit •Distributed test kits throughout U.S. nation as well as internationally.

Vaccine •CDC has isolated the new H1N1 virus, made a candidate vaccine virus that can be used to create vaccine. (Novartis manufactures first vaccine June 11 2009)

Strategic National Stockpile •CDC has deployed 25 percent of the supplies in the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) to all states in the continental United States and U.S. territories. •This included antiviral drugs, personal protective equipment, and respiratory protection devices.
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Previous Global Pandemics

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

1918 - Spanish Flu (originated in birds). First hit soldiers in Europe during World War I, as their immune systems were weakened by war. The mortality rate was highest between 20 to 50 year olds. Soldiers whose immunity was weakened by war.

There was never any vaccine developed, after about 18 months, the virus seemed to just disappear.
The final death toll was written as 40 million people worldwide.
Many of the victims who have died in Mexico have been young and otherwise healthy. society's healthiest demographic

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

1957 - Asian Flu This flu started in birds in Asia. In September schools and public places started closing in an effort to contain the virus. In December the virus started to subside, but reappeared in January. over two million people died

Reappeared
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

1968 - The Hong Kong Flu This is the mildest pandemic It was first found in the early months of 1968 in Hong Kong, and was declared a global pandemic by December. Children were out of school and were therefore not able to spread it as much. It made a mild reappearance in 1970 and 1972. it claimed about a million lives

Reappeared…!!! Seasonal influenza normally claims app. ¼ to ½ a million lives yearly. For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

What we do know

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Novel H1N1 spreads just as easily as regular winter flu.

Disease spectrum ranges from very mild self-limited disease to Death.

Novel H1N1 virus tends to affect younger people just like the seasonal H1N1.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

The southern hemisphere is about to enter winter, when seasonal flu cases normally spike.

We have to be prepared for changes in: • The amount of illness • The severity of illness • The characteristics of the virus • The reactions of our communities

Early evidence in the southern hemisphere points to novel H1N1 potentially crowding out the seasonal flu viruses which is something that's been seen in previous pandemics.
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Simultaneous circulation of the seasonal flu strains with the Novel H1N1 raises the possibility of mixing of the strains.

Seasonal H1N1 virus that we've had this past year is resistant to Tamiflu.

Seasonal flu vaccine production is to continue as is, in an attempt to reduce the chances of the viruses mingling together in the same environment.
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Characteristics of reported cases of influenza A(H1N1) by country

Of note , the prevailing clinical picture in other countries has been GIT related.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

There are several important limitations about the data that must be considered:
countries are using different surveillance methods and case definitions most countries are at an early stage of disease spread ,a complete picture of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the H1N1 virus is unattainable.  Caution must be exercised in interpreting information such as age as it may reflect patterns of travel or the occurrence of outbreaks in special settings such as schools. the early estimates of important epidemiological parameters such as incubation period and attack rate have been derived from a limited number of settings such as households and schools and may not be broadly applicable. although Mexico and the United States have reported deaths among persons with confirmed H1N1 infection, it is too early to get a reliable estimate of the case fatality ratio. Additional studies are needed to assess risk factors for infection with the H1N1 virus as well as the severity of illness.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

VACCINE

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

A review of 2009 production status for northern hemisphere seasonal vaccine indicates that:
Industry plans to produce approximately 480 million doses of trivalent seasonal vaccine in 2009.

 Of this, 350 and 430 million doses will be available by 30 June and 31 July 2009, respectively.
 For influenza A (H1N1), it is estimated that up to 4.9 billion doses could be produced over a 12‐month period IF there is initiation of a full‐scale production. In this situation, there is a potential access for the UN of supplies of up to 400 million doses.

A lot of Ifs……..

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Currently available data indicate that:
• Immunization with recent or shortly to be available trivalent seasonal vaccine is unlikely to provide public health benefits in terms of protection against influenza A (H1N1). Unknowns:  optimal antigen content,  the required number of doses,  the required intervals between doses  and the interchangeability of different products is currently unknown for influenza A (H1N1) vaccines.  the safety profile

•

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

After considering the following issues:
1. the need for any recommendation to balance both risks and benefits, 2. the current uncertainty about the severity of influenza A (H1N1) illness, 3. the readiness of vaccine seed strains and reagents for large‐scale vaccine production, 4. the current status of production of seasonal vaccine for the Northern hemisphere, 5. The risks associated with a premature cessation of seasonal vaccine production,

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

The Working Group Declares that:
•It is premature to recommend commercial‐scale production of influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. •two doses of vaccine may be needed to induce adequate protection, as the global population is immunologically naïve to the new virus. (Older adults were shown to possess serum neutralizing antibodies to the new virus, most likely due to cross‐immunity with human H1N1 viruses. ) •The combination of A (H1N1) vaccine with trivalent seasonal vaccine would have significant regulatory implications.Therefore, production of a monovalent A (H1N1) vaccine to be used in addition to trivalent seasonal vaccine is the preferred option at this stage. •moving into production now could result in starting vaccine production with strains of lower growth potential, as was the case for H5N1 A/Vietnam/2004. Manufacturers consistently observed yields less than 50% of those usually obtained with seasonal vaccine viruses. • Using a poorly growing A (H1N1) virus could reduce global supplies of A (H1N1) vaccine.
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

The Working Group did make the following recommendations for immediate action:
(i) The WHO Secretariat, should recommend which vaccine viruses should be used for vaccine development as soon as possible (ii) Essential reagents to calibrate antigenic content should be made available as a priority (iii) The WHO Secretariat is encouraged to collaborate actively with its Collaborating Centres,Essential Regulatory Laboratories, and with industry, to assess the growth property of vaccine viruses and identify those with best growth potential, in order to maximize output of vaccine.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

(iv) Manufacturers are urged to develop clinical trial batches and accelerate initiation of clinical trials of influenza A (H1N1) vaccines and to start preparing for a potential future recommendation to move to commercial‐scale production.

(v) The above activities should not interfere with the present production of the Northern hemisphere seasonal vaccines
(vi) The number of needed doses of A (H1N1) vaccine will depend on the spread of influenza A (H1N1) virus in the next few weeks and on a better definition of the groups to be targeted (vii) An evidence‐based recommendation for the groups to be targeted for vaccination still requires more data

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Influenza is unpredictable.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Human infection with 2009 H1N1virus: clinical observations from Mexico and other affected countries, May 2009

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Presenting Manifestations:
•Fever: may be absent in one out of six hospitalized patients. •Dehydration •Shortness of breath •Myalgia •Sever malaise •Tachycardia •Tachypnoea •Low O2 sat. •Hypotension •Cyanosis •Acute myocarditis •Cardiopulmonary arrest

*Diarrhoea,nausea,vomiting: uncommon in hospitalized pts (38% of US outpatients) *NO ENCEPHALITIS TO DATE
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Hospitalization :
•2-5% of confirmed cases in US and Canada Preparing ICUs… •6% of confirmed cases in Mexico (in Mexico 33% of hospitalized patients required ventilation as compared to only 13% in California) •The highest rates of hospitalization are actually in children under 5, and the next highest rates are in those people 5 to 24. •Fatalities are mainly from rapid progression to: ARDS Renal failure Multiorgan failure

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Comorbidities associated with complications:
• (71% of the hospitalized patients have occurred in people who have an underlying condition ) Pregnancy:2/5 developed complications: Spontaneous abortion Premature ruptured membrane Asthma and other lung disease Diabetes

• •

•
• • • •

Morbid Obesity
Autoimmune disorders Associated immunosuppressive therapy Neurological Cardiovascular disease
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Lab:
•Leucocytosis/leucopenia

•Lymphopenia
•Elevated aminotransferases •Elevated LDH was found (retrogradely) in 100% of 16 dead patients •In some extremely elevated CPK •1/2 hospitalized pts showed some degree of Renal insufficiency ( 2ry to rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria)

•Co-infections with strept. pneumonia and adenovirus have been reported in some Mexican cases.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Pathology (postmortem)
ARDS 2ry to 1ry viral pneumonia including : • • • • diffuse alveolar damage Peribronchial and perivascular lymphoctic infiltrates hyperplastic airway changes bronchiolitis obliterans

Muscle biopsy: sk ms necrosis

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

WHO Guidance

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Mild Cases:
•Supportive: Paracetamol, flds… *NO SALICYLATES IN CHILDREN/ YOUNG ADULTS: REYE'S SYNDROME

•Antivirals : *best within first 48 hours *Early administration in at-risk pts ie those with co-morbidities/pregnancy… *Neuraminidase inhibitors: oral Oseltamivir Inhaled Zanamivir (N H1N1 is resistant to M2 ion channel inhibitors: Amantadine Rimantadine )

•Adequate control precautions: cough etiquette Hand hygiene Natural ventilation

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Hospitalized pts:
•Antivirals • Pneumonia management like avian (antibiotics) • Resp. Support: early detection Correction of hypoxia with supplemental O2 or mech. Vent as necessary • when mech. vent is indicated: low volume low pressure lung protective vent. Strategy for ARDS Steroids: •Avoid routine use, no benefit was reported . •Higher doses associated with serious SE: o evidence of increased viral replication in SARS and other resp. viral infections. o Increased mortality in Avian.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Unanswered questions:
Effect of: • Smoking

•
•

Air pollution
Faeces and vomitus

Role of flies?

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Roooooar! ……. Nobody’s scared of me nomore! Round and round she goes, wher e it stops , nobody knows…
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Hey, w ho said that?

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

swine flu in humans can vary in severity from mild to severe. Severe disease with pneumonia, respiratory failure and even death
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

How Flu Spreads
•Respiratory droplets of coughs and sneezes propelled through the air and deposited on the mouth or nose or eyes of people nearby.

•when a person touches respiratory droplets on another person or an object and then touches their own mouth or nose or eyes (or someone else’s mouth or nose or eyes) before washing their hands.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

I wish everyone could have a home like this

People with swine flu who are cared for at home should:

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

Check with their health care provider about any special care they might need and about antivirals if they are pregnant or have a health condition such as diabetes, heart disease, asthma, or emphysema.

•

stay home for 7 days after the start of their symptoms or until they

have been symptom-free for 24 hours, whichever is longer

•

get plenty of rest

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

drink clear fluids (such as water, broth, sports drinks, electrolyte
beverages for infants) to keep from being dehydrated

•

cover coughs and sneezes. Clean hands with soap and water or an
alcohol-based hand rub often and especially after using tissues and after coughing or sneezing into hands.

•

avoid close contact with others – do not go to work or school while ill

•

be watchful for emergency warning signs that might indicate the need to seek medical attention

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

When to Seek Emergency Medical Care Emergency Warning Signs

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Get medical care right away if the sick person at home: • • • • • • • •

has difficulty breathing, or chest pain. has purple or blue discoloration of the lips. is vomiting and unable to keep liquids down . has signs of dehydration such as dizziness when standing (hypovolemia), absence of urination, or in infants, a lack of tears when they cry. has seizures (for example, uncontrolled convulsions) . is less responsive than normal or becomes confused . Irritable child who doesn’t want to be held. Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Medications to Help Lessen Symptoms of the Flu

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

• Fevers and aches can be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).

• These medications will not lessen how infectious a person is.

• Check the ingredients on the package label before taking additional

doses.

• Patients with kidney or stomach problems should consult their

health care provider before taking any NSAIDS.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Warning! Do not give aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) to children or teenagers
who have the flu; this can cause a rare but serious illness called Reye’s syndrome.

•

Check ingredient labels on over-the-counter cold and flu medications to see if they contain aspirin.

•

The safest care for flu symptoms in children younger than 2 years of age is using a cool-mist humidifier and a suction bulb to help clear away mucus.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Steps to Lessen the Spread of Flu in the Home

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•
•

Stay informed.
Follow the cough etiquette:  Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or

sneeze.
 Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.  Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after

you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also
effective.  Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way.

 Try to avoid close contact with sick people.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

Stay home for 7 days after your symptoms begin or until you have
been symptom-free for 24 hours, whichever is longer.

•

Keep away from other household members as much as possible. This is to keep you from infecting others and spreading the virus further.

•

develop a family emergency plan as a precaution.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

• limit the spread of germs and prevent infection by teaching and modelling correct behavior to your children: to wash hands frequently with soap and water. Each person should have their own personal towel. cover coughs and sneezes with tissues.

stay away from others as much as possible if they are sick.
 Stay home from work and school if sick.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Placement of the sick person

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

Keep the sick person in a room separate from the common areas of
the house. For example, a spare bedroom with its own bathroom,to be cleaned daily with household disinfectant.

•
•

Keep the sickroom door closed.
Have the sick person wear a surgical mask if they need to be in a common area of the house near other persons.

Stay away from the alien virus invasion!

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Protect other persons in the home

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

The sick person should not have visitors other than caregivers. A phone call is safer than a visit.

•

If possible, have only one adult in the home take care of the sick person.

• •

Avoid having pregnant women care for the sick person. Maintain good ventilation in shared household areas (e.g., keeping windows open in restrooms, kitchen, bathroom, etc.).

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

If you are the caregiver

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

• •

Avoid being face-to-face with the sick person. When holding small children who are sick, place their chin on your shoulder so that they will not cough in your face.

I didn’t believe them when they said that smoking was bad for my health… a risk factor for novel H1N1!

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

Clean your hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand rub after you touch the sick person or handle used tissues, or laundry.

•

Talk to your health care provider about taking antiviral medication to prevent the caregiver from getting the flu.

•

Monitor yourself and household members for flu symptoms and

contact a telephone hotline or health care provider if symptoms occur.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

Avoid close contact (less than about 6 feet away) with the sick person as much as possible.

•

If you must have close contact with the sick person (for example, hold a sick infant), spend the least amount of time possible in close contact and try to wear a facemask (for example, surgical mask) or N95 disposable respirator(it is harder to breathe through an N95 mask for long periods of time) Get in, get out…
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Using Facemasks or Respirators

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

Facemasks and respirators may be purchased at a pharmacy, building supply or hardware store (not off the street).

•

Used facemasks and N95 respirators should be taken off and placed immediately in the regular trash so they don’t touch anything else.

•

Avoid re-using disposable facemasks and N95 respirators if possible.

If a reusable fabric facemask is used, it should be laundered with
normal laundry detergent and tumble-dried in a hot dryer. • After you take off a facemask or N95 respirator, clean your hands with

soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Household Cleaning, Laundry, and Waste Disposal

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

Throw away tissues and other disposable items used by the sick person in the trash.

• •

Wash your hands after touching used tissues and similar waste. Keep surfaces (especially bedside tables, surfaces in the bathroom, and toys for children) clean by wiping them down with a household disinfectant according to directions on the product label.

•

Eating utensils should be washed either in a dishwasher or by hand with water and soap.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

Linens, eating utensils, and dishes belonging to those who are sick do
not need to be cleaned separately, but importantly these items should not be shared without washing thoroughly first.

•

Wash linens (such as bed sheets and towels) by using household laundry soap and tumble dry on a hot setting.

•

Avoid “hugging” laundry prior to washing it to prevent contaminating yourself.

•

Clean your hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub right after handling dirty laundry.

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Pandemic Flu Planning Checklist for Individuals and Families

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

•

To plan for a pandemic:

– Store a two week supply of water and food.
– Periodically check your regular prescription drugs

– Have any nonprescription drugs and other health supplies on
hand, including pain relievers, stomach remedies, cough and cold medicines, fluids with electrolytes, and vitamins. – Volunteer with local groups to prepare and assist with emergency response.

•

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Examples of food and non-perishables Examples of medical, health, and emergency supplies:  Ready-to-eat canned meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, beans, and soups  Canned juices  Fluids with electrolytes  Bottled water  Canned or jarred baby food and  formula  Pet food  Protein or fruit bars  Dry cereal or granola  Dried fruit  Peanut butter or nuts  Crackers Thermometer Prescribed medical supplies such as glucose and blood-pressure monitoring equipment  Vitamins Medicines for fever, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen Cleansing agent/soap Soap and water, or  alcohol-based (60-

95%)
 hand wash Flashlight Batteries Other nonperishable items Portable radio Manual can opener Garbage bags

Anti-diarrheal medication
Power failure, water shortage….

Tissues, toilet
paper, disposable  diapers
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

Looks to me like he’s conquered his matador , and has every right to fly……….
For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

DISTRIBUTED BY www.medicalppt.blogspot.com

For More Lectures www.medicalppt.blogspot.com


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Tags: h1n1, swine
Stats:
views:24064
posted:8/11/2009
language:English
pages:97