Occupational Safety and Health Admin, Labor § 191029(1)

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					                                Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor                                                     § 1910.29

                                driven through and clinched on the un-                    rigged lines, which will safely suspend
                                derside. The crawling board shall ex-                     the workman in case of a fall.
                                tend from the ridge pole to the eaves                       (v) Scope. This section establishes
                                when used in connection with roof con-                    safety requirements for the construc-
                                struction, repair, or maintenance.                        tion, operation, maintenance, and use
                                   (2) A firmly fastened lifeline of at                   of scaffolds used in the maintenance of
                                least three-quarter-inch rope shall be                    buildings and structures.
                                strung beside each crawling board for a                   [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43
                                handhold.                                                 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10,
                                   (3) Crawling boards shall be secured                   1984; 53 FR 12121, Apr. 12, 1988]
                                to the roof by means of adequate ridge
                                hooks or equivalent effective means.                      § 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile
                                   (u) Float or ship scaffolds. (1) Float or                    ladder stands and scaffolds (tow-
                                ship scaffolds shall support not more                           ers).
                                than three men and a few light tools,                        (a) General requirements—(1) Applica-
                                such as those needed for riveting, bolt-                  tion. This section is intended to pre-
                                ing, and welding. They shall be con-                      scribe rules and requirements for the
                                structed in accordance with paragraphs                    design, construction, and use of mobile
                                (u) (2) through (6) of this section, un-                  work       platforms  (including   ladder
                                less substitute designs and materials                     stands but not including aerial ladders)
                                provide equivalent strength, stability,                   and rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers).
                                and safety.                                               This standard is promulgated to aid in
                                   (2) The platform shall be not less                     providing for the safety of life, limb,
                                than 3 feet wide and 6 feet long, made                    and property, by establishing minimum
                                of three-quarter-inch plywood, equiva-                    standards for structural design require-
                                lent to American Plywood Association                      ments and for the use of mobile work
                                Grade B–B, Group I, Exterior.                             platforms and towers.
                                   (3) Under the platform, there shall be                    (2) Working loads. (i) Work platforms
                                two supporting bearers made from 2×4-                     and scaffolds shall be capable of car-
                                inch, or 1×10-inch rough, selected lum-                   rying the design load under varying
                                ber, or better. They shall be free of                     circumstances depending upon the con-
                                knots or other flaws and project 6                        ditions of use. Therefore, all parts and
                                inches beyond the platform on both                        appurtenances necessary for their safe
                                sides. The ends of the platform shall                     and efficient utilization must be inte-
                                extend about 6 inches beyond the outer                    gral parts of the design.
                                edges of the bearers. Each bearer shall                      (ii) Specific design and construction
                                be securely fastened to the platform.                     requirements are not a part of this sec-
                                   (4) An edging of wood not less than                    tion because of the wide variety of ma-
                                3⁄4×11⁄2 inches, or equivalent, shall be
                                                                                          terials and design possibilities. How-
                                placed around all sides of the platform                   ever, the design shall be such as to
                                to prevent tools from rolling off.                        produce a mobile ladder stand or scaf-
                                   (5) Supporting ropes shall be 1-inch                   fold that will safely sustain the speci-
                                diameter manila rope or equivalent,                       fied loads. The material selected shall
                                free from deterioration, chemical dam-                    be of sufficient strength to meet the
                                age, flaws, or other imperfections.                       test requirements and shall be pro-
                                Rope connections shall be such that                       tected against corrosion or deteriora-
                                the platform cannot shift or slip. If two                 tion.
                                ropes are used with each float, each of                      (a) The design working load of ladder
                                the two supporting ropes shall be                         stands shall be calculated on the basis
                                hitched around one end of a bearer and                    of one or more 200-pound persons to-
                                pass under the platforms to the other                     gether with 50 pounds of equipment
                                end of the bearer where it is hitched                     each.
                                again, leaving sufficient rope at each                       (b) The design load of all scaffolds
                                end for the supporting ties.                              shall be calculated on the basis of:
                                   (6) Each workman shall be protected
                                                                                          Light— Designed and constructed to carry a
                                by a safety lifebelt attached to a life-                    working load of 25 pounds per square foot.
                                line. The lifeline shall be securely at-                  Medium— Designed and constructed to carry
                                tached to substantial members of the                        a working load of 50 pounds per square
                                structure (not scaffold), or to securely                    foot.

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                                § 1910.29                                                             29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–04 Edition)
                                Heavy— Designed and constructed to carry a                have a standard (4-inch nominal)
                                 working load of 75 pounds per square foot.               toeboard.
                                All ladder stands and scaffolds shall be                    (vii) All work levels 10 feet or higher
                                capable of supporting at least four                       above the ground or floor shall have a
                                times the design working load.                            guardrail of 2- by 4-inch nominal or the
                                  (iii) The materials used in mobile                      equivalent installed no less than 36
                                ladder stands and scaffolds shall be of                   inches or more than 42 inches high,
                                standard manufacture and conform to                       with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- by
                                standard specifications of strength, di-                  4-inch nominal lumber or equivalent.
                                mensions, and weights, and shall be se-                     (viii) A climbing ladder or stairway
                                lected to safely support the design                       shall be provided for proper access and
                                working load.                                             egress, and shall be affixed or built into
                                  (iv) Nails, bolts, or other fasteners                   the scaffold and so located that its use
                                used in the construction of ladders,                      will not have a tendency to tip the
                                scaffolds, and towers shall be of ade-                    scaffold. A landing platform shall be
                                quate size and in sufficient numbers at                   provided at intervals not to exceed 30
                                each connection to develop the de-                        feet.
                                signed strength of the unit. Nails shall                    (4) Wheels or casters. (i) Wheels or
                                be driven full length. (All nails should                  casters shall be properly designed for
                                be immediately withdrawn from dis-                        strength and dimensions to support
                                mantled lumber.)                                          four (4) times the design working load.
                                  (v) All exposed surfaces shall be free
                                                                                            (ii) All scaffold casters shall be pro-
                                from sharp edges, burrs or other safety
                                                                                          vided with a positive wheel and/or
                                hazards.
                                                                                          swivel lock to prevent movement. Lad-
                                  (3) Work levels. (i) The maximum
                                                                                          der stands shall have at least two (2) of
                                work level height shall not exceed four
                                (4) times the minimum or least base di-                   the four (4) casters and shall be of the
                                mensions of any mobile ladder stand or                    swivel type.
                                scaffold. Where the basic mobile unit                       (iii) Where leveling of the elevated
                                does not meet this requirement, suit-                     work platform is required, screw jacks
                                able outrigger frames shall be em-                        or other suitable means for adjusting
                                ployed to achieve this least base di-                     the height shall be provided in the base
                                mension, or provisions shall be made to                   section of each mobile unit.
                                guy or brace the unit against tipping.                      (b) Mobile tubular welded frame scaf-
                                  (ii) The minimum platform width for                     folds—(1) General. Units shall be de-
                                any work level shall not be less than 20                  signed to comply with the require-
                                inches for mobile scaffolds (towers).                     ments of paragraph (a) of this section.
                                Ladder stands shall have a minimum                          (2) Bracing. Scaffolds shall be prop-
                                step width of 16 inches.                                  erly braced by cross braces and/or di-
                                  (iii) The supporting structure for the                  agonal braces for securing vertical
                                work level shall be rigidly braced,                       members together laterally. The cross
                                using adequate cross bracing or diago-                    braces shall be of a length that will
                                nal bracing with rigid platforms at                       automatically      square    and     align
                                each work level.                                          vertical members so the erected scaf-
                                  (iv) The steps of ladder stands shall                   fold is always plumb, square, and rigid.
                                be fabricated from slip resistant treads.                   (3) Spacing. Spacing of panels or
                                  (v) The work level platform of scaf-                    frames shall be consistent with the
                                folds (towers) shall be of wood, alu-
                                                                                          loads imposed. The frames shall be
                                minum, or plywood planking, steel or
                                                                                          placed one on top of the other with
                                expanded metal, for the full width of
                                                                                          coupling or stacking pins to provide
                                the scaffold, except for necessary open-
                                ings. Work platforms shall be secured                     proper vertical alignment of the legs.
                                in place. All planking shall be 2-inch                      (4) Locking. Where uplift may occur,
                                (nominal) scaffold grade minimum 1,500                    panels shall be locked together
                                f. (stress grade) construction grade                      vertically by pins or other equivalent
                                lumber or equivalent.                                     means.
                                  (vi) All scaffold work levels 10 feet or                  (5) Erection. Only the manufacturer of
                                higher above the ground or floor shall                    a scaffold or his qualified designated

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                                Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor                                                     § 1910.29

                                agent shall be permitted to erect or su-                  shall be designed so that the horizontal
                                pervise the erection of scaffolds exceed-                 bearers provide supports for multiple
                                ing 50 feet in height above the base, un-                 planking levels.
                                less such structure is approved in writ-                    (7) Erection. Only the manufacturer of
                                ing by a registered professional engi-                    the scaffold or his qualified designated
                                neer, or erected in accordance with in-                   agent shall be permitted to erect or su-
                                structions furnished by the manufac-                      pervise the erection of scaffolds exceed-
                                turer.                                                    ing 50 feet in height above the base, un-
                                  (c) Mobile tubular welded sectional                     less such structure is approved in writ-
                                folding scaffolds—(1) General. Units in-                  ing by a licensed professional engineer,
                                cluding sectional stairway and sec-                       or erected in accordance with instruc-
                                tional ladder scaffolds shall be de-                      tions furnished by the manufacturer.
                                signed to comply with the require-                          (d) Mobile tube and coupler scaffolds—
                                ments of paragraph (a) of this section.                   (1) Design. Units shall be designed to
                                  (2) Stairway. An integral stairway                      comply with the applicable require-
                                and work platform shall be incor-                         ments of paragraph (a) of this section.
                                porated into the structure of each sec-                     (2) Material. The material used for
                                tional folding stairway scaffold.                         the couplers shall be of a structural
                                  (3) Bracing. An integral set of piv-                    type, such as a drop-forged steel, mal-
                                oting and hinged folding diagonal and                     leable iron or structural grade alu-
                                horizontal braces and a detachable                        minum. The use of gray cast iron is
                                work platform shall be incorporated                       prohibited.
                                into the structure of each sectional                        (3) Erection. Only the manufacturer of
                                folding ladder scaffold.                                  the scaffold or his qualified designated
                                  (4) Sectional folding stairway scaffolds.               agent shall be permitted to erect or su-
                                Sectional folding stairway scaffolds                      pervise the erection of scaffolds exceed-
                                shall be designed as medium duty scaf-                    ing 50 feet in height above the base, un-
                                folds except for high clearance. These                    less such structure is approved in writ-
                                special base sections shall be designed                   ing by a licensed professional engineer,
                                as light duty scaffolds. When upper sec-                  or erected in accordance with instruc-
                                tional folding stairway scaffolds are                     tions furnished by the manufacturer.
                                used with a special high clearance base,                    (e) Mobile work platforms—(1) Design.
                                the load capacity of the entire scaffold                  Units shall be designed for the use in-
                                shall be reduced accordingly. The                         tended and shall comply with the re-
                                width of a sectional folding stairway                     quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-
                                scaffold shall not exceed 41⁄2 feet. The                  tion.
                                maximum length of a sectional folding                       (2) Base width. The minimum width of
                                stairway scaffold shall not exceed 6                      the base of mobile work platforms shall
                                feet.                                                     not be less than 20 inches.
                                  (5) Sectional folding ladder scaffolds.                   (3) Bracing. Adequate rigid diagonal
                                Sectional folding ladder scaffolds shall                  bracing to vertical members shall be
                                be designed as light duty scaffolds in-                   provided.
                                cluding special base (open end) sections                    (f) Mobile ladder stands—(1) Design.
                                which are designed for high clearance.                    Units shall comply with applicable re-
                                For certain special applications the                      quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-
                                six-foot (6′) folding ladder scaffolds, ex-               tion.
                                cept for special high clearance base                        (2) Base width. The minimum base
                                sections, shall be designed for use as                    width shall conform to paragraph
                                medium duty scaffolds. The width of a                     (a)(3)(i) of this section. The maximum
                                sectional folding ladder scaffold shall                   length of the base section shall be the
                                not exceed 41⁄2 feet. The maximum                         total length of combined steps and top
                                length of a sectional folding ladder                      assembly, measured horizontally, plus
                                scaffold shall not exceed 6 feet 6 inches                 five-eighths inch per step of rise.
                                for a six-foot (6′) long unit, 8 feet 6                     (3) Steps. Steps shall be uniformly
                                inches for an eight-foot (8′) unit or 10                  spaced, and sloped, with a rise of not
                                feet 6 inches for a ten-foot (10′) long                   less than nine (9) inches, nor more than
                                unit.                                                     ten (10) inches, and a depth of not less
                                  (6) End frames. The end frames of sec-                  seven (7) inches. The slope of the steps
                                tional ladder and stairway scaffolds                      section shall be a minimum of fifty-

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                                § 1910.30                                                              29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–04 Edition)

                                five (55) degrees and a maximum of                          (3) Wood platforms used on the floor
                                sixty (60) degrees measured from the                      in front of machines shall be substan-
                                horizontal.                                               tially constructed.
                                  (4) Handrails. (i) Units having more                      (c) Veneer machinery. (1) Sides of
                                than five (5) steps or 60 inches vertical                 steam vats shall extend to a height of
                                height to the top step shall be equipped                  not less than 36 inches above the floor,
                                with handrails.                                           working platform, or ground.
                                  (ii) Handrails shall be a minimum of                      (2) Large steam vats divided into sec-
                                29 inches high. Measurements shall be                     tions shall be provided with substantial
                                taken vertically from the center of the                   walkways between sections. Each
                                step.                                                     walkway shall be provided with a
                                  (5) Loading. The load (see paragraph                    standard handrail on each exposed side.
                                (a)(2)(ii)(a) of this section) shall be ap-               These handrails may be removable, if
                                plied uniformly to a 31⁄2 inches wide                     necessary.
                                area front to back at the center of the                     (3) Covers shall be removed only from
                                width span with a safety factor of four                   that portion of steaming vats on which
                                (4).                                                      men are working and a portable railing
                                                                                          shall be placed at this point to protect
                                § 1910.30      Other working surfaces.                    the operators.
                                   (a) Dockboards (bridge plates). (1) Port-                (4) Workmen shall not ride or step on
                                able and powered dockboards shall be                      logs in steam vats.
                                strong enough to carry the load im-                       [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 49
                                posed on them.                                            FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996]
                                   (2) Portable dockboards shall be se-
                                cured in position, either by being an-                          Subpart E—Means of Egress
                                chored or equipped with devices which
                                will prevent their slipping.
                                                                                            AUTHORITY: Secs. 4, 6, 8, Occupational Safe-
                                   (3) Powered dockboards shall be de-
                                                                                          ty and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655,
                                signed and constructed in accordance                      657); Secretary of Labor’s Order Nos. 12–71 (36
                                with Commercial Standard CS202–56                         FR 8754), (8–76 41 FR 25059), 9–83 (48 FR 35736)
                                (1961) ‘‘Industrial Lifts and Hinged                      or 1–90 (55 FR 9033), 6–96 (62 FR 111), or 3–2000
                                Loading Ramps published by the U.S.                       (65 FR 50017), as applicable.
                                Department of Commerce, which is in-
                                corporated by reference as specified in                   § 1910.33       Table of contents.
                                § 1910.6.                                                    This section lists the sections and
                                   (4) Handholds, or other effective                      paragraph      headings     contained in
                                means, shall be provided on portable                      §§ 1910.34 through 1910.39.
                                dockboards to permit safe handling.
                                   (5) Positive protection shall be pro-                         § 1910.34    Coverage and definitions.
                                vided to prevent railroad cars from
                                                                                          (a) Every employer is covered.
                                being moved while dockboards or
                                                                                          (b) Exit routes are covered.
                                bridge plates are in position.
                                                                                          (c) Definitions.
                                   (b) Forging machine area. (1) Machines
                                shall be so located as to give (i) enough                  § 1910.35    Compliance with NFPA 101–2000, Life
                                clearance between machines so that                                            Safety Code.
                                the movement of one operator will not
                                                                                           § 1910.36    Design and construction requirements
                                interfere with the work of another, (ii)                                      for exit routes.
                                ample room for cleaning machines and
                                handling the work, including material                     (a) Basic requirements.
                                and scrap. The arrangement of ma-                         (b) The number of exit routes must be ade-
                                chines shall be such that operators will                       quate.
                                                                                          (c) Exit discharge.
                                not stand in aisles.
                                                                                          (d) An exit door must be unlocked.
                                   (2) Aisles shall be provided of suffi-                 (e) A side-hinged exit door must be used.
                                cient width to permit the free move-                      (f) The capacity of an exit route must be ade-
                                ment of employees bringing and remov-                          quate.
                                ing material. This aisle space is to be                   (g) An exit route must meet minimum height
                                independent of working and storage                             and width requirements.
                                space.                                                    (h) An outdoor exit route is permitted.

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