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Edited by Minas K. Papademetriou Edward M. Herath FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC BANGKOK, THAILAND, 1998 This publication brings together edited manuscripts of papers presented at the Expert Consultation on “Integrated Production Practices in Cashew in Asia”, held in Bangkok, Thailand, 7-9 October 1997. The Consultation was organized and sponsored by the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. The Report of the Consultation was brought out in December 1997 (FAO/RAP Publication: 1998/12). The designation and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not imply any opinion whatsoever on the part of the FAO. FOR COPIES WRITE TO: Senior Plant Production and Protection Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Atit Road, Banglamphu, Bangkok 10200 THAILAND Printed in July 1998 This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version. Adresse mail du document : http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/005/ac451e/ac451e04.htm Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS - M.K. Papademetriou 2. WELCOME ADDRESS - Soetatwo Hadiwigeno 3. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN CHINA - Liu Kangde, Liang Shibang and Deng Suisheng 4. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN INDIA - E.V.V. Bhaskara Rao 5. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN INDONESIA - Usman Daras 6. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN MYANMAR - Maung Maung Lay 7. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN THE PHILIPPINES - Concepcion A.E. Magboo 8. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN SRI LANKA - G.B.B. Surendra 9. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN THAILAND - Suwit Chaikiattiyos 10. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN VIETNAM - Nguyen Minh Chau 11. CASHEW NUT NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS - B.K.Nandi 1. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS - M.K. Papademetriou Mostly grown as a cash crop on marginal and degraded lands, the cashew has carved a special niche in the cropping systems of many Asian countries. Land that has been mostly found unsuitable or somewhat less favorable for other crops, has been successfully utilized for producing a highly preferred food commodity for international trade. Eight major tree nuts of the world may be listed in the order of their importance in terms of production and consumption. These are almond, filbert, cashew, walnut, pecan, Brazil nut, pistachio and macadamia. Cashew, Brazil nut and macadamia are highly valued nut crops adapted to the tropics. The rest have different climatic requirements and are produced in the sub-tropics and temperate zones. Cashew is grown to a sizable extent in Asia and appears to have a good potential for further development in this region. It presents a diversification option for arid, marginal and sloping areas, specifically for small farmers in such constrained environments. The cashew nut is an important ingredient in the snack food market as well as in the confectionery industry. Apart from this, its development is increasingly being regarded as a means of improving food security and nutrition in many countries. Besides being nutritious, it is low in perishability and highly marketable. Furthermore, the cashew tree could play a significant role in soil conservation by preventing soil erosion from wind and rain in environmentally vulnerable areas. The management of the crop also demands less time, labor and inputs as compared to other tree crops. Its potential, both agriculturally and economically, has yet to be fully realized since most national research systems of cashew growing countries have devoted much less effort on research and development for this crop. In addition, application of crop management practices and inputs have always been in favor of other crops, without fully realizing its true potential. There is more or less a broad consensus among the cashew specialists in the region that the current performance of cashew growing enterprises is far below the inherent potential of the crop. Productivity levels reported from many countries leave much to be desired. There are wide disparities between actual yields obtained by the production sector and yields obtained by researchers and in extension demonstrations. The main reason attributed to this situation is the apparent neglect and low management levels applied to the crop. Crop husbandry practices are either absent or poorly applied. It has been demonstrated that good yields can be realized only from well managed plantations, although the crop can survive under marginal conditions. Another factor that contributes to better performance is the use of vegetatively propagated plants of high performance clones. Efforts are, therefore, needed to narrow the gap between actual yields and potential yields. I am confident that with the application of modern agro-techniques and use of superior germplasm, production and productivity can be substantially increased. Inter-country cooperation could be very helpful in achieving this common goal. Strengthening cooperation among countries, institutions and individual scientists in production development activities is important. A forum like this will provide us the opportunity to interact and exchange our expertise, and explore the possibilities of sharing acquired knowledge on the crop for mutual benefit. It is in this context that this consultation has been convened.  Senior Plant Production and Protection Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand 2. WELCOME ADDRESS - Soetatwo Hadiwigeno It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you to the Expert Consultation on Integrated Production Practices in Cashew in Asia. May I take this opportunity to extend to all of you warm greetings on behalf of the Director-General of FAO, from my colleagues in the Regional Office and myself. I am happy to see the positive response which we have received from the cashew experts in Asia. Considering the importance of this tree nut crop in the economy of Asian countries and the need for inter - country cooperation on problems of common interest, we have decided to hold this Expert Consultation in order to elaborate on integrated production practices for the crop, which if properly applied can increase substantially the production and productivity of cashew in Asia. While appreciating your response to our invitation, I hope that this meeting will prove to be productive and beneficial for all the participating countries. Cashew has very good adaptability to a wide range of soils, from hard laterite to red sandy loams and sandy soils. In 1970, Africa was the largest producer accounting for 78 percent of world production, which subsequently had declined to 30.14 percent by 1996. The production in Asia during the same period increased from 15 percent to 46.45 percent, with the major producers being India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand. It is estimated that the current area under cashew in the world is about 1.12 million ha with a production of about 700,000 metric tons of raw nuts. Out of the total kernel production in the world, 110,000 metric tons enter into the world export trade while the balance is consumed in the emerging markets of producing countries, especially in India. Brazil and India together account for over 91 percent of the world exports while African exports are estimated to be around 0.5 percent only. Five of the major markets, namely, USA, Netherlands, Germany, Japan and UK account for 82 percent of imports. It is estimated that about 60 percent of the exported nuts is consumed in the form of kernels while the other 40 percent is used in the confectionery industry. The outlook indicates a 5 percent annual increase in exports in the years to come and the demand is expected to increase both in the traditional markets of USA and Europe and also in the developing markets of Asia. Another important product from the cashew industry is the Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL), which can be extracted from the shells either by a centrifugal method or by using solvents and crushing plants. The major producer of CNSL is Brazil, followed by India and Mozambique. Brazil meets 60 percent of the world demand. A bright future for both kernel and CNSL is foreseen in world trade. There is, therefore, much scope for increasing the production of raw cashew nuts in many tropical countries, especially in Asia. In nutritive value, cashew compares well with the other tree nuts, and in the new version of the traditional Mediterranean diet pyramid developed by the World Health Organization, tree nuts including cashew, are placed at the base of the pyramid encouraging daily consumption. Cashew kernels contain 50 percent fat, of which 82 percent is unsaturated fatty acids free from cholesterol. The nutritive features of the cashew nut should enhance the international demand and make the crop more attractive for farmers in developing countries. As mentioned earlier, the very wide adaptability of cashew trees to a variety of soil types and their hardy nature relegated the crop in many countries for soil conservation purposes as well as for forestry programs. As a crop, it is primarily grown in small holdings and in homesteads. Till recently, it was considered as a crop which does not require much attention and was grown under neglected conditions in many countries. However, research conducted in India, Australia, African countries and Brazil has clearly indicated the responsiveness of the crop to improved technologies. Cashew is predominantly a cross - pollinated crop and therefore, plantations raised from seed are highly heterogeneous and exhibit considerable variability in growth habits and in bearing behavior. The first step to increase production and productivity of cashew would be to identify superior varieties which have a high market demand and are suitable for different cashew growing environments in each country. The data available strongly suggests that regionalization of the germplasm is very important in increasing cashew production. The benefit of these improved varieties can only be realized if we can dispense with the seed propagation method and resort to vegetative propagation. I understand that in recent years considerable progress has been made in the standardization of vegetative propagation in cashew and we will be looking forward to the information on the progress made in different countries on this aspect. While it is a well known fact that although many of the small holdings and homestead plantings do not receive adequate attention in nutrient management, cashew does respond well to fertilizer application, especially organic fertilizers. It will be appropriate to identify technologies that are most cost-effective in small holdings. Similarly, plant protection is an important component of the crop management program. In order to develop an eco-friendly package however, it will be necessary to reduce dependence on chemical control methods and to switch over to integrated pest management practices. Other cultural practices such as training and pruning of young trees, weeding, mulching, supplementary irrigation as well as rejuvenation of old and unproductive trees can play a significant role in increasing the production and productivity of the crop. I am sure that all these production issues ranging from land suitability surveys, identification of outstanding varieties, planting material production, cultivation practices up to post-harvest activities will be adequately deliberated during this consultation and some useful conclusions and recommendations will emerge. Development of the cashew industry in Asia will require a concerted effort on the part of governments and growers of each country. Collaboration between countries of the region is very important and could be rewarding. In view of the commonality of problems and issues, sharing of information and experience on various aspects of cashew production could lead to quicker and more remunerative results. Distinguished participants, we in FAO, and myself do look forward to your advice and guidance concerning an appropriate strategy for the development of the cashew industry in the region. I can assure you of our full support to your efforts. I wish you success in your present endeavor and a very pleasant stay in Bangkok.  Assistant Director-General and FAO Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. 3. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN CHINA - Liu Kangde, Liang Shibang and Deng Suisheng 1. INTRODUCTION China has a cashew cultivation history of about 60 years. The total land area under cashew increased to 13,000 ha in 1979 and has since declined to the present 8,327 ha, which is mainly confined to the coastal areas of the south and southwest Hainan. The soils are poor and infertile in these areas with long dry spells in winter and spring and are generally considered unsuitable for the cultivation of other tropical food crops without irrigation. The cashew trees, however, grow well under such conditions. The overwhelming majority of cashew trees in the orchards of Hainan are of seedling origin and hence low yielding. Some of the orchards have been forced to be abandoned due to poor management. Most of the orchards produce an average yield of around 212 kg/ha even if they have reached the age of maximum yield potential. The cashew nut has a low rating as a farm product and its contribution to the gross national product in economic terms is negligible. It is only since 1977 that a research group led by Prof. Jiang Shibang of the Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, successfully developed cashew budding techniques and launched a research programme on selection and breeding of high yielding clones as well as introduced rejuvenation practices for low yielding cashew plantations. Growing of cashew is at present listed in the poverty-alleviation programmes to be re- initiated as extension activities in the resource-poor coastal areas in the south and southwest areas of the Hainan island. In addition to its economic value as a crop, the cashew can be used in afforestation programmes to stabilize sandy coastal areas from erosion and help to bring about ecological benefits. Grant aid was given by the European Community for the development of the cashew industry from 1985-1990, through which systematic research was carried out on cashew production technology in Hainan island. These efforts have helped in promoting cashew production in Hainan. Current research is concentrating on breeding and selection of cold resistant clones/seedlings for different micro-climatic zones of North Hainan, Gejiu and Yingjian in Yunnan province. 2. CURRENT STATUS OF CASHEW PRODUCTION IN CHINA 2.1 Production Areas Under Cashew Major cashew producing areas are distributed in the coastal areas of Ledong Lingshui, Dongfang and Sanya of Hainan Province. Scattered cultivations are also found in Wanning and Wenchang of Hainan and trial plantings in Xishuangbanna and Gejui in Yunnan Province. According to the 1996 statistics, the total area under cashew is estimated at 8,327 ha of which 5,780 ha are in production. Ledong county in Hainan has the largest area under the crop with 4,460 ha, accounting for 54 % of the national production followed by Changjiang, Dongfang and Lingshui, Hainan Province (Table 1). Table 1. Cashew Production Statistics Hainan Province Ledong County Dongfang Year Area Harvest Production Area Harvest Production Area Harvest Production (ha) Extent (tons) (ha) Extent (tons) (ha) Extent (tons) (ha) (ha) (ha) 1986 9127 - 819 4920 - 393 827 373 183 1987 9400 6027 712 4974 4174 415 580 307 36 1988 11,593 5993 632 5147 4140 369 1040 333 38 1989 10,427 - 863 4320 - 582 767 - 47 1990 9773 5273 552 4247 3607 258 780 310 45 1991 9667 5393 567 4320 3554 274 773 427 77 1992 9807 5327 608 4440 3627 258 927 393 129 1993 9613 5127 835 4307 3273 435 973 487 139 1994 9627 4767 918 4440 2887 500 1067 527 104 1995 8787 - 960 4454 - 498 1147 493 137 1996 8327 5780 1224 4460 3360 534 1187 633 353 Chanjiang County Lingshui County Sanyan City 1986 227 140 20 2433 - 214 240 - 7.3 1987 700 327 23 2553 1140 224 313 - 13 1988 2347 193 27 2360 1127 185 247 - 10 1989 2227 200 16 2347 - 181 260 - 24 1990 2200 207 15 2273 1007 174 253 - 60 1991 2133 207 16 2213 1040 107 160 - 82 1992 2167 213 21 2033 953 110 153 - 89 1993 2233 267 30 1893 887 113 140 - 93 1994 2073 300 87 1827 893 105 - - 2 1995 1760 307 98 1207 - 100 133 - 101 1996 1360 967 149 1107 653 79 127 - 100 Source: Tropical Crops Division of the Agriculture Department of Hainan rovince, Bureaus of Statistics and Tropical Crops. 2.2 Varieties Grown Cashew varieties grown in China belong only to the species of Anacardium occidentale L; eighteen types are classified according to color (red, yellow, variegated), shape (round, oblong, pyriform) of the cashew-apple and height (tall and dwarf), and these can be further classified into 54 types based on the size and shape of the nut. Screening of cashew germplasm was initiated in the latter part of the 1970s, and 5 superior accessions of germplasm were accepted for national release in July 1990, which were introduced to the production system for commercial cultivation. The 5 selections are as follows: GA-63: Early flowering with medium nut size and a yield potential of kg/ha at the age of 5 years; HL2-13: Protracted flowering phase with medium nut size and a yield potential of 1332 kg/ha at the age of 5 years; HL2-21: Late flowering, dwarf in tree size, wind resistant with large nut size and a yield potential of 1341 kg/ha at the age of 5 years; FL-30: Long and extended full-bloom stage with large-sized nuts and a yield potential of 861 kg/ha at the age of 4 years; CP63-36: A selection with high percentage (63.7%) of perfect flowers, small nut size with a high yield potential of 21.1 kg/tree. 3. PROPAGATION AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL 3.1 Nursery Establishment There are no large scale State owned or private nurseries for cashew propagation in Hainan. Most cashew plantations have their own nurseries for production of planting material required for their expansion programmes. Sometimes, grower organizations set up their own nurseries in the vicinity of their cashew orchards specifically for the use of such ventures. 3.2 Planting Materials Prior to 1978, all planting materials used were of seedling origin and only recently new orchards have been planted with superior grafted selections. In many areas seedlings continue to be used and nursery plants used are bare-rooted or established in polybags to facilitate transport. The practice of using grafted plants of improved selections started in the late 1980s. 3.3 Budding and Grafting Methods Both patch-budding and side-grafting are practiced in cashew nurseries although the former method is more common. Side grafting is generally used for topworking and for breeding work on better performing clones. 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS 4.1 Land Preparation Selection of cashew growing areas on Hainan island is primarily based on temperature criteria as low temperature regimes and cold waves in winter and spring are unsuitable for successful cashew production. In general, monthly mean temperatures should be above 20°C. Existing cashew orchards in Hainan are mostly located in the sandy loam and sandy areas of the coastal terrace at elevations below 100 m. Such lands with low agricultural potential are opened up by complete or strip ploughing. Lands with grass or shrubs are used by partial clearing and digging of pits for planting cashew. Most cashew plantations on the island have been established on flat terrain without any conservation measures. 4.2 Planting Season Optimum planting season is during the early-mid wet season between June and September. The planting time however, is not so critical for polybag raised nursery plants, but when bare- rooted seedlings are planted in winter and spring the survival rate is low. 4.3 Spacing Tree density is mainly dependent on varietal attributes of clones/seedlings and soil fertility conditions at a particular site. In general, tree density ranges from 120-270 trees/ha for seedlings and 105-150 trees/ha for clones. Most orchards follow the square planting system at a spacing of 6m x 6m. Closer planting gives higher yields at early bearing stage, and when canopies become dense orchards are thinned (7-8 years after planting). 4.4 Planting of Cashew Pits are dug about one month prior to planting at a size of about 80 cm x 70 cm x 60 cm. Usually pits are dug by hand although mechanical digging has been introduced in recent times. After some exposure to sun, the pits are filled with top soil and organic manure before planting at the onset of the rainy season. When planting bare-root plants, the root system is spread within the pit before filling with soil. In the case of polybag raised plants, the root system is undisturbed and soil is re-filled and compacted layer by layer to ensure a firm substratum. Sufficient watering is provided immediately after planting and mulching is often practiced to conserve moisture. 5. MANAGEMENT AND AFTERCARE OF CASHEW ORCHARDS 5.1 Training and Pruning of Cashew To achieve better fruit-set, young cashew trees are often trained to provide a better tree form. In the case of mature trees, pruning is carried out to eliminate overcrowding and shading or to remove weak, entangled, weak or dead branches infested with diseases or pests. Non-bearing wood is removed to promote vigorous growth of active branches that bear regularly. Training and pruning of mature trees is regularly carried out to remove excess wood. 5.2 Application of Manure and Fertilizer Since cashew orchards on Hainan island are established in sandy soils that are relatively low in fertility, productivity is generally low unless manuring is applied to augment soil nutrients. Fertilizer application rates increase with age of orchard. Very little fertilizer is needed in the first year of planting as adequate basal fertilizer is given at planting. From then on, trees are manured/fertilized twice a year in July and September with 0.25 kg of urea in the second year when plants are about 40-50 cm high. In the third year, 0.5 kg of fertilizer is added. In the 4th year 1 kg of fertilizer is added in two applications together with 0.5 kg of calcium phosphate, 0.3 kg of muriate of potash or 20-30 kg of organic manure for every application. The beneficial effect of P and K fertilizers were often enhanced by the addition of nitrogen fertilizers which seemed to have a direct effect on fruitfulness in cashew (Jiang Shibang et al). 5.3 Weeding and Mulching Up to three years of age, young cashew trees need weed-free conditions around the base and 3-4 weeding cycles have to be carried out per year. Mulching is also practiced to keep the basal area weed-free and to maintain moisture and temperature balance in the upper layers of soil. Mulching is however, not essential for mature trees as the root system becomes extensive. Weeding is usually carried out by hand and occasionally when obnoxious weeds such as twitch-grass are present they are controlled with the use of glyphosate. 5.4 Cover-Cropping and Inter-Cropping Natural grass and legume cover is usually maintained at time of land clearing to conserve soil and water since the trees are planted far apart. In young orchards cashew is also intercropped with green manure cover crops and/or short-term annual crops. Main cover- crops include Calopogonium mucunoides, Macrophyllum atropurpureius cv. Siratro, pasture grasses and inter-crops such as peanut, sweet potato and beans. In recent years, cashew is being inter-cropped in some areas with melons (watermelon and sweet melon) and vegetables such as hot pepper. 5.5 Supplementary Irrigation Although cashew is generally established in the wet season in Hainan, a high survival rate is assured by resorting to supplementary irrigation within one month from planting. This practice becomes more necessary when inter-crops are taken but monocropped orchards and mature plantations do not receive any irrigation. 5.6 Plant Protection Practices Cashew diseases are of minor importance in China. Root rot, stem rot and die-back may occur at the nursery stage while gummosis, defoliation and root rot have been observed in mature orchards. No serious attempt has been made to identify the causative organisms of these symptoms as these conditions did not seem to depress yields in any significant degree. Pests on the other hand are economically important in cashew nut production. More than 40 insect pests attacking the stem, branches, leaves, tender shoots, flowers and fruit have been observed in Hainan plantations. The more serious pests are dotted-leg capsid (Hellopeltis fasciaticollis, Poppius), cashew fruit borer (Nephopteryx spp.) and green-hairy beetle (Plocaederus obesus, Gahan). The dotted-leg capsid mainly infests tender shoots, racemes, leaves, cashew apples and young nuts at pre-inflorescence, blooming and young fruit stages. Population dynamics show that peak infestation occurs from February to March and its population declines after May. Based on these studies, infested trees are sprayed with pesticides at the early stage of infestation during November-January. Pesticides commonly used are 20 % fenfevarate with a dilution of 1 in 200, and a mixture of 40 % dimethoate and 80 % dichlorphos (1:2 ratio) with a dilution of 1 in 200 all given as a low volume spray. The cashew fruit borer develops large populations during the fruiting season between March and June, mostly attacking the cashew apple, nuts, racemes and tender shoots. Chemical control is usually practiced in the mid-late March period when peak fruiting phase commences. Spraying of 20 % fenfevarate or 2.5 % deltamethrin (1 in 200 dilution) is usually carried out for effective control. The green-hairy beetle attacks trunks and roots of trees. Topworked trees are particularly susceptible and cut-end coating and trunk whitewashing with a lime solution gives effective prophylactic control. Infested trunks are treated with 80 % dichlorphos (1 in 50 dilution) by injecting the chemical into caterpillar tunnels to kill larvae. 6. REPLANTING AND/OR REJUVENATION OF OLD TREES BY TOPWORKING Cashew orchards in Hainan comprise mostly of unselected seedling trees often giving very low yields. Their level of management also leaves much to be desired. Detailed studies carried out by Jiang Shibang et al of the Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences since 1985 employing the horticultural practice of topworking with high yielding clones and a systematic fertilizer programme rejuvenated most of the uneconomical seedling orchards in Hainan. This is now an accepted practice among growers and a topworking program is now in progress. 7. HARVESTING AND PRODUCTIVITY OF CASHEW Harvesting of cashew is carried out from March-June with peaks occuring in April and May. The flowering period lasts 2-3 months and hence the harvest period extends for 70-80 days. The cashew apple is hardly utilized for processing at present. Mature nuts are picked from the ground when ripe fruits drop naturally. Nuts are then collected and sun-dried before processing using a hand operated machine. Cashew yields are usually low with maximum annual average yields reaching only about 212 kg/ha (1996 average) even in well managed orchards that have reached peak harvests, while about 30 percent of the orchards yield negligible harvests. Ledong county in Hainan has the largest area under cashew. These orchards have given an annual yield ranging from 71-173 kg/ha since 1990. 8. MARKETING Cashew is a crop that is freely marketed in China. In general, cashew nut is purchased from growers by the State or private processing mills at prices as low as 6-7 yuan/kg of nuts which results in a low product output value and negligible profits for the growers. Cashew nut mills exploit this situation and even import unprocessed nuts from foreign sources for processing and re-export as well as trade in domestic markets. The cashew nut marketing system is poorly organized as there are no growers’ organizations to ensure fair prices to the producer. Many private companies exploit the situation and have their own marketing channels. In the past, a major portion of the processed kernels was exported to Hongkong, reaching a maximum volume of 180 tons in 1994 (Table 2). Table 2. Export of Cashew (kernels) from Hainan (in tons) Year 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Exports 97 139 - 159 19 - 21 180 - - Source: Hainan Statistical Year book 1995. Economics and Trade Department. In recent years, domestic demand has increased considerably with the accelerated growth of the economy and the improvement of living standards of the local population, so much so that numerous companies are importing cashew to supply domestic markets. Cashew kernels have a ready demand as it is a product much preferred by local consumers. It is estimated that a modest per capita consumption of 50 g would require an annual supply of 60,000 tons to satisfy the local demand. 9. POTENTIAL FOR CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT Although there is some potential for cashew nut development, China does not have the optimum climatic regimes for expansion of the cashew industry. However, China has vast areas of land considered unsuitable for other crops and which can be judiciously exploited for expansion of the crop, considering the vast potential for consumption of the crop locally, and the possibility of government intervention to assist the industry. Expansion of the cashew crop has many socio-economic benefits. Marginal areas could be profitably farmed to assist resource-poor farmers and many areas with sandy soils could be environmentally stabilized by growing cashew. The coastal plain in south Hainan comprises of nearly 133,000 ha of upland suitable for cashew and other forest species of which about one third of the area can be brought under cashew. Since cashew cultivation does not require intensive production methods or high input costs, it is an ideal crop for impoverished areas. Introduction of high yielding clones and better quality varieties would undoubtedly benefit the producer as well as the processor and eventually benefit the consumer. 10. CONSTRAINTS IN CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT 10.1 Climatic Limitations Low temperatures and typhoons are two major climatic constraints affecting cashew production development in China. Geographical distribution of cashew is mainly restricted by prevailing low temperatures during winter and spring seasons of the year. Temperature is therefore, the prime factor in limiting the distribution of cashew. The south Hainan island which is situated at 18° north latitude with a mean minimum temperature above 19°C in the coldest month is considered suitable for successful cashew production where the crop flowers and fruits normally. In the north of the Hainan island where minimum temperatures go below 18°C, growth of the crop is somewhat erratic and restrained to various extents. It was found that cashew grows normally at a temperature range of 23-29°C, exhibits slow growth at or below 20°C and is restrained at around 18°C, whilst the trees suffer cold injury and succumb at 15°C or below. Typhoons often damage cashew trees as the tree tends to spread and produce weak branches resulting in loss of the crop. Mild typhoon damage where only loss of foliage may occur, recovery can restore the crop within a few months. 10.2 Varietal Limitations A large proportion of the cashew plantations on Hainan island comprise of unselected seedling trees which are low yielding and of poor quality. A survey of 1160 seven year old trees carried out in Ledong county showed that only three trees produced 7.5 kg of nuts per tree contributing only 0.26 %, while the rest gave an average yield of only 1.8 kg per tree (Shibang et al). Recent germplasm screening has yielded some superior clones which are now recommended for planting as grafts. Despite these attempts, productivity of cashew in Hainan remains low as compared to other crops. 10.3 Management and Aftercare The majority of cashew orchards in Hainan are poorly managed especially at the juvenile stage. These receive very little attention and proper application of manure/fertilizer during the fruiting stage. Low yields experienced in most cashew plantations that have reached their peak bearing stage can be attributed to improper orchard fertilizer application practices. As a result, about one third of the plantations produce virtually no crop of any economic value and are in a neglected state. Fertilizer investigations carried out by Shibang et al showed significant gains from the application of nitrogen in combination with P and K fertilizer in low yielding orchards. 10.4 Pest Control Problems Although pests such as dotted-leg capsid, cashew fruit borer and green hairy beetle have been identified and appropriate recommendations made, many growers fail to resort to timely spraying to alleviate this production constraint which has resulted in severe crop losses. These constraints mentioned above are limiting production development of the cashew industry in China. Extension services have commenced a programme to improve the situation based on the research carried out by Shibang et al. Despite these efforts, cashew productivity remains low as orchards are maintained and managed with minimum inputs and efforts from growers. 11. CONCLUDING REMARKS Cashew production is mainly confined to the southern and south-western coastal areas of Hainan island. The majority of plantations have been established with unselected seedling germplasm which has resulted in low production and productivity. Cashew extents have progressively declined during the last 10 years. The Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences has conducted systematic research on agronomic practices and recommended rejuvenation techniques for low yielding orchards. These include topworking with high yielding clones and NPK fertilizer application to improve existing orchards. China has an enormous domestic demand for the cashew crop and local production has been unable to keep up with existing market requirements. Major constraints to cashew nut production development in China include climatic, varietal, and management problems including soil fertility maintenance and plant protection problems. Of these limitations, temperature appears to be the prime factor that limits geographical distribution of the cashew. Despite these climatic limitations, there is still scope for expansion of the crop to over 40 thousand ha along the coastal sandy tracts of Hainan island. Cashew can be therefore considered as a suitable economic venture for the resource-poor farming communities as well as an environmentally and ecologically stable crop for a sound land-use system for the coastal areas of Hainan Island. Cashew production will not assume any economic importance in the agricultural framework of the country unless a vigorous campaign is carried out to encourage and attract cashew growers through the offer of better varieties, supported by a strong research and extension effort to backstop the industry. It is only such a consolidated effort based on scientific management techniques that can assist farmers to increase production and productivity of the crop.  Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Science, Danzhou City, Hainan Province 571737, China 4. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN INDIA - E.V.V. Bhaskara Rao 1. INTRODUCTION Cashew as a marketable commodity, has a very important role to play in the liberalized Indian economy. With export earnings of Rs. 12,320 million in 1995-96, cashew ranked as one of the top agricultural export commodities. From the farmers’ as well as from the exporters’ point of view, the current emphasis that cashew is receiving as a horticultural crop from the research and development front, is a welcome sign. At present, India has a processing capacity of nearly seven hundred thousand metric tons and to meet the raw nut demand, the country depends partially on imports from several African, and in recent years, from south-east Asian countries. This has considerable drain on the country’s foreign exchange reserves and there is an urgent need to increase local production to substitute imported raw material in order to derive the maximum benefits from a strong processing and marketing capability developed over the years by the Indian cashew industry. Research work on cashew was initiated on a relatively small scale in early 1950’s resulting in the development of several production techniques. These efforts were further strengthened when the national research mandate was delegated to the Central plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI), Kasaragod, in 1970 which spearheaded the All India Coordinated Spices and Cashew improvement Project from 1971. These research activities received further impetus with the implementation of a World Bank aided multi-State Cashew Project in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Orissa from 1982-86. A National Research Center for Cashew was established at Puttur to increase the production and productivity of cashew with the mission-mode approach in 1986. The cashew development component of the combined All India Coordinated Spices and Cashew Improvement Project was de-linked and an independent National Cashew Research project was initiated with the newly established National Research Center (NRC) for the crop at the same time. There are 8 research centers and one sub-center at present, located in 8 cashew growing States in the country. This can be considered as a milestone in cashew development with firmly established linkages with the Directorate of Cashew nut Development Corporation and other extension agencies which assisted in the transfer of newly developed production technologies. 2. PRESENT STATUS OF CASHEW PRODUCTION 2.1 Areas of Production Cashew is grown in the western and eastern coastal areas and further inland in some parts of Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Currently, the area under cashew is around 634,900 ha with a total production of 417,000 tons (Table 1). With 118,000 ha and a production of 140,000 tons, Kerala accounts for 18.6 % of the area and 33.5 % of production respectively. The highest productivity is observed in Kerala and Maharashtra with over one ton per ha. The high yields in Maharashtra are primarily due to the fact that cashew production is of recent origin and the major part of the plantations have been established with high yielding clonal material. Even the orchards raised from seeds are from selected progenies. The current targets are set to produce 700,000 tons from 700,000 ha by the year 2000 AD. Table 1. Area, Production and Productivity of Cashew in India (1965-96) States Area National % Production National % Productivity (ha) Area (tons) Prod. (kg/ha) Kerala 118,600 18.6 140,000 33.5 1,180 Karnataka 83,900 13.2 37,600 8.9 448 Goa 49,600 7.8 17,800 4.3 359 Maharashtra 66,700 10.5 69,000 16.5 1,034 Tamil Nadu 77,360 12.2 30,930 7.4 400 Andhra 118,080 18.6 71,700 17.2 607 Pradesh Orissa 101,850 16.0 43,000 10.3 422 West Bengal 8,680 1.4 6,960 1.7 802 Others 10,200 1.6 840 0.2 82 Total 634,970 100.0 417,830 100.0 658 2.2 Varieties Thirty-three cultivars have been released so far by the National Research Center as well as several Agricultural Universities. Most of the varieties have a mean yield of 8-10 kg per tree which gives over one ton per ha. In view of the export potential however, cultivation is recommended only for such cultivars that have a kernel grade of W-210 to W-240 (210-240 kernels per lb). Cashew cultivar recommendations for different States are given in Table 2. 3. PROPAGATION AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL A number of propagation methods have been tested for the multiplication of cashew. Air- layering was found to be one of the popular methods among growers. This technique however, produced trees with poor anchorage as the root density was found to be low. It also resulted in poor field establishment and high susceptibility to cyclones and drought conditions. Air layering was therefore found to be unsuitable for commercial exploitation. In the case of mound layering too, the absence of a tap root was found to be a disadvantage. Epicotyl grafting was another method that had limitations due to high mortality at transplanting and incidence of collar-rot at the nursery stage. Soft-wood grafting developed at the research centers was found to be the most viable method of propagation that was commercially acceptable; it gave a success rate of about 70 percent. The technique of soft- wood grafting described below is similar to epicotyl grafting except the difference in the age of the rootstock. Table 2. Cashew Cultivars Recommended for Different States of India State Cultivars Recommended Progeny Karnataka Selection 1 VTH-107/3 Selection 2 VTH-40/1 Ullal 1 8/46 Taliparamba Ullal 2 3/67 Guntur Ullal 3 5/37 Manjeri Ullal 4 2/77 Tuni: Andhra UN 50 2/27 Nileshwar VRI 1 M-10/4 VRI 2 M-44/3 Vengurla 1 Ansur-1 Vengurla 4 Mid Red x Vetore 56 Chintamani 1 8/46 Taliparamba Kerala Madakkathara 1 BLA-39-4 Madakkathara 2 NDR 2-1 K-22-1 22 Kottarakkara Dhana ALGD-1-1 x K 30-1 Priyanka BLA-139-1 x K 30-1 Maharashtra and Goa Vengurla-1 Ansur-1 Vengurla-4 Mid Red x Vetore-56 Vengurla-6 Vetore 56 x Ansur-1 Tamil Nadu VRI-1 M 10/4 VRI-2 M 44/3 VRI-3 M 26/2 Andhra Pradesh BPP-4 EPM 9/8 BPP-6 T No.56 BPP-8 T No.1 x T No. 39 VRI-2 M 44/3 Orissa VRI-2 M 44/3 Bhubaneshvar-1 Vengurla 36/3 West Bengal Jhargram-1 T No. 16 of Bapatla Madhya Pradesh T No. 40 Vengurla 4 Mid Red x Vetore-56 Forty to sixty day old seedlings are used as rootstocks. Two pairs of leaves are retained and the seedlings are decapitated at the soft-wood apical region. Wedge-grafting is then carried out with a 4-5 cm cleft on the rootstock and with a small portion of the inner surface removed to facilitate a perfect union of the wedge-shaped scion, which has been prepared by shaving a portion of the bark and tissue on either side. The union is then secured by tying with a 15- 30 cm polythene strip. The top of the scion is covered with a polythene cap to protect the apical portion of the scion from desiccation. The grafted plants are maintained in a lath or screen house for 8-10 days until sprouts emerge, and then the grafted plants are provided more sunlight and the caps removed. This wedge grafting technique is carried out by using only the soft-wood tissues of the stock and scion. The following management techniques are important in nursing young grafted plants. - Grafts need to be watered frequently depending on the season. - Excess water needs to be drained by providing drainage holes in polybags. - Shoots on the rootstocks have to be nipped off frequently. - Polythene wrapping at the union has to be removed about three months after grafting to prevent girdling. - When the scion leaves turn from brown to green, rootstock leaves have to be removed (approximately 60 days after grafting). - Flower shoots that sprout during the normal flowering season should be removed at the nursery stage. - To prevent roots penetrating into the ground, grafted plants should be shifted frequently or placed on thick gauge black polythene sheets. - Partial shade has to be provided to avoid sun-scorch by placing the grafted plants in a lath/screen house. Direct sunlight should be avoided as polythene bags tend to perish. Watering on alternate days should be done in summer. - Regular insecticide sprays need to be given to control leaf sucking insects. - When transporting grafted plants, terminal shoots and taproots should be protected. 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS Large extents of land are available in Karnataka, Maharashtra and west Bengal for establishing new plantations under the cashew expansion program. There is also the possibility of expanding cashew cultivation into non-traditional areas in Madhya Pradesh, Bihar etc. 4.1 Selection of Site and Land Development When selecting land for cashew, soils with salinity/alkalinity or waterlogging should be avoided. Soil depth, slope, course texture, soil fertility and water availability seem to impose very little limitations as cashew is a hardy crop. For establishing new plantations, land preparation should begin with the first pre-monsoon rains. Land should be cleared of shrub vegetation before digging pits for planting. 4.2 Planting Season Planting of grafted plants is usually carried out during the monsoon season from July-August both in the west coast as well as in the east coast. Orchards should have pits dug to receive grafted plants well in advance of the main monsoon weather. 4.3 Spacing and Planting Systems A spacing of 7.5m x 7.5m or 8m x 8m is recommended for cashew which gives a tree density of 175 and 156 trees per ha, respectively. High density planting at 4m x 4m giving a tree density of 625 trees per ha in the initial years and subsequently thinning in stages to reach a final spacing of 8m x 8m is also practiced in some areas. This enables higher returns during the initial years and as the canopies grow in volume, alternate trees are removed to achieve the desired final spacing. In level sites however, it would be advantageous to plant cashew at a spacing of 10m x 5m which will give a tree density of 200 trees per ha and at the same time providing sufficient space for growers to plant inter-crops during the initial years of establishment. 4.4 Planting of Cashew Pits are usually dug at the onset of the pre-monsoon rains to a size of 60cm x 60cm x 60cm in light to medium soils. If a hard substrate like laterite is present pits may be 1m x 1m to compensate for the lesser depth of soil. It is preferable to dig pits 15-20 days before planting to expose planting holes to direct sunlight which can help remove termites and other harmful insects that can damage young plants, if present. When filling, top soil mixed with compost (5 kg) or poultry manure (2 kg) and 200g of rock phosphate are placed in the pits. Contour planting is usually followed in sloping areas. Standard conservation measures need to be followed on steep lands when establishing cashew plantations. Young plants are planted in the months of July-August. Most nurseries supply 5-12 month old grafted plants in polybags. At planting, the polythene bag is removed without disturbing the ball of earth and the roots. Care is taken to place the grafted plant in the pits leaving the graft joint at least 5 cm above ground level. Normally the scion is staked to avoid damage from wind and the support should remain up to the third year from planting. Most orchard growers use a mulch around the planting hole to suppress weeds and conserve moisture. 5. MANAGEMENT AND AFTERCARE OF CASHEW ORCHARDS 5.1 Terracing and Bunding In the western and eastern coastal areas cashew is grown mostly on sloping land. A considerable amount of nutrient leaching and soil erosion are common in such situations. Growers have been advised to construct terraces and contour pits to conserve runoff water. Studies on the extent of root distribution revealed that 90 percent of the root system was confined to a radius of 2m and a depth of 1 m. In order to achieve maximum utilization of applied nutrients, fertilizer practices were confined to this part of the root zone. Before the advent of the south west monsoon in May-June, basins of about 1.5m radius are prepared for 2 year-old trees and subsequently widened to 2m in the third year. Terraces are made by removing the soil from the elevated portion above the tree trunks to create basins of 1.5-2m. Contour drains are also constructed to collect rain water above the tree-line and prevent soil wash from the slopes. 5.2 Application of Manures and Fertilizer Application of 10-15 kg of farmyard manure or compost annually is generally recommended for cashew. In addition, the current fertilizer recommendation is 500g N (1.1 kg urea), 125g P 2O 5(625g rock phosphate) and 125g K 2 O (208g muriate of potash) per tree per year. This has increased production in the All India cashew trials carried out at the research centers. These trials also showed that the cashew responds well to increased N applications up to 750g. Since local NPK fertilizer mixtures do not deliver the required nutrients, application of straight fertilizer is recommended. Fertilizer is applied annually at the end of the rainy season into a shallow trench at the drip line of trees. It is also recommended that fertilizer be applied in split doses during pre- monsoon (May-June) and post-monsoon (September-October) periods to assure better uptake of nutrients. If a single application is done, the post-monsoon period is more suitable when ground moisture is adequate. One third the recommended dose is applied in the first year, two third the dose in the second year and the full dose thereafter (Table 3). Table 3. Recommended Doses of NPK Fertilizer for Cashew (g/plant) Year Urea (gm) Rock Phosphate (gm) Muriate of Potash 1 330 200 70 2 660 400 140 3 onwards 1,100 625 208 Based on the results of research conducted by the National Coordinated trials, the following methods of fertilizer application are recommended to cashew growers. In the red loamy soils in low rainfall areas such as the east coast, fertilizers have to be applied and raked into the soil along the drip line of tree canopies. In laterite soils and steep lands of the west coast, fertilizer is applied in circular trenches of about 25 cm width along the drip line of trees. Trenches are filled and a mulch is applied to ensure soil moisture retention. 5.3 Weeding Until tree canopies shade out the weeds, weeding is essential around the tree trunks up to a radius of about 2 m. The rest of the orchard requires slashing of under growth at least twice a year. The weeding cycles are generally confined to the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods to coincide with the fertilizer application. Alternatively, weedicides may also be applied after slashing, well in advance of the rainy season if the under growth is too dense. The recommendation is to apply Agrodar-96 (2-4 D) at the rate of 4 ml/litre of water followed by Grammoxone at the rate of 5ml/litre of water. Approximately 400 litres of spray is required to cover one ha. The spraying is repeated in the post monsoon season if the weed load is heavy. 5.4 Mulching In low rainfall areas, mulching around the base of trees helps in the control of weeds, retention of moisture and modulation of soil temperature, especially in the hot summer months. This becomes an essential operation as cashew is usually planted in very dry areas where other crops are seldom grown. Most growers utilize the slashed weeds to mulch their orchards. 5.5 Training and Pruning During the initial phase of orchard establishment, shoots arising on the rootstock have to be regularly removed to promote better scion growth, particularly in the first year after planting when scion rejection could occur if rootstock shoots are left unchecked. Training of young trees during the first three years is essential to develop uniform canopies. Training in the juvenile phase comprises of removing basal branches and water shoots. The plants are trained to a single stem and branches are allowed to grow about 0.75-1m from ground level. Deformed branches are also removed during the first few years. Since cashew trees tend to spread their canopies and lodge easily, proper staking is also essential. Trees are kept under check by topping off the main stem at a height of 4-5m from ground level. Orchard operations such as terracing, weeding, fertilizer application, nut collection and stem/root borer infestation control can be easily achieved if trees are properly trained. Pruning should be carried out in August-September at least once in three years when unwanted growth is removed to provide adequate sunlight into the canopy. Since fruiting is only encouraged from the third year, de-blossoming has to be carried out as flower clusters appear during the juvenile phase. 5.6 Plant Protection Root and stem borer infestation is usually controlled with swabbing tree trunks with carbaryl (2 %) or using a coal tar/kerosene suspension (1:2). After pruning of trees, a standard practice is to smear all cut surfaces with Bordeaux mixture paste (10 %) to prevent fungal infections and die-back. A 1 % Bordeaux spray is also administered if the cut surfaces are small. More than 60 species of insect pests have been identified in cashew in India. The major pests are the tea mosquito, stem/root borer, leaf minor, leaf and blossom webber and flower thrips. No major diseases that cause economic losses have been reported so far in cashew. For efficient management of the tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis antonii), it is important to check the build up of the pest population on the cashew crop as well as on the alternate hosts such as neem, drumstick, cocoa, guava etc. Tea mosquito bugs can be effectively controlled by three sprays at flushing, flowering and fruiting stages with endosulfan or monocrotophos (0.05 %) for the first and second sprays and carbaryl (0.15 %) for the third spray. In case of severe infestation, it may sometimes lead to die-back caused by a secondary infection of Botrydiplodia theobromae. In such instances it will require pruning of the diseased shoots and swabbing of the cut surfaces with 10 % Bordeaux paste and spraying the trees with a 1 % solution of Bordeaux mixture. The stem and root borer (Plocaecderus ferrugineus L.), is capable of killing cashew trees. In severe cases of injury by this pest, gummosis of the stem and yellowing followed by drying of leaves can occur. The effective control measure is to remove immature stages of the pest and swabbing the trunk and exposed roots with carbaryl (0.2 %) or neem oil (5 %) and application of Sevidol 8G (75g/tree) into the basin around the tree. Prophylactic treatment of swabbing the trunk up to one meter height with coal tar and kerosene in the ratio of 1:2 twice a year during March and November could also give effective control. The spray schedule indicated for tea mosquito bug will also be effective against the control of other foliage and inflorescence pests. 5.7 Cover-Cropping and Inter-Cropping Popular cover crops for cashew plantations are Peuraria javanica, Calapagonium muconoides and Centrosema pubescens which improve the fertility and moisture balance and help conserve orchard soils. Cover crop seeds are generally sown with the advent of the monsoons at a seed rate of about 7 kg/ha. On degraded steep lands, cover crops are usually established on seed beds between tree rows. Inter-cropping has become popular with the systematic establishment of large-scale orchards. It is practiced in the first few years when there is sufficient space between crop rows with the main objective of deriving some income until the cashew starts giving economic returns. In Andhra Pradesh, popular inter-crops are horsegram, cowpea, groundnut etc. Casuarina is also a tree inter-crop planted at a spacing of 1.5m x 1.5m in cashew orchards in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. In the west Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, cashew is grown in combination with casuarina and coconut. In Kerala and coastal Karnataka, pineapple is grown as a biennial crop in the initial 4-5 years and farmers find it far more profitable than crops such as redgram and cassava. Adopting a two-row system of planting in contour trenches, yields of 15-20 tons/ha have been achieved from this inter-crop. The pineapple inter-crop also indirectly benefits the main cashew crop as contour trenches help to conserve water and nutrients. When hedge-row planting at a spacing of 5m x 10m is used, inter-crops of Acacia, casuarina etc. are taken without any ill- effects on the main crop. These trees are planted about 3.5 m away from the cashew in two- row plots spaced 1m x 1m apart in the center of crop avenues. 5.8 Irrigation and Drainage Cashew cultivation is generally carried out under rainfed conditions. In homesteads however, it is preferable to give some supplementary irrigation during the warm summer months from January to March. An application of about 200 liters of water per tree every fortnight was found to double cashew yields in trials conducted at the National Research Center at Puttur. In the sandy tracts of the East coast, although frequency and quantity of water applied varies, trees are watered during the summer months. Both in the homesteads and large- scale orchards, cashew is susceptible to waterlogging and proper drainage is essential in low lying areas. 6. HARVESTING OF NUTS AND CASHEW YIELDS Bearing commences after the third year of planting and the trees will be in full production by the tenth year whilst the economic life of a tree is about 20 years. The main harvesting season is from February to May. Most farmers harvest their crop before they drop to prevent pilferage. This very often results in poor quality of the kernels. The optimum stage of harvest is when nuts drop to the ground. High quality nuts are obtained when freshly fallen nuts are separated from the cashew apples and sun dried for 2-3 days to bring down the moisture percentage from about 25 percent to below 9 percent. It is very essential to dry the nuts in order to prevent spoilage during storage. The drying process helps to retain flavor and quality of the kernels. When cashew apples are used for processing, harvesting has to be carried out before they drop. A simple test of maturity is to float nuts in water when mature nuts will sink while the immature and unfilled nuts will float. Nuts are usually gathered every week during the harvest season. Cashew apples for the fresh fruit market should be harvested daily. Normally, about 92 % of the trees yield by the third year from planting. The average yield per tree increases from about 2 kg at 3-5 years to 4 kg at 6-10 years and 5-10 kg when trees are 11-15 years of age. Thereafter, trees yield in excess of 10 kg as the trees get older. 7. MARKETING Raw cashew nuts are a seasonal commodity and the trading season is from March to May. Growers usually supply the primary or village markets where small traders collect and supply the urban markets. The cashew trade is seldom handled by exclusive traders. Usually, those traders who collect other plantation products also trade in cashew. Due to the highly competitive nature of the cashew trade growers have few marketing problems. When large quantities are collected by middlemen, the processors enter the marketing chain and make wholesale purchases. Grades and standards for cashew are yet to be introduced in India. Quality is generally determined by appearance and cutting tests that traders employ prior to purchase. The raw cashew nut market involves a large amount of capital where nearly 80 percent of the produce is transacted within a matter of 35 days. The current value of Indian production is estimated at around Rs. 10,000 million. This capital is made available by industry for procurement and processing operations. There are no growers’ cooperatives or organizations for cashew marketing. In Kerala however, the government has been involved in the procurement process and supply to large- scale processors. This adversely affected the cashew trade and has now been replaced by a free market policy. In addition to the local production of nearly 430,000 tons, India also imports a considerable quantity of raw nuts from several African and South-east Asian countries to satisfy the national processing capacity of 700,000 tons established in the country. 8. POTENTIAL FOR CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT In 1960-61, 228,000 tons of raw nuts were processed of which nearly 50 percent was imported. During the same year, 44,000 tons of processed kernels were exported which accounted for 77 percent of the total kernel output from the industry. The processing output has considerably increased in recent years and in 1995-96, about 640,000 tons were processed (Table 4) of which 65 percent raw nuts were obtained from local production. Domestic consumption has also increased considerably from 13,000 tons in 1960-61 to 92,000 tons in 1995-96, while the country also earned a foreign exchange equivalent of Rs. 12,320 million (US$ 352 million) through the export of cashew kernels and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Export earnings reached a peak in 1994-95 when 77,000 tons of kernels were exported with a value of Rs. 12,440 million (US$ 355 million). With the establishment of new orchards using high yielding vegetatively propagated planting material, the future looks bright for the cashew industry in India. Table 4. Raw Nut Availability, Processing and Export Statistics of India, 1960-96, (in ‘000 tons). Year Domestic Production Imports Total Raw Nuts Kernels Exports Domestic Consumption 1960-61 111 118 228 57 44 13 1970-71 177 169 346 87 50 37 1980-81 185 16 201 50 32 18 1990-91 295 83 378 95 49 46 1995-96 418 222 640 160 68 92 9. CONSTRAINTS IN CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT A study of the industry prior to 1985 revealed that most of the plantations were of seedling origin and cashew cultivation was mainly carried out as an afforestation and conservation program for waste lands rather than an economic venture. Since productivity was not the basic objective of such a program, the cashew was maintained under highly neglected conditions. Poor soil fertility in cashew growing areas, seedling progenies of nondescript origin and neglect of the crop resulted in low productivity. This was prevalent in most of the cashew growing areas of Karnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu. Neglected trees established for conservation purposes hardly responded to the application of any inputs. Seedling progenies that were established in Maharashtra however, showed that these plantations responded to the application of modern inputs developed by research. These seedling progenies were from selected stock and orchards had received better attention from the beginning of their establishment. In order to ensure better productivity, all new plantings are encouraged to use vegetatively propagated material of recommended cultivars and the use of seedlings is completely discouraged. One of the major thrusts being advocated at present is to rehabilitate existing unthrifty seedling plantations. It may however, not be profitable to attempt rehabilitation of senile and sparsely populated orchards. The working group responsible for the preparation of the 8th national plan revised yield estimates from 2 tons per ha to one ton per ha, mainly having these plantations in view. The current area of 635,000 ha is likely to reach 1 million ha by the turn of the century. Cashew is being considered as a candidate crop for rehabilitation of waste lands by many development planners. The issue is however, being debated whether more waste land be brought under cashew or rehabilitation of old orchards be undertaken using elite planting material. Waste lands that are now being considered are far more inferior to those areas which already have cashew plantations. The cashew crop has contributed in some ways to conserving the soil in the existing orchards. The logical alternative would therefore be, to utilize existing cashew lands for a development program using available technologies to reach the required production levels without expanding into any more degraded waste lands. 10. CONCLUDING REMARKS One of the key factors in favor of expanding the cashew industry in India is the stable price in the International market when compared to other nuts such as almond, hazel nut etc. Nutritionally, cashew also compares well with other tree nut crops. It is a commodity rich in unsaturated fatty acids with high protein and low levels of saturated fats and soluble sugars. Higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids which lower blood cholesterol is particularly of high nutritional significance. The crop is steadily gaining acceptance in many western markets where consumers are more health conscious. The elaborate research network and development infrastructure in India is beneficial for the expansion of the cashew industry. Development and introduction of eco-friendly production packages such as organic farming and integrated pest management can provide a further boost to the development of the crop and the cashew industry in the future.  Director, National Research Center for Cashew, Puttur, 574202, D.K., Karnataka, India. 5. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN INDONESIA - Usman Daras 1. INTRODUCTION Cashew growing in Indonesia was originally meant for afforestation programs, particularly in those areas that were infertile and experienced dry climatic conditions. Within the last two decades however, expansion in area under cashew was carried out for the economic value of cashew nut kernels rather than for afforestation purposes. There is a steady increase of cashew growing areas annually, especially in the Eastern part of the country where the climatic conditions are favorable for its production. From an area of 58,000 ha which produced 9000 tons in 1975, it increased to 466,000 ha with a total production of 78,000 tons in 1996. Unfortunately, the increase in area did not show an appreciable rise in production due to low productivity of plantations. This was partly due to the use of unselected germplasm and traditional management practices. As a result, mean yield/ha ranged from 150-250 kg/ha/year. The volume of cashew exported has been increasing in recent years. In 1978, the country exported 39,000 tons which increased to 55,000 tons by 1994. The volume of exports decreased to 27,000 tons in 1996, partly due to a steady increase in domestic consumption. Cashew is mainly exported to India and the USA, and recently, Japan too has become an importer of Indonesian cashew. More than 90 percent of cashew production is in the hands of small farmers. 2. PRESENT STATUS OF CASHEW PRODUCTION Cashew production in Indonesia is mainly confined to the Eastern parts of the country. These areas are characterized by sparse rainfall and a long dry season, which is considered ideal for high productivity of cashew. In order to minimize losses during orchard establishment, timing of the planting to synchronize with the short rains becomes critical. If planting losses occur however, re-planting is carried out the following year. There are indications that the cashew growing areas are steadily increasing. For example, in 1978 the area under cashew was about 82, 511 ha with a total production of 8,800 tons. This increased to 253,777 ha with a production of 23,305 tons by 1988. In 1996, the area increased further to nearly 466,000 ha. The main growing regions are the provinces of South East Sulawesi (46 %), South Sulawesi (23 %), East Java (10%), West and East Nusatenggara (4 %), Bali (3 %) and other minor areas (14 %). Production statistics are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Cashew Production Trends in Indonesia (1978-96) Year Extent (Ha) Production (tons) 1978 82 511 8 800 1983 193 583 18 047 1988 253 777 23 305 1993 400 593 69 751 1996 465 758 77 663 Source: Nogoseno (1997) The increase in production area has not shown a significant improvement of crop yields. This is mainly due to the use of unselected planting material and poor management practices followed by growers. 3. PROPAGATION AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL The low productivity of Indonesian cashew orchards is a result of the indiscriminate use of unselected and inferior germplasm by growers. No serious selection work has been carried out so far to develop superior clones and farmers have been compelled to use their own planting material. This has now been realized as a major drawback to the development of the cashew industry. Some attempts have been made to improve the situation which have met with little success. Although the Ministry of Agriculture Directorate of Extension has recommended several selections from high yielding mother trees identified as seed sources in the main production areas, these improvements in the germplasm status are yet to be realized in any substantial way. In addition to the above selections identified as bulk populations, some collections of superior germplasm are also available at the Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops which has been mandated for the improvement of cashew. Seeds of these selections are also available for distribution. The potential productivity of the above bulk populations varies from 900-2,200 kg/ha/year (Sri Kurniati and Hadad, 1996). As the number of trees for each selection is limited, an immediate impact on production cannot be achieved in the short term, although a long term multiplication program can be achieved for future recommendations. There has been little success in the use of clonal material for artificial propagation of cashew. The majority of plantations are therefore being established from seedling progenies. In the future, vegetatively propagated planting material will be used for new areas, once the techniques are developed. Since grafting of clonal selections can be carried out relatively easily, a program will be launched to improve the skills of cashew growers in vegetatively propagated planting material production. 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS As mentioned earlier, cashew cultivation is mainly confined to the eastern parts of the country which have a relatively dry climate. Plantations are established on flat terrain as well as in hilly areas. Since land clearing on hilly slopes is very costly, cashew trees are established with minimum land development. When inter-crops have to be grown in the rainy season, farmers clean their lands, but weeds are allowed to grow in the dry season after the annual crops have been harvested. Potential fire hazards in the dry season discourages weeding and collection of dry vegetation in summer. Torrential rain in the monsoon season also tends to erode hill slopes when the vegetal cover is removed. Since large-scale conservation on hill slopes is considered too expensive, most farmers resort to mini- conservation measures for individual cashew trees. Land clearing operations and digging pits are carried out 1-2 months before planting. Tree spacing used by farmers varies from 6m x 6m to 10m x 10m or more. For afforestation programs, the spacing used was generally 4m x 4m with the intention of thinning out later in order to ensure a good ground cover. Due to its widely spreading growth habit, cashew trees perform badly and are less productive at high plant densities. With high competition for water and overcrowding, these plantations become uneconomical. The current practice adopted by farmers, therefore, is to increase the spacing in order to utilize crop avenues for cultivation of inter-crops such as upland rice, maize, cassava etc. Cashew planting is usually carried out in November-December when monsoonal conditions bring regular rains. 5. MANAGEMENT AND AFTERCARE OF CASHEW ORCHARDS In general, cashew receives very little attention as a crop. It is considered more as a forest tree rather than an agricultural crop, since cashew does not seem to require much attention compared to other crops. Therefore, growers incur minimal production costs for maintenance of cashew orchards. In most instances, cashew is a companion crop to various annual inter- crops and economically, is of secondary importance to farmers. Since cashew is usually grown on marginal lands where farmers face long dry periods without any access to irrigation, it is not only the area of land and resources that is limiting but also the high labor inputs required to grow many annual crops during the short rainy season. Since the family labor is relatively and frequently unemployed, some income from crops like cashew helps to supplement family income and cashew planting and harvesting is often carried out by family labor. After a few years of weeding and care of the young cashew plants, the trees develop large canopies and the farmers move to other vacant plots to grow annual crops. As cashew trees grow in size, there is less weed competition, care and management problems will diminish except for clean weeding under the canopies to facilitate harvesting. The only orchard operation in the dry season is harvesting and an occasional weeding at the end of the dry season, before the advent of the rainy season. In some instances, mulching and cover cropping are practiced, although these agronomic applications are seldom seen in most cashew orchards. Farmers are often scared of fire hazards when dry plant residue is heaped in cashew plantations in the summer months. Some general fertilizer recommendations for those farmers who wish to apply for their cashew crop are available (Table 2). Table 2. General Recommendations for Fertilizer Application in Cashew (gm/tree/year) Age (crop year) Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P2O5) Potash (K2O) 1 100 80 - 2 200 80 60 3 400 120 120 4 500 130 130 5 700 250 420 6 900 250 420 7 1,000 500 300 Source: Abdullah (1994) Note: The fertilizer is to be applied in two split doses, at the beginning and the end of the rainy season. As subsistence farming is the dominant land use system in dry and marginal lands where cashew is grown, farmers give much higher priority to their annual food crops such as maize, upland rice, cassava etc. The ability to inter-crop is an important economic factor in determining planting distances for the permanent cashew crop, especially in the eastern part of the country where a limited choice of annual crops are available to farmers. Furthermore, use of fertilizer for annual inter-crops is indirectly beneficial to the main cashew plantations. 6. REPLANTING AND/OR REJUVENATION OF OLD CASHEW ORCHARDS As previously mentioned, cashew was used mainly in afforestation programs in the early 1970s. Consequently, the narrow spacing used resulted in severe overcrowding and low productivity as trees advanced in age. Improving yields by thinning plantations failed to attract farmers as it was considered too expensive and labor intensive. This operation was therefore, more of an academic practice followed in research institutions rather than in farmers’ fields. Low yields in cashew have also been attributed to pest and disease incidence. Common pests attacking cashew are Cricula, Helopeltis, and diseases such as Fusarium and Pseudomonas (Tombe et al, 1996; Supriadi, 1996; Wikardi et al, 1886). Losses from pests and diseases have been considered to be substantial although there are no accurate statistics available. 7. HARVESTING AND PRODUCTIVITY IN CASHEW Time of harvesting varies from region to region, but is usually carried out in the dry season from July to November. In South East Sulawesi, harvesting months are from July to September, whereas orchardists in West and East Nusatenggara harvest their cashew crops from September to November. These differences are mainly due to micro-climatic variations between regions. The main source of income for growers is the cashew kernel. Other products such as the cashew apple and CNSL are of little importance. In some areas, the cashew apple may be marketed, used for manure or given as livestock feed. The economic value of CNSL is exploited only by a few processing industries that have been established in the country. Statistics on the utilization or marketing of CNSL or the percentage of shelling of nuts by farmers and processors are not available. The main difficulty in shelling of nuts is the high variability in size and resultant quality. Prices of nuts also vary according to different grades of whole and broken kernels. 8. MARKETING Growers market their produce through local traders and middlemen who collect and supply exporters and processors. Current prices are about US $ 0.5 per kg of raw nuts and US$ 3-4 for kernels. Prices at farm-level are remunerative and tend to increase every year (Figure 1). Development programs on cashew growing in the Eastern part of the country therefore, meets ready acceptance by farmers. Figure 1. Domestic Price of Cashew Nut from 1990 to 1996 (in Indonesian Currency - 1 US$ = Rp 2,400). 9. POTENTIAL FOR CASHEW PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT By 1996, the total extent of cashew production was estimated at 466,000 ha which gave a yield of 78,000 tons of kernel. The world production of cashew was reported in 1995 to be in the range of 540,000 tons (Markamin, 1997). Based on these figures Indonesia has contributed to about 14 percent of world production. The role that Indonesia can play in the supply of cashew to world markets will increase in the future. Production statistics show a steady increase in cashew growing extents each year. In recent years the cashew program has been assisted by foreign donor funding from ADB and UNDP. Land use surveys have shown that more than 15 million ha spread out over 9 provinces in the country are suitable for the expansion of the cashew industry (Abdullah and Las, 1995). There does not seem to be any limitations on land availability as seen from the above survey. World cashew prices are also very favorable for the development of the crop in Indonesia. 10. CONSTRAINTS TO PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT There are however, several constraints that the cashew industry may have to face in the future. There is bound to be increased competition in the international market between the main producer countries and as a result, the prices of cashew may go down. Among other problems facing the local cashew industry are those of a technical nature. Lack of high quality planting material/varieties, variable quality in home-level and small-scale processing enterprises, pest and disease constraints, drought effects, fire hazards and economic instability would be some of the factors that could adversely affect the cashew industry. Of the 18 processing companies established in the 1980’s, only 8 are functioning today. Low production and consequently, the lack of raw material supply are the major causes for their decline. There is strong competition between raw cashew nut exporters and processors. In this situation, farm-gate prices are good, but probably not conducive for development of the processing industry. Some government intervention in developing a price control policy to benefit the producer and the processor is therefore essential in the interests of the industry. REFERENCES Abdullah, A. 1994. Technological packages for cashew development. Upland Farmer Development Project, Directorate - General Estate, Ministry of Agriculture. Abdullah, A. and I. Las 1995. Peta kesesuaian iklim dan lahan untuk pengem bangan tanaman jambu mente di Indonesia. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Department Pertanian. Markamin, S. 1996. Perbenihan Jambu Mente. Prosiding Forum Komunikasi Ilmiah Komoditas Jambu Mente. Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. 46-54 hal. Markamin, S. 1997. Forum Konsultasi Ilmiah Perbenihan tanaman Rempah dan Obat. Tantangan dan peluang pengembangan industri perbenihan jambu mente. Balai Penelitian Tanaman rempah dan Obat. Nogoseno. 1997. Program Pengembangan Jambu Mente di Indonesia. Pertemuan Teknis dan Kemitraan Jambu Mente. Directorat Jenderal Perkebunan (Documen 1). Sri Kurniati dan Hadad, E.A. 1996. Perkembangan Penelitian Bahan Tanaman Jambu Mente. Prosiding Forum Komunikasi Ilmiah Komoditas Jambu Mente. Balai Penelitian Rempah dan Obat. 104 - 114 hal. Supriadi dan D. Sitepu. 1996. Penyakit Utama Jambu Mente dan Strategi Penanggulang- annyya. Prosiding Forum Komunikasi Ilmiah Komoditas Jambu Mente. Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempeh dan Obat. 115 - 123 hal. Tombe, M., et al 1996. Penelitian jamur Fusarium beresal dari tanaman jambu mente dengan gejala busuk akar. Prosiding Forum Komunikasi Ilmiah Komoditas Jambu Mente. Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. 210 - 217 hal. Wikardi, E.A., Wiratno, and Siswanto. 1996. Beberapa hama utama tanaman jambu mente dan usaha pengendaliannya. Prosiding Forum Komunikasi Ilmiah Komoditas Jambu Mente. Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, 124-132 hal.  Research Officer, Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesia 6. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN MYANMAR - Maung Maung Lay 1. INTRODUCTION The agricultural sector which receives priority, is the mainstay of the Myanmar economy as it contributes nearly 35 percent to the Gross National Product (GDP). In the Southern region of the country where soil and climatic conditions are more favorable, there is high potential for the production of plantation crops such as cashew, oil palm and rubber. In 1982, cashew was given priority plantation status by the government which resulted in rapid expansion of the crop in many States and Divisions of the country. By the end of 1995, cashew growing extended to 21,009 ha with an annual production of 2,114 tons. As the world demand for cashew kernels increases, Myanmar has the possibility of developing the crop as a foreign exchange earner and is bound to play a significant role in the country’s economy in the future. Being in close proximity to India which has a processing capacity far in excess of its local production, there is much potential to develop the crop for export. 2. CURRENT STATUS OF CASHEW PRODUCTION 2.1 Cashew Growing Areas Cashew is cultivated at present in ten regions, namely, in Kachin State, Kayin State, Sagaing Division, Taninthayi Division, Bago Division, Mon State, Rakhine State, Yangon Division, Shan State and Ayeyarwady Division. It can be seen from Table 1 that the area under cashew almost doubled by 1995-96 from the original extents in 1991-92. The major production areas are Taninthayi Division (4,187 ha), Mon State (4,367 ha) and Yangon Division (2,353 ha). Other regions that are expanding production are Bago Division (2,558 ha), Ayeyarwady Division (2,353 ha) and Kayin State (516 ha) while only a few ha have been cultivated so far in Kachin State (61 ha), Shan State (66 ha), Rakhine State (122 ha) and Sagaing Division (7 ha). Table 1. Area of Production of Cashew in Myanmar (1991-92 to 1995-96) State/Division Area of Production (ha) 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 Kachin 61 61 Kayin 264 445 445 445 516 Sagaing 7 7 7 Taninthayi 2,829 3,298 3,465 3,465 4,187 Bago 169 1,884 2,580 1,583 2,558 Mon 4,095 4,298 4,298 4,298 4,367 Rakhine 45 265 247 247 122 Yangon 1,579 3,551 6,523 6,731 6,772 Shan 66 Ayeyarwady 207 851 1,257 1,290 2,353 Magway 5 5 Total 9193 14,597 18,822 19,1287 21,009 Source: Department of Land Records and Settlements, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Union of Myanmar 2.2 Potential for Expansion of Cashew Production The agro-climatological data of cashew growing regions is presented in Table 2. The best climatic regime for cashew production is found in the Southern part of the country in Kawthong and Myeik regions. The high productivity level of 477 kg per ha in Taninthayi Division supports this observation (Table 3). A well distributed rainfall of 3864 - 3982 mm ensures stable moisture availability throughout the year. Ambient temperatures during the flowering and fruiting season in January - April do not go below 21° C and the relative humidity is well within the range of 50 - 80 % during this period (Table 2). The Dawai region has the highest rainfall of 5337 mm distributed over 149 days in the year. With proper selection of planting material and adoption of appropriate production practices, Dawei region could also have good potential for cashew production. Table 2. Agro-Climatological Data for Cashew Growing Areas in Myanmar (Average of 10 Years, 1981-1990). State/Division Latitude Annual Rainy Maximum Minimum Relative Rainfall Days temperature Temperature Humidity (mm) Jan Feb Mar Apr Jan Feb Mar Apr Jan Feb Mar Apr Kachin Bhamaw 24.2 1866 11 25.2 27.7 30.8 32.5 9.5 12 15.4 19.4 82 74 64 86 Kavin Hpa-an 17.1 3989 14 33.1 35.1 36.6 37.4 18 19.7 22.2 24.9 73 72 69 66 Sagaing Monywa 22.1 692 46 23.3 31.8 35.8 38.4 13.6 15.4 18.9 23.1 72 62 49 51 Taninthayi Dawei 14.4 5337 149 32.9 33.3 33.9 34.3 18.3 20.2 21.4 23.7 71 74 70 71 Myeik 12.5 3864 148 31.9 32.6 33.4 33.5 21.5 22.4 23 24.7 67 73 73 75 Kawthong 9.6 3982 136 31.4 32.4 33.4 33.3 21 22.1 22.6 23.5 71 70 68 73 Bago Taungoo 19 1929 114 30.5 33.9 36.6 38.3 14.9 16.4 20.4 24 73 62 60 62 Bago 17.4 3180 134 31.6 33.9 36.3 37.6 16.5 17.1 20.4 23.7 70 77 74 70 Pyay 18.8 1184 86 31.1 34.2 37.5 38.2 16.2 18 20.8 24.6 68 60 57 58 Mon Mawlamyine 16.6 4628 140 33.1 34.9 35.4 35.8 18.2 19.2 22 24.4 66 65 63 66 Ye 15.2 4851 146 32.2 33.2 34 34.3 15.7 16.3 17.6 20.1 69 68 64 66 Thahton 17 5195 150 32.2 34.1 35.2 35.7 17.9 20.2 22.9 24.9 63 65 85 65 Bilin 17.3 4860 140 32.1 34.2 35.5 36,2 16.3 17.4 19.6 22.6 63 64 64 62 Rakhine Sillway 20.1 4526 126 28.3 29.4 31.6 32.8 15.2 16.7 20.2 24 70 65 66 67 Thandwe 18.2 5113 137 30.8 32 33.4 34.8 11 12.5 16.6 22 74 69 68 65 Mrauk U 17.2 3327 115 20.9 32 34.9 35.7 11.7 13 18.1 21.8 76 71 62 71 Yangon Hmawbi 2395 126 32 34.8 37 38.1 15.8 17 19.7 23.6 63 62 64 63 Shan 22.5 Hsipaw 20.5 1298 91 26.6 29.2 33.1 34.3 9 9.3 12.1 17.8 95 81 64 60 Monghsai 1443 107 27.7 30.4 33 34.8 10 9.7 12.1 17.8 95 81 64 60 Ayeyarwady 16.8 Pathein 2988 126 31.3 33.4 34.9 36.6 17.1 19 21.3 24 72 71 67 65 Table 3. Area of Production and Productivity of Cashew in Myanmar (1995 - 96) No. State/ Division Total Area Productive Area (ha) Productivity (kg/ha) Production (kg) Remarks 1 Kachin 61 61 33.8 2,062 2 Kayin 516 42 294 12,348 3 Sagaing 7 7 198.71 1,391 4 Taninthayi 4,187 1,904 477.33 908,836 5 Bago 2,558 368 11.18 4,116 6 Mon 4,367 2,571 67.08 172,425 7 Rakhine 122 39 83.92 3,273 8 Yangon 6,772 1,087 40.42 43,944 9 Shan 66 44 70 3,080 10 Ayeyarwady 2,353 2,221 433.39 962,561 Grand Total 21,009 8,344 253.36 2,114,036 Source: Department of Land Records and Settlements, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, The Union of Myanmar. A large extent of nearly 4,367 ha is planted with cashew in Mon State. The annual rainfall is high and its distribution is somewhat similar to that of Taninthayi Division. In a few parts of the State however, low temperatures limit flowering and fruit set. Usually, temperatures below 18°C limit flowering in cashew. Some of the cashew plantations have heavy compacted soils which hinder root penetration. Consequently, during the dry months, trees suffer from severe moisture stress in such areas. This could be one of the reasons for the low productivity level (67.06 kg) in many plantations of Mon State. With proper moisture and soil conservation measures and the application of agro-techniques such as organic matter application and improvement of soil aeration and moisture retention measures, reasonably good productivity can be achieved in this region. In Yangon Division, 6,772 ha are planted with cashew. Large plantations are encouraged in this Division. The rainfall pattern is somewhat different with much less precipitation and fewer rainy days. High velocity winds in the summer months also increase the dry nature of the climate which causes severe water stress, especially during the critical flowering and fruit setting periods. This is evident from the low productivity of about 40.42 kg per ha in Yangon Division. Many farmers resort to moisture conservation measures and use of fast growing tree species such as Casuarina for wind breaks which help to improve yields of many orchards. In the Bago region too, with an area of about 2558 ha planted with cashew, commercial plantations are encouraged. Total rainfall and its distribution is also less than the high rainfall regions of the country, especially in Taungoo and Pyay areas. Low temperatures in January - February also affect the reproductive phase. With proper soil and moisture conservation measures, productivity of plantations can be improved in the Bago region. About 516 ha are planted with cashew in Kayin State. Due to its close proximity to Mon State, agro-climatic conditions are somewhat similar except the fact that minimum temperatures rarely go down below the critical level of 18° C. Consequently, yields as high as 294 kg per ha are realized in Kayin State. In Rakhine State, rainfall is high but the region experiences a long dry period. Temperatures in the cold months of January - February drop well below the optimum. This causes poor fruit set in Kachin State, Shan State and Sagaing Division where temperatures are as low as 9°C in addition to drought conditions. Fog and frequent misty conditions also contribute to the low productivity observed in these regions. Large-scale plantations can also be observed in Ayeyarwady Division which has a total extent of 2,353 ha. In this region too, lesser rainfall with poor distribution is experienced and minimum temperatures go down below 17°C. With proper selection of adapted varieties and appropriate management practices, productivity can be improved in this region. In summary, it may be mentioned that the high potential areas for cashew production are in Taninthayi Division followed by Mon State. With proper management, plantations can be developed to produce satisfactorily in Ayeyarwady, Yangon, Bago and Kayin State. Production of cashew in Sagaing, Rakhine, Kachine and Shan States may be restricted to homesteads along with other tree species to supplement small - farmer incomes. 2.3 Varietal Situation Almost all cashew plantations in Myanmar have been raised from unselected seedling progenies. Low production and productivity is mainly attributed to this reason and is considered to be the primary constraint in cashew development. Vegetatively propagated planting material of proven germplasm sources would be the logical alternative if available. With the prevailing situation however, this is not the case and for the time being, use of seedling material may have to continue. 3. PROPAGATION AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL In tree crops, it is essential to establish plantations with planting material of known progenies which can respond to improved management technologies. Such proven material adapted to the different soil and climatic conditions is not available at present in Myanmar. Consequently, neither the government nor the private sector is able to establish cashew nurseries of superior quality planting material for distribution to growers. 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS 4.1 Land Preparation From 1982-1992 the government was responsible for the establishment of cashew plantations in the different States and Divisions of the country. With the change of policies in recent times, the private sector is being encouraged to develop plantations of cashew and other perennial crops. During the period of government control, land preparation was carried out on a systematic basis except the production of planting material which was used to establish orchards. When farmers plant cashew orchards, land clearing is confined to crop rows where clearing and de-stumping is carried out in strips of 3-4m width leaving the rest of the vegetation intact in order to minimize expenditure. Only a few farmers clear the land completely and use the land for inter-cropping with crops such as sweet potato, sesame, maize and peanut. This cropping system is continued for the first 5 years during the life of the young cashew plantations. 4.2 Conservation Measures on Sloping Lands Sloping terrain in some cashew growing areas are prone to soil erosion. Adequate conservation measures such as terracing and bunding need to be carried out. Soil and water conservation activities are an essential part of the production technology followed in such areas where the top soil and surface runoff have to be conserved. Most of the cashew lands in Myanmar come under this category and cashew plantations are generally established on degraded slopes with poor fertility. Although these measures are advocated, most farmers continue to grow the crop without the usual conservation measures such as bunds, terraces, inverted crescent basins, catch pits etc. 4.3 Planting Season Since cashew planting is done in Myanmar when soil moisture is adequate, the planting season coincides with the onset of rains. The main monsoon season occurs from May to September sometimes extending to October while the rest of the year is relatively dry. The dry season promotes the fruiting cycle and helps to harvest fruits under ideal conditions. In some areas drought conditions prevail, often affecting the development of the cashew tree and adversely affecting the fruiting cycle. In most orchards in Myanmar when direct seeding or ‘seed-at-stake’ method is followed, seeds are planted during the month of April, prior to the onset of rains. This gives young seedlings sufficient time to develop a strong tap root system before the advent of the dry season from November. If seedlings are used, plantations are established usually in the months of May - June when regular rains are experienced. Most farmers adopt the direct seeding method which is often carried out too late to be able to benefit from the early rains. 4.4 Spacing In earlier plantations established by the government from 1987, hedge-row planting at a spacing of 12m x 2m was carried out. This enabled the rapid build up of tree canopies and promoted higher production from the early years of the crop. The current practice followed by the private sector uses spacing that may vary from 4m x 4m to 7.5m using the triangular or square planting method which often leads to severe inter-plant competition and mutual shading. 4.5 Opening of Pits and Planting In the State plantations, pits were dug in a systematic manner after lining out and pegging the planting points. Pits were usually dug to a size of 60cm x 60cm to a depth of 60cm for both ‘seed-at-stake’ as well as polybag seedlings. When farmers plant their cashew orchards, very little attention is given to proper preparation of pits to receive seeds or plants. Very often, seeds/seedlings are placed in shallow pits and sometimes, direct seeding is done by directly dibbling seeds into uncultivated land. Farmers also resort to planting more than one seed at each planting point which often results in more than one tree. This causes severe competition between plants that results in poor yields. 5. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS 5.1 Training and Pruning of Cashew Trees Cashew trees require some training and pruning in the initial years in order to develop canopies that will not cause mutual shading. Lower branches, leader shoots and water shoots are pruned to train the plants to the required shape that will give higher productivity. Despite these recommendations, most farmers in Myanmar do not prune or train their cashew. 5.2 Fertilizer and Manure Application Observations have shown that cashew trees respond well to the application of fertilizers. Farmers in cashew growing areas however, seldom apply fertilizers. If at all, a few farmers may apply organic manures and green manures which are essential in degraded soils to supplement depleted nutrients. 5.3 Weeding Weeding operations are essential in cashew orchards to minimize competition for water and light. Weeding practices vary from region to region. When orchards are inter-cropped, weeding is assured, in other instances slash weeding is carried out once or twice in a year. In other areas, there is total neglect of cashew orchards, rendering them almost inaccessible and difficult to manage. 5.4 Mulching This operation is seldom practiced in cashew orchards, unlike in rubber plantations. Since weed growth around cashew tree trunks compete for moisture, some farmers remove weed growth and thatch the soil to provide some mulch. Whilst this practice is beneficial, it is hardly followed by cashew growers. 5.5 Cover Cropping Although recommendations have been made to establish cover crops, especially on the degraded slopes in many parts of the country, this practice is not yet popular among cashew farmers in Myanmar, with the result that soil erosion is severe in cashew plantations. 5.6 Inter-Cropping Since inter-cropping has many economic benefits to cashew growers, this system of farming is of significance as it reduces weed competition and helps maintain fertility of orchards. Several inter-crops are taken by some farmers, predominantly, annual crops such as sweet potato, sesame, peanut, maize, cassava, pigeon pea etc. In some areas other tree crops such as Jack fruit, mango and fuelwood trees are grown in association with cashew. Growing leguminous tree crops could add to the fertility of cashew orchards. 5.7 Supplementary Irrigation This operation is yet to be practiced in Myanmar and there is a need to conduct research on this subject to improve production. It has been observed that a 61 percent increase in yield was obtained when oil palm was irrigated and fertilized in Mon State. Similar positive results may be possible through supplementary irrigation of cashew. 5.8 Plant Protection As cashew cultivation expands, there is a need to record the population dynamics of various pests and diseases that attack cashew. Although no incidence of serious pest and disease outbreaks have been reported, incidence of root and stem borer is common in all plantations. Phytosanitary measures such as removal of dead wood and swabbing with a 1:4 mixture of coal tar and kerosene up to 1m of trunk have been recommended. Sporadic incidence of shoot tip caterpillar and leaf webber was also noticed but the present level of infestation does not cause economic injury in cashew. This is easily controlled by the application of 0.05 % endosulfan spray. 6. REPLANTING AND/OR REJUVENATING BY TOPWORKING OLD ORCHARDS Since most of the cashew plantations were established from 1980 onwards, there are only a few orchards that have reached the age of 25-30 years when replacement becomes necessary. Rejuvenation of such trees is also possible by top working with superior clones. In the local context however, these operations are virtually impossible for the following reasons: Firstly, there are no known selections of superior progeny lines that could be recommended for replacing old trees either in the form of seed sources or clones for top working. Secondly, farmers are reluctant to remove old trees as long as they provide some economic benefit. Thirdly, growers have little technical knowledge of rejuvenation techniques such as top working with clonal material. A strong research and extension backstopping is therefore needed to assist cashew farmers. 7. HARVESTING AND PROCESSING 7.1 Harvesting Farmers prefer to harvest fruits before they drop in order to prevent them from theft. This often results in poor quality as immature nuts are harvested. These harvested nuts are dried and sold to traders who process the nuts into kernels using manual labor. These kernels are then sold in the local market through retail outlets. 7.2 Processing Local processing is carried out by two methods. The first method consists of roasting about 500 nuts at a time on a 3 ft diameter roasting pan mixed with fine sand for about 15 - 20 minutes. After the roasting process, individual nuts are cracked with a wooden mallet to separate the kernels. After drying the split nuts, the kernels are removed by hand or, if necessary, with the aid of a knife. In some instances, the nuts are roasted in a perforated metal pan. The second method of processing is similar to that followed in Thailand. The flow chart for the processing is as follows: Dry Raw Nuts Þ Steam Roasting Þ (Cooling (1-3 Hours) or (30 - 60 Min) (overnight) ß Shelling Þ Shells (Shelling Machine) ß Drying (50° - 80°C for 4 - 12 hours) ß Cooling (2 - 3 Hours) ß Cartoning Ü Packing in LDPE Bags Ü Hand Peeling Þ Testa removal The recovery of whole dried peel kernel to raw nut is 20 - 25 % and about 3 % broken kernels. No grading is carried out in Myanmar except into whole kernels and broken kernels. 7.3 Production and Productivity Total production of cashew in 1995 - 96 was 2114 tons at a productivity level of 253.36 kg per ha. This yield is relatively low when compared to that of India and other countries. Statistics on area of production and yields of cashew in Myanmar are presented in Table 3. As can be observed from this data, Taninthayi Division has the highest productivity of 477.33 kg per ha because of the favorable agro-ecological conditions in that area of the country. With better quality planting material and management practices, the productivity level of this area can be further increased. Ayeyarwady Division appears to have the second highest productivity level with 433.39 kg per ha which may not reflect the true picture, as Yangon and Bago Divisions with similar climatic conditions have much lower productivity. Kayin State recorded a productivity level of 294 kg per ha. These yields can be considered as low and varietal improvement and better management practices could enhance the yields further. Low temperatures during the reproductive phase may be the cause for the low yields recorded in Mon State which average around 67.06 kg per ha. Similar conditions in Yangon and Bago Divisions gave yields as low as 40.42 kg ha and 11.18 kg per ha, respectively. In addition to low temperature effects, total rainfall experienced in these areas is generally low and distribution somewhat erratic. If yields are to be increased in these areas, new production technologies need to be introduced. Unfavorable weather conditions also affect yields in Rakhine State (82.92 kg per ha), Kachin State (33.8 kg per ha), Shan State (70 kg per ha) and Sagaing Division (198.71 kg per ha). Only homestead planting of cashew, in association with other tree species, is recommended for such areas to provide a supplementary income for small farmers. 8. MARKETING By and large, the marketing system for cashew remains undeveloped and unorganized. As in the case of other agricultural commodities, cashew nut is sold by small farmers to local traders who in turn either sell the produce to large-scale processors or process into kernels, often using family labor. Prices are highly variable and, in the absence of any grades or standards, kernels are arbitrarily divided into whole kernels and broken kernels. The relatively good quality whole kernels are marketed in Thailand while the broken kernels are sold in the local market. There are no growers’ organizations or cooperatives to assist farmers in the disposal of their produce. Since trading is freely done within the country, an export/import marketing information system does not exist. 9. POTENTIAL FOR CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT The government of Myanmar has laid down an ambitious expansion plan for rubber, oil palm and cashew. Of these, the expansion of rubber is progressing satisfactorily with an annual increase of 20,000 ha and cashew has a targeted annual increase of 3,000 ha. The pace of increase for cashew however, is rather slow when compared to rubber. In any event, although some constraints exist, a gradual expansion of cashew can be envisaged, since it has a special ecological niche where rubber cannot thrive. It is also popular among farmers as it requires very little care and provides an appropriate income for much less investment. 10. CONSTRAINTS IN CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT 10.1 Role of Myanmar Perennial Crop Enterprise Recognizing the importance of tree crops in the economy of the country, the Myanmar Perennial crops Enterprise (MPCE) was formed under the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MOAI) for the development of perennial crops, especially in the private sector. A project directed to assist private farmers was implemented with the establishment of the Applied Research Center for Plantation crops (ARCPC). Due to staff shortage and the deficiencies in technology knowhow on cashew production techniques and deploying more resources to rubber, MPCE and its affiliate ARCPC are unable to provide extension and technology support to cashew farmers. These constraints have become a serious setback for the cashew industry. MPCE should therefore organize research and extension services to the cashew industry to assist prospective growers. 10.2 Technical Knowledge of Farmers The present cultural and processing practices, from land preparation to processing of kernels, need major improvements. This is important because farmers have only a limited knowledge on the techniques of cashew production. These problems can be effectively solved by organizing field demonstrations to popularize new technologies and conducting farmer training classes on cultivation aspects and vegetative propagation methods. The extension services need to develop appropriate extension messages and transfer technologies through visits and information packages to growers. MPCE should be mandated to provide these services to cashew growers. 10.3 Planting Material Supply Established varieties of proven yield potential and adapted to different regions are not available in Myanmar. All cashew plantations have been raised from unselected bulk seeds. Plantations with inferior genetic material are not cost effective to maintain. Introducing exotic clonal material may also be inadvisable as their adaptability and performance have to be initially tested and verified under local conditions before distribution among farmers. The best option would be to select mother trees of outstanding local germplasm from different regions. For selection of mother trees, the criteria should be a compact canopy, intensive branching, high flowering intensity per unit area, high ratio of female flowers to male flowers per panicle, a productivity in excess of 500 fruits per tree and an individual nut weight of more than 7 g. In each region at least 10 mother trees should be selected and progeny trials organized to evaluate their performance. In the short term, scions of the best 10 trees in each region should be collected and 200 grafts prepared. These clonal progenies should be planted in blocks and seeds distributed for establishment of new plantations.. The seeds from such clones would be a better alternative to open pollinated bulk seed. Based on the performance of these clonal blocks, these could be used as future budwood sources for raising grafted plants. 10.4 Cashew as a Potential Crop for Farmers When judged on the basis of free market prices, the average gross profit margin per ha per year of a cashew crop grown under average production levels, is not competitive with other tree crop enterprises such as rubber or oil palm. In order to make the crop attractive to farmers, all effort should be used to increase productivity of the crop. Hedge-row planting is one method to achieve this. It has been demonstrated that cashew trees of mature plantations established on the square planting system do not show any differences in yield per unit area even if the spacing varies from 6 to 15 m. A considerable improvement in productivity can, however, be achieved by arranging the planting pattern in hedge-rows at 12m x 2m. The increased yield is due to the increased canopy surface per unit area. To maintain the increased canopy surface, alternate hedge-rows have to be replanted after 12 to 14 years. When these hedge-rows have matured and before their canopies merge with the older planting, the latter crop needs to be removed by the 20th year. A second approach would be to make a gradual improvement of the quality of planting material supplied to farmers so that in a few years, superior genetic material will be used by most farmers. 11. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Of all the areas identified for cashew production, Taninthayi Division has the ideal rainfall and optimum distribution for highest productivity. Although Mon State has satisfactory rainfall, it has a few months of dry weather. With proper moisture conservation measures, reasonably good production can be realized. In Ayeyarwady, Yangon and Bago Divisions as well as in Kayin State, plantations can be improved through the application of better technologies. Cashew production in Sagaing Division, Rakhine, Kachin and Shan States may be confined to homestead-level production only. For the time being, it is apparent that only seed can be used for propagation. Vegetative propagation may be resorted to, but this technique can be useful only when clonal material is available to the production system. It is recommended that clonal seed gardens be established as soon as possible. Superior selections from these could be used as budwood sources for vegetative propagation. Training programs on cultivation techniques and to train farmers in vegetative propagation should be started as soon as possible. Agronomic practices pertaining to land development and orchard establishment should be systematically carried out to ensure the best conditions for cashew orchards. Conservation measures including terracing and catch pits for soil and moisture conservation on sloping lands should be followed. If orchards are to be established directly from seed by the ‘seed at stake’ system, it should be carried out before the advent of the monsoons in April. However, for nursery grown seedlings, the month of May or beginning of June would be ideal for planting. Plantations raised prior to 1987 with 7.6 m triangular or square planting methods need thinning of diagonal/alternate rows. De-topping to a height of 3m and light pruning of weak plants should also be carried out. Planting pits and staking of young plants should be carried out according to standard practices; growth of plants will be seriously affected or even succumb if seed is directly dibbled without opening planting pits. Training and pruning practices need to be followed in the early years of orchard establishment if higher yields are to be realized. Since no chemical fertilizers are currently being applied to cashew, it is beneficial to encourage the application of organic manures. Regular weeding of cashew orchards is recommended to minimize competition for water and sunlight. Cover-cropping of sloping lands is highly recommended since the top soil of these environmentally vulnerable areas can be conserved. Inter-cropping of cashew orchards should be encouraged as it indirectly helps the cashew and also provides an additional income to growers. Some investigations on the application of supplementary irrigation to cashew should be initiated. Plant protection studies to determine the range of pests and diseases that afflict the cashew crop need to be carried out, and effective control measures should be determined, if necessary. Current processing techniques, especially at village level, should be refined to improve quality and processing efficiency. Based on the mandate given to M.P.C.E, the organization should carry out appropriate research and extension activities on cashew, and there is also an urgent need to improve the technical capabilities of M.P.C.E staff. There is scope for development of cashew production in Myanmar although the crop is not, at present, so attractive to farmers as compared to other tree crops like oil palm and rubber. To achieve this development, there should be a strong government backing to assist the growers. Financial and technical assistance from donor organizations could be very beneficial to the cashew industry. REFERENCES 1. Bhaskara Rao, E.V.V, 1994. Cashew Cultivation in Myanmar, FAO Consultancy Report. 2. Department of Agricultural Planning, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, The Union of Myanmar, 1996. Information Report on Myanmar Agriculture. 3. Eijnanten, Van L.L.M, 1985. Development of Cashew (Burmese: Thiho Thayet Si) in Burma, FAO Consultancy Report. 4. Mathew, A.G, 1994. Cashew Processing, FAO Consultancy Report. 5. Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, The Union of Myanmar, 1996 - 97. Review of the Financial, Economic and Social Conditions for 1996 - 97. 6. Myanmar Plantations, Singapore Pte Limited, Singapore, 1997. Project Report on Development of Cashew Plantations in Myanmar. 7. Ohler, I.G, 1975. Cashew, Development of Agricultural Research, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam. 8. Tin Saung, U, 1997. Country Report on Oil Palm Development in Myanmar.  Deputy General Manager, Myanmar Perennial Crop Enterprise, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Union of Myanmar. 7. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN THE PHILIPPINES - Concepcion A.E. Magboo 1. INTRODUCTION Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), locally known as ‘kasoy’, is one of the most important nut crops in the Philippines. It is a versatile crop with many economic uses in the food industry as food and feed. Presently, only the nut is given attention by cashew growers as it commands a good demand in the market among domestic consumers. In addition, cashew nut is exported to Europe and other Asian countries. In 1995, the Philippines exported 1,124 tons of raw and processed nuts valued at US $ 879,573; India was the major buyer (64 %) of raw nuts, and France in the form of processed and preserved nuts (Table 1). During the same year, the country imported 48.92 tons of cashew nuts amounting to an FOB value of US$ 199,345 (Table 2). The raw nut requirement was mainly supplied by Singapore; the processed kernels and preserved products came from Singapore (47 %), USA (27 %), and Taiwan (17 %). Cashew has a high potential for commercial cultivation as there is a steady demand for nutritious food items and an expanding market for processed and other value added cashew-based products. 2. CURRENT STATUS OF CASHEW PRODUCTION Cashew is grown in most regions of the country mainly as a backyard crop or as a component of many small-scale diversified orchards. Palawan is the leading production center where more than 90 percent of the 2.6 million bearing trees are found. Other important areas are Llocos Region, Central Luzon, Northern Mindanao and Western Visayas. In these areas, most of the bearing trees are of local origin. However, for new plantings, predominantly in Palawan, the recommended superior varieties such as Mitra, Recto and Fernandez have been used (Table 3). Table 1. Philippines Exports of Cashew, 1995 Country Volume (kg) FOB Value (US$) 1. Cashew nuts (fresh/dried) - shelled/peeled 1,122,428 865,627 China 262,000 231,750 Hongkong 100,000 69,720 India 760,428 564,197 2. Cashew nuts - processed/preserved 1,946 13,846 Canada 180 782 Taiwan 147 2,063 France 787 6,037 TTP 767 4,470 Others 65 494 Source: Foreign Trade Statistics, 1995 Table 2. Philippines Cashew Imports, 1995 Country Volume (kg) FOB Value (US$) 1. Cashew nuts (fresh/dried - shelled/peeled 3,088 23,262 Republic of China 1,145 1,071 Singapore 1,943 22,191 2. Cashew nuts - processed/preserved 45,841 176,083 Republic of China 26,886 34,621 Hongkong 1,140 4,685 Singapore 9,916 83,161 USA 7,899 53,616 Source: Foreign Trade Statistics, 1995 Table 3. Recommended/Promising Cashew Varieties in the Philippines Variety Apple Nut Kernel Kernel Total Soluble Average Prod. Apple Weight (g) Weight Weight (g) Recovery (%) Solids (%) Per Tree (kg)* Colour (g) Mitra 146.39 13.43 3.74 27.84 13.08 9.67 orange Fernandez 117.48 11.93 2.94 24.64 13.28 6.90 orange CIG 129.00 12.78 3.55 27.77 15.84 7.38 orange Callwag 79.48 11.71 3.10 26.47 13.88 7.02 yellow/ orange Recto 70.22 10.13 2.96 29.22 12.36 7.93 red/ orange Source: Cashew Varieties, STARRDEC Leaflet, 1996 * Seven-year-old trees 3. PROPAGATION AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL Propagation of cashew in the Philippines is either from seed or through cleft grafting. Most of the existing cashew orchards were established using seed from selected mother trees of superior performance. With the initiation of a government program for establishment of scion groves using recommended varieties, the importance of planting grafted plants has been emphasized to cashew farmers. At present, the recommended varieties are being propagated in government nurseries in Palawan, Rizal and Romblon, DA - Region VI, the Western Luzon Agriculture College (WLAC) and the University of the Philippines - Los Banos (UPLB). Most of the plants are grafted using the stocks of any variety with scions from the recommended varieties. 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF CASHEW PLANTATIONS As in the case of other perennial crops, land preparation is carried out in the conventional way by cashew farmers. After clearing the land, staking is done at spacings ranging from 5 to 10 meters depending on the preference of each farmer who may use the land for other inter- crops while the young cashew is being established. The square system of planting is usually practiced since it is easy to layout and allows sufficient space for other crops. Farmers are aware that land clearing and preparation can be conveniently done during the dry season before the onset of the rainy season. 5. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS While cashew plants are still small, inter-cropping with annual crops contributes to the effective management of the land. Very few farmers apply manure or fertilizer directly to the cashew crop. However, for new plantings using recommended varieties, farmers are beginning to realize that the potential yield of a good variety can be attained only through proper management practices such as weeding, fertilizer application etc. Owners of large cashew plantations practice pruning, especially when it is evident that compact canopies and clean culture minimizes pest infestation. Many insect pests attack the cashew at all the growth stages. The most common insect pests are termites, leaf miner, twig and root borers and the tea mosquito. The plant diseases commonly found in cashew are anthracnose, especially when intermittent rains occur during the flowering and fruiting stages. Other diseases are damping off and root rot of seedlings. Farmers who own large plantations seldom apply any chemical control measures except at the nursery stage. Some control is brought about by under brushing cashew orchards at the onset of flowering which helps to eliminate alternate hosts that harbor pests. 6. REPLANTING AND/OR REJUVENATION Replanting is practiced by cashew farmers in Palawan. However, very few farmers do rejuvenation of old orchards. 7. HARVESTING OF CASHEW In the Philippines, cashew trees flower from November to March, while the harvest season is from February to May and may extend up to early June. The quality of nuts and yield is dependent on weather conditions during the fruiting stage. If it rains during the reproductive phase, poor quality nuts are produced. Fruits are usually harvested manually, although a number of farmers wait for the fruits to drop as the main concern of farmers is the nut. Nuts are picked from the ground, separated from the cashew apple, cleaned and dried. In places where cashew apples are processed into juice, wine and other delicacies, fruits are harvested using a pole with a wire hook attached to its end. The pole is provided with a shallow net or cloth bag to catch the detached fruits. 8. MARKETING Cashew is mainly marketed as raw nut to local traders and processors. Some growers process cashew nuts into roasted splits and whole kernels and sell them directly to consumers, wholesalers or retailers. Most of the raw nuts shipped to Metro Manila are processed for use by food manufacturers. The local traders or wholesalers employ local agents to collect nuts from different areas. Some traders go directly to farmers to buy cashew nuts and transport the produce to processors. Some of the wholesalers also export raw nuts. In most villages, farmers are not yet organized to market their raw produce or processed products. With the introduction of a government program to provide assistance, especially through farmer organizations, the trend now is for farmers to formally organize themselves and affiliate the organization with the Cooperative Development Authority. This supports also the marketing activities of farmers. 9. POTENTIAL FOR CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT The projected local demand for cashew nut alone by the year 2000 is about 5,600 tons. With the 5.4 % annual growth rate of world cashew nut exports, the market for the commodity is still enormous. With the agro-industrial development program of the country and the government information drive on products that may be derived from cashew besides the use of the kernel as food, cashew has great potential for development. The utilization of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) in the industry is an ongoing research and development program in both private and government sectors. The vast areas for reforestation and the agro-forestry program of the Philippine government will be a good avenue to expand cashew development. Cashew is a good crop for reforestation, especially in coastal areas that are prone to wind erosion. The crop requires a distinct dry season which normally coincides with its flowering and fruiting cycles. There are many regions in the country that have similar climatic regimes. 10. CONSTRAINTS IN CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT Since cashew can assure a good income, considering the range of products it can give from the nut alone, the problems facing the production sector need to be given some attention. These include the limited supply of grafted plants of recommended varieties; occurrence of pests and diseases, especially anthracnose during the reproductive phase; low level of knowledge of farmers on production and post-harvest technologies brought about by poor communication links to production areas; and the lack of financial resources for farmer groups to embark on processing of their crop of nuts and cashew apples. 11. CONCLUDING REMARKS It is inevitable that cashew production will improve with the availability of vast natural resources available for the development of the crop. The increasing domestic requirements for food confectioneries for the nut alone and eventually for cashew apples can assure a good income for cashew farmers, especially if village-level processing can be developed for the crop. The agro-forestry program of the government has given priority to promote cashew as one of the candidate crops to be grown. This will accelerate the development program for cashew. It is important therefore, that the technology transfer, promotion and dissemination of production technologies including cultural management of the crop be given priority in the development programs on cashew. The information and the technology application for this crop are very important to the cashew industry. Furthermore, research and development in cashew production and post-harvest activities have to be strengthened to offer the new technologies to the cashew industry. The utilization of various by-products will undoubtedly motivate farmers to embark on expanding cashew production. Market linkages for processed products and by-products have to be established through the assistance of government Institutions. The Philippines is one of the few countries that has a great future to develop cashew production given the right research and development support from the relevant organizations.  Research Management Fellow and Assistant Consortium Director, STARRDEC, PCARRD, 9210 Batong Malaki, Los Banos, Laguna 4030, Philippines. 8. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN SRI LANKA - G.B.B. Surendra 1. INTRODUCTION Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) was introduced from Brazil to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese in the 16th century. It is found that more than half of the cashew extent is confined to the dry zone of the country. Cashew is becoming an important cash crop for farmers in Sri Lanka where there is great potential for increased production for the local market as well as for export. The crop needs more attention in terms of improvement of its management in order to attain higher yields. The development of the cashew industry in the country is the responsibility of the Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation under the Ministry of Plantation Industries. In the dry zone of the country there are about 2 million ha of agricultural land that is presently undeveloped, and which could be used for cashew production. It is encouraging to note that there is a government policy shift to promote commercial farming from the subsistence agriculture the country has traditionally followed in the past. With increased production from the use of improved varieties and agro-techniques, cashew production is bound to increase, which will enhance local consumption and promote more exports. This will help in improving the quality of life and a higher standard of living of the farming community and provide greater employment for the agricultural sector. Sri Lanka is primarily an agricultural country where this sector plays a significant role in the country’s economy, accounting for nearly 23 % of the GNP earning about 19 % of foreign exchange. Per capita income at present is US$ 550. In 1993, Sri Lanka earned Rs. 341.9 m from cashew exports. The cashew tree begins bearing from the third year onwards and peak bearing is reached by the eighth year. Normal life span of a tree is about 30 years. The flowering season starts by November and continues up to March with subtle variations in the bearing habit in different agro-ecological regions. The most important climatological factor for the dry zone cashew farmer is the sufficiency and reliability of the annual rainfall cycle. Average rainfall of the dry zone usually varies from 889 mm to 1524 mm derived from the North-East and South-West monsoons. The cropping seasons of Maha (October-January) and Yala (March-June) coincide with the two monsoons respectively. 2. CURRENT STATUS OF CASHEW PRODUCTION Cashew is cultivated in almost all the districts in the country. However, the extents are substantial in the dry zone areas, especially in the districts of Puttalam, Mannar, Vavuniya, Jaffna, Trincomalee, Batticoloa, Polonnaruwa, Moneragala and Hambantota. The total extent of cashew in these districts is around 20,000 ha whereas in the rest of the districts, the extent is estimated to be around 2,400 ha. Percentage distribution of extents under cashew by cropping pattern and by district is given in Table 1. Table 1. Extents of Cashew by District and by Cropping Pattern (in ha) District Total Number of Total Extent of Total Extent Extent of Cashew According Cashew Growing Cashew Growing Under to Cropping Pattern Holdings Holdings Cashew Pure Mixed Scattered Stand Stand Gampaha 600 5,322 2,100 115 1,887 98 Kandy 1,839 285 117 - - 117 Matale 3,476 1,584 411 168 204 39 Nuwara Eliya 180 115 49 7 5 37 Galle 1,529 793 81 - 34 47 Hambantota 12,005 7,572 1,455 121 1,014 320 Kurunegala 32,292 28,764 7,650 1,585 2,491 3,574 Puttalam (small 14,566 13,431 6,069 3,677 1,042 1,350 holdings) Puttalam 124 1,354 951 874 59 18 (Estates) Anuradhapura 5,771 4,052 791 377 130 284 Polonnaruwa 2,836 2,237 575 109 324 142 Badulla 402 499 105 - 3 102 Moneragala 1,411 1,846 302 87 150 65 Ratnapura 778 1,222 151 16 - 135 Total 77,809 69,076 20,807 7,136 7,343 6,328 Cashew is mainly found in home gardens or cultivated in small holdings. It is estimated that out of 77,809 cashew growing allotments, 61,496 or 79 percent is cultivated in home gardens. The average size of cashew holdings by district is presented in Table 2. Table 2. Cashew Growing Holdings in Various Districts of Sri Lanka (in ha) District Total Number of No. of Home Average Total Extent Average Extent Cashew Growing Gardens Extent of Under of Cashew per Holdings Growing Holdings Cashew Holding Cashew Kandy 600 537 0.48 117 0.20 Matale 1,839 1,696 0.86 411 0.22 Nuwara Eliya 180 176 0.64 49 0.27 Galle 1,529 1,230 0.52 81 0.05 Hambantota 12,005 8,510 0.63 1,455 0.12 Kurunegala 32,292 25,983 0.89 7,650 0.24 Puttalam (small 14,566 11,752 0.92 6,069 0.42 holdings) Puttalam 124 - 10.92 951 7.67 (estates) Anuradhapura 5,771 5,215 0.70 575 0.14 Polonnaruwa 2,836 2,154 0.79 575 0.20 Badulla 402 365 1.24 105 0.26 Moneragala 1,411 1,221 1.31 302 0.21 Gampaha 3,476 1,879 1.53 2,100 0.60 Ratnapura 778 778 1.57 151 0.19 Total 77,809 61,496 0.89 20,807 0.27 In the new plantations that were planted under a government subsidy scheme larger holdings have been established with improved varieties such as ‘Kondachchi’, ‘Mannar’ and ‘Trinidad’. Nearly 38 percent of the total crop area is covered by these improved varieties while 36 percent of the area is estimated to be under indigenous varieties. Estimated extent of cashew by variety and district is given in Table 3. Table 3. Distribution of Cashew Varieties in the Districts of Sri Lanka District Kondachchi, Batticoloa Shanthigudu Ulal & Mixed Indigenous Total Mannar & (ha) (ha) Vital (ha) types (ha) (ha) Trinidad (ha) (ha) Gampaha - - - - - 2,100 2,100 Kandy 8 - 13 - 3 93 117 Matale 57 - 261 - 22 71 411 Nuwara Eliya 11 - 4 12 12 10 49 Galle - - - - - 81 81 Hambantota 287 474 - 65 - 629 1,455 Kurunegala 3,270 1,241 228 431 - 2,480 7,650 Puttalam (small 3,616 - 463 582 - 1,408 6,069 holdings) Puttalam(estates) 246 - - - 381 324 951 Anuradhapura 33 - 177 364 27 190 791 Polonnaruwa 260 - 81 234 - - 575 Badulla 30 - 2 26 11 36 105 Moneragala 86 21 - 128 61 6 302 Ratnapura 64 - - - - 87 151 Total 7,968 1,736 1,229 1,864 495 7,515 20,807 3. PROPAGATION AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL Over 80 percent of the planting material used by farmers are seedlings. Nurseries are raised by the Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation through selected nurserymen. Softwood grafting is the only vegetative propagation method practiced. Air-layering and budgrafting are also carried out in a small way, especially for home gardens and for urban areas. Raising of seedling nurseries commences in August-September and softwood grafting nurseries in May-June. Grafting is usually carried out in August and 60-70 percent success is achieved. Mother trees and scion wood are obtained from selected material maintained by the research division of the Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation. Seeds are allowed to germinate in sand beds and are later transferred to polybags. 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS In small holdings at village level, land is cleared of brush and trees using family labor during the months of August-September. Most of the cashew growing lands are flat with less than 1 % slope and terracing is therefore, seldom practiced. In red-yellow latesols and sandy regosol soils where larger canopies are formed, the usual spacing adopted by farmers is 40 ft x 40 ft. Spacing of 30 ft x 30 ft and 35 ft x 35 ft are given in soil types such as the reddish brown earths where the soil is more compact and trees give smaller canopies. High density planting is not commonly practiced by local farmers. Planting holes are dug before the monsoon rains. The usual planting hole size recommended is 2 ft x 2 ft x 2 ft for polybag seedlings as well as for grafted plants. The planting season coincides with the onset of rains in October. 5. MANAGEMENT AND AFTERCARE OF CASHEW ORCHARDS Pruning is carried out during the first four years when extra branches are removed and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is applied to cut surfaces. Pennisetum polystachyon and Imperata cylindrica are the common weeds in cashew plantations which often become a fire hazard during the dry months. Slash weeding is usually practiced to control grass weeds. Herbicides such as Grammoxone or Roundup are also used to a limited extent, especially at nursery sites. State plantations also use rotary movers in between tree rows to control weed flora. Mulching with weed residue or tree loppings and sometimes with coconut husk is carried out by many growers to keep under growth down and also conserve moisture during the dry months. Creeping cover crops such as Peuraria phaseoloides, Centrosema pubescens and bush cover crops such as Gliricidia maculata, Leucaena leucocephala and nitrogen fixing trees such as Acacia mangium are the principal cover crops used in cashew growing areas. Due to frequent fire hazards, most large-scale plantations have fire gaps laid down when cover crops are grown. Banana is a popular inter-crop in many cashew plantations. Pineapple, papaya, pomegranate and coconut are also used as semi-perennial and perennial inter-crops in some areas. The common annuals grown in cashew plantations are Legumes (cowpea, black gram, green gram), oil crops (sesame, ground nut), and condiments such as hot pepper and onion. Cashew is a crop that requires low management as compared to other orchard crops. Where manuring/fertilizing is adopted, it is mostly given at the pre-flowering stage. It has been reported that only 3.8 percent of the cashew is being fertilized. The usual fertilizer recommended is 2.5 kg of NPK (3:2:1) for mature trees and 1 % urea solution or locally available foliar nutrients are recommended for nurseries. Cashew is commonly cultivated under rainfed conditions and the use of supplementary irrigation is extremely rare due to lack of water resources in the main cashew growing areas. ‘Pitcher’ irrigation was introduced some years back but has not made any significant impact on production. Pests and Diseases The Tea mosquito (Helopeltis antonii) and Stem borer (Plocaederus ferrugineus) are the major pests that attack the cashew. Pests of minor importance are the leaf miner (Acrocercops syngramma), leaf and blossom webber (Macalla moncusalis) which cause sporadic attacks in certain areas. Stem borer is controlled by removing damaged branches and larvae manually followed by the application of CNSL mixed with an insecticide. Population dynamics of the pest shows that July-August is the peak period of damage. The Tea mosquito is most active during the months of November-January and is easily controlled by the application of Sevin (carbaryl) in dust form or as wettable powder. In mature trees, shoot die-back is the major disease and in nurseries the common problem is damping-off disease which can be controlled with Captan or Benlate fungicide. During soft-wood grafting, root rot may cause damage to young grafts which may also succumb to bark damage from rats. The range of pests reported by growers is presented in Table 4. Table 4. Percentage Distribution of Pests on Cashew in Growers’ Orchards District Stemborer Helopeltis Both Unaffected by Diseases Gampaha 94.40 66.70 66.70 5.56 Kandy 98.10 83.00 83.00 1.89 Matale 55.80 25.60 22.10 40.91 Nuwara Eliya 92.50 75.00 70.00 2.50 Galle - 2.17 - 97.83 Hambantota 55.30 11.30 11.30 44.67 Kurunegala 76.40 42.60 36.30 17.56 Puttalam 77.00 54.80 49.20 18.60 Anuradhapura 57.20 33.20 24.00 33.65 Polonnaruwa 70.90 17.70 12.70 24.05 Badulla 89.70 64.10 59.00 5.13 Moneragala 74.60 20.90 17.90 22.39 Ratnapura 89.50 31.60 31.60 10.53 Total 68.27 36.79 32.17 27.90 6. REPLANTING AND/OR REJUVENATION OF OLD ORCHARDS Rejuvenation by top-working is not generally practiced in cashew orchards in Sri Lanka. After approximately 30 years of age, old trees are removed and replanting is practiced. This is usually done by shifting to the middle of avenues of the old crop rows to minimize soil problems. 7. HARVESTING OF NUTS AND CASHEW YIELDS Cashew nut harvesting is usually carried out in the months of May - July by gathering fallen nuts. In the peak season a typical farmer collects 35-40 kg per day. Harvested nuts are cleaned and sun-dried for 3 days to reduce moisture to about 8-9 %. The average yield per tree is about 4-5 kg under the present system of management while the potential yield is around 10-14 kg. Use of unimproved planting material, poor distribution of rainfall and damage from Tea mosquito during flushing and flowering stages could be identified as the main causes for such low yields. Estimated cashew production and average yield by district is given in Table 5. Table 5. Estimated Production and Average Yield by District District Bearing Extent Average Yield/ha Estimated Raw Nut Production (tons) Gampaha 1,563 474 742 Kandy 74 101 7 Matale 286 228 65 Nuwara Eliya 33 121 4 Galle 50 194 10 Hambantota 942 203 191 Kurunegala 6,190 241 1,491 Puttalam (small holdings) 5,231 322 1,682 Puttalam (estates) 632 502 317 Anuradhapura 500 372 186 Polonnaruwa 180 140 25 Badulla 50 273 14 Moneragala 220 154 34 Ratnapura 57 491 28 Total 16,008 300 4,796 8. MARKETING A combination of manual and mechanical methods are employed in the processing of cashew nuts in Sri Lanka, which helps to preserve the natural goodness of cashew kernels and also results in very high percentage of whole nuts. More than 95 percent of cashew is processed by women at cottage industry level, especially by hand shelling. The processing carried out by the Cashew Corporation is a semi-mechanized technique. The raw nuts are initially cooked in an autoclave and decorticated with manually operated cutting machines. The kernels are then roasted in electric ovens under low heat for over three hours. The kernels are then de-husked by removing the testa, then graded and packed within 24 hours. CO2 or nitrogen gas is used in the packing process to eliminate any micro-organisms. Grading is done into whole nuts, splits, large white pieces and Baby bits. These are then packed in PVC canisters and polythene bags. Consumer packs of roasted and salted nuts are also available at supermarkets and Airlines. Sri Lanka cashew kernels are known for their consistently bigger size. Although the main volume of kernels supplied to the world market comes in the small size of 320 counts, over 85 % of the Sri Lankan exports consist of the bigger counts of 180, 210 and 240. The average price per kg is US$ 11 (FOB). Nearly 40 percent of total production is used for local consumption and 60 percent is exported in bulk packages. Currently, the major buyers are from the middle East. More buyers from Canada, USA, Israel, U.K. and Japan are increasingly depending on Sri Lanka for their needs. Reasons behind this trend was well summed up by the Spring Tree Corporation of USA when they declared that the tastiest cashew in the world is the product from Sri Lanka. Exports of cashew kernel are presented in Table 6. Table 6. Cashew Exports from Sri Lanka (1981-96) Year Quantity (Tons) Value (Million Rupees) Average Price (Rs./Kg) 1981 1,106.9 73.5 66.40 1982 616.8 64.6 104.73 1983 899.0 83.7 93.10 1984 128.2 17.0 132.61 1985 284.5 41.2 144.82 1986 503.4 90.7 180.17 1987 1,034.1 195.6 189.15 1988 1,116.2 208.5 186.79 1989 1,327.8 244.4 184.06 1990 1,281.0 277.0 216.24 1991 1,102.5 289.7 262.77 1992 1,062.1 236.5 222.67 1993 1,384.0 341.9 247.03 1994 389.5 112.1 287.80 1995 349.4 112.7 322.55 1996 255.1 80.0 313.73 (up to end Sept.) The decline from 1994 is due to certain malpractices adopted by private processors to adulterate whole cashew kernel grades using pasted splits and broken grades. These practices briefly affected the Sri Lanka exports to the international market. At present, legislation has been enacted to make it mandatory for private sector exporters to obtain a clearance certificate from the Cashew Corporation prior to export. The cost of production of cashew in Sri Lanka is much higher than other countries due to high labor costs, low efficiency and lack of technical knowhow in the production of cashew. There are also no growers’ organizations or Cooperatives to represent the interests of cashew growers. Better varieties which give bigger kernels and higher yield have been recently developed and the industry has laid down stringent quality standards, in addition to training those involved with production and processing from the private sector. These measures have been taken to protect the cashew industry and exploit the export potential of the crop. 9. POTENTIAL FOR CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT The following factors contribute to the development potential of the cashew industry: Large tracts of marginal land is available in dry zone areas which can be utilized by subsistence farmers to grow cashew as a cash crop and obtain gainful employment. It is a lucrative base for a small - scale industry in urban areas. The crop helps environmental stabilization whilst helping the country to earn valuable foreign exchange. When compared to other crops, cashew needs minimal inputs and production costs. Due to their chemical composition, cashew kernels have high keeping quality and good storability characteristics. In the first three years, young cashew plantations can be successfully inter-cropped to provide farmers with supplementary income until the crop gives economic yields. Many subsidy and credit schemes are available for cashew farmers. The Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation, the ADB funded Perennial crops Development Project, the Southern Development Authority and the Mahaveli Project are government assisted programs for improvement of crops such as cashew. 10. CONSTRAINTS IN CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT Cultivation Constraints Inferior germplasm and inadequate planting material of recommended varieties. Lack of knowledge on improved cultural and management practices. Variations in weather patterns, fire hazards and weed problems. Under-utilization of cashew orchards and losses due to poor post-harvest practices. Institutional Constraints There is no price support system for cashew. Poor linkages with other agricultural organizations, both locally and internationally. Lack of credit facilities for the processing industry. High cost of inputs. Technical Constraints Very weak research support for the development of cashew. Insufficient extension staff to make programs effective. Technology transfer programs are weak. Socio-Economic Constraints Displacement of large number of cashew growers due to civil unrest. High unemployment and low incomes of cashew farmers. Poor market and physical infra-structure including storage, processing and transport facilities. Poor farm-gate prices during harvesting season. 11. CONCLUDING REMARKS Research and development activities should be strengthened to evolve appropriate technology on breeding, soil testing, disease and pest control, irrigation systems, fertilizer management and post harvest technology. Extension services should be streamlined to keep pace with a market oriented economy. There should be better inter-agency coordination to ensure timely action on supply of inputs. In view of the increased involvement of women in the cashew industry, more women in development programs should be initiated. Attention must be given to development of road networks and transportation, and better storage and processing facilities. The government should seriously consider establishing a price support system to help small-scale cashew farmers.  Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation, 349 Galle Road, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. 9. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN THAILAND - Suwit Chaikiattiyos 1. INTRODUCTION Cashew was introduced to Southern Thailand in 1901 from adjacent areas of Malaysia from where it spread all over the country. The crop began to be considered as having economic importance to the country by 1984 following the government policy to reduce cassava production by substituting with cashew, particularly for the growers in the North East. The Cashew Research and Development in the North East Thailand project, partly supported by the EC, was later formulated for the replacement of cassava production. Although cashew shares only a small portion of the national economy, it is increasingly becoming important to growers in the East, in terms of regional economy at present. 2. CURRENT STATUS OF PRODUCTION 2.1 Area of Production Thailand ranks as the third most important cashew producing country in Asia, while India remains the main producer. Initially, major commercial planting areas were scattered in the South, which were predominantly small-scale enterprises. However, in 1984 a rapid expansion of area took place in the Northeast following the government policy, in agreement with the EC, to reduce cassava production due to an international surplus of the commodity. In addition, a number of extension projects were initiated by the government. Eventually, the area under cashew substantially increased from 22,022 ha in 1983 to 61,748 ha in 1989, with major areas in the Northeast such as Nakhonratchasima, Burirum and Si Sa Ket provinces, and in the South in areas such as Ranong, Songkhla and Pattani provinces. In 1991 however, cashew production greatly decreased, mainly due to poor fruit setting. Either insect infestation or environmental stress may have been responsible for reduced productivity. Consequently, a number of cashew trees, particularly in the North and Northeast have been cut down and many orchards were neglected in 1991-92. Thailand had only 55,407 ha in 1994 with a total production of 58,359 t. Although planting areas in the North and Northeast have declined since 1991, those in the East, particularly in Chon Buri province, continued to increase leading to an expansion of small to medium-sized shelling factories for processing of nuts. 2.2 Varieties Popular cashew varieties grown in Thailand include Si Sa Ket 60-1 and Si Sa Ket 60-2, which are officially recommended by the Department of Agriculture (DOA), and Sirichai 25 which has been commercially released by a private company. In addition, at the beginning of the national promotion project of cashew, seedlings of the composite variety Si Sa Ket A and seedlings of Maboonkrong from the private sector were also recommended to growers due to insufficient supply of grafted plants to satisfy growers’ requirements. Si Sa Ket 60-1 and Si Sa Ket 60-2 were developed following clonal selection. They were recommended after results from yield comparison and regional yield trials indicated that they are of good quality in terms of nut and kernel size, and 40 % higher yield than unselected local varieties. The average nut yields of Si Sa Ket 60-1 and Si Sa Ket 60-2 at year 11 are about 33.4 and 25.0 kg per tree and the nut weights are 6.29 and 7.20 g, respectively. Both selected clones have on average about 320 kernels per pound which is the international market standard grade. Si Sa Ket composite A was derived from 10 selected clones including Si Sa Ket 60-1 and Si Sa Ket 60-2. Sirichai 25 had not been tried in the Northeast before widespread planting began in this region. Early yields of young trees were good but the Si Sa Ket varieties may well have yielded better under the same conditions. Among the improved cashew varieties of Thailand, only the composite Si Sa Ket A has genetic variation so that there is little likelihood of all trees becoming susceptible to a new strain of a disease or pest. The potential yield for selected clones Si Sa Ket 60-1 and Si Sa Ket 60-2 is shown in Table 1. Yield potential and quality of different cashew varieties were investigated in 1987 at four different locations. Results showed that the Si Sa Ket varieties were the most promising (Table 2). Table 1. Average Yield at Si Sa Ket of Recommended DOA Varieties (Kg/Tree) Varieties Year 3 Year 4 Year 7 Year 9 Year 11 Si Sa Ket 60-1 1.2 9.8 13.7 15.7 33.4 Si Sa Ket 60-2 1.7 6.9 9.6 10.1 25.0 Table 2. Yield and Quality of Different Cashew Varieties at Year 4 (Average of 12 Trees from 4 Locations) Varieties Yield (kg/tree) Nut Weight (g) Kernel Recovery (%) Number of kernels/lb Si Sa Ket 60-1 4.4 6.6 26.7 263 Si Sa Ket 60-2 3.0 7.2 26.0 245 Composite SK-A 2.2 5.9 27.5 279 Sirichai 25 2.5 7.0 28.0 238 Maboonkrong 1.4 6.7 27.4 251 Local 1.4 5.4 28.1 302 3. PROPAGATION AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL Following the government policy to decrease cassava production by introducing cashew to the farmers, particularly in the Northeast in 1981, the Si Sa Ket Horticultural Research Center of the Horticultural Research Institute (HRI), was responsible for the supply of planting material. Both grafted plants and seedlings were produced. The grafted varieties using a modified inarching method included Si Sa Ket 60-1 and Si Sa Ket 60-2 which were released by government agencies. A private company was also involved in cashew extension by supplying grafted plants, namely Sirichai 25 to growers who obtained bank loans from the Bank of Agriculture and Cooperatives. In most cases, rootstocks were prepared from seeds with high specific gravity since such seeds gave higher percentage of germination. Propagation by marcotting, budding and from cuttings is also possible, but this is considered to be too expensive, unreliable and more complex. In grafting, the rootstocks should be 2-4 months old and scions should be 8 to 10 cm long and of pencil thickness. The color of the scion should be turning from green to brown and the top 4-5 leaves should be dark green indicating proper maturity. A longitudinal cut of 3-4 cm is made on the scion on either side to make a wedge and is inserted into the split on the rootstock and tied with polythene strips. The grafts are kept in the shade for 3 to 4 weeks and later transferred to an open site to allow new vegetative flushes to grow. 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS Cashew can be cultivated on a wide variety of soils in Thailand. However, for realizing better yield potential, sandy loam soils without a hard pan are desirable. Although considered drought tolerant, the tree requires a well drained soil with substantial moisture available for the root zone if commercial yields are to be attained. This has been confirmed by the rapid expansion of areas in the East where soil moisture content and relative humidity are relatively higher than the North and Northeast. Furthermore, cultivation of cashew in the South over a long time also substantiates the theory that sufficient moisture content assures high yields. It is strongly recommended that the crop be raised from grafted plants. Recommended spacing is 6m x 6m except those trees grown from seedlings, particularly in the South. Pits are opened to a size of 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm and manure is mixed before planting. It is recommended that planting be started during the early rains in June to ensure maximum tree survival. After year 8, every other tree in the row may be removed to allow the remaining trees to spread their canopies without inter-row competition. 5. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS Cashew trees should be trained to one main stem. After branching begins, training may be practiced to achieve a tree with one leader shoot of 0.5 - 1.5m. A major vegetative flush follows the onset of the rainy season in May or June and flowering occurs at the growing tips of terminal shoots within 3-4 months after the period of restricted growth in November and December. Cashew may produce fruit at year 2 or 3 if trees are raised from grafted plants. Light pruning need to be practiced soon after harvesting in April-May in order to allow new vegetative flushes and to get rid of dead wood. Guidelines for fertilizer application for cashew are presented in Table 3. Irrigation on cashew is not generally practiced in Thailand. However, weeds are controlled at the time of orchard establishment to reduce competition, and to later facilitate harvesting. In large-scale plantations in the past, inter-cropping was considered fairly important since it provided an income to growers during the initial years. Trials at the Si Sa Ket Horticultural Research Center have indicated that sweet corn, groundnut and vegetables can be profitably grown in the crop avenues during the initial years of orchard establishment. Table 3. Fertilizer Recommendations for Cashew Year Density (trees/ha) Type of Fertilizer Fertilizer Rate (kg/ha) 1-2 280 12-24-12 140 3-5 280 15-15-15 280 6-8 280 13-13-21 560 8-12 140* 13-13-21 550 12-20 140 13-13-21 550 * Trees in between rows are removed at year 8. Although cashew has been considered as a hardy crop that can withstand the onslaught of pests and diseases, significant crop losses could be caused by them. Thrips (Haplothrips sp.) can suck sap from tender shoots and inflorescence resulting in die- back. The pest can be controlled with Carbosulfan at 30 ml per 20 l of water or carbaryl at 50 g per 20 l of water. Tea mosquito bugs (Helopeltis antonii) cause severe damage to the tender shoots and inflorescence of the cashew tree, often leading to heavy economic loss of the crop. Both adults and nymphs suck the sap from tender shoots, floral parts, cashew apples and even from immature nuts. The pest can be controlled with either carbaryl at 20 g per 20 l of water or with cyhalothrin at 10 ml per 20 l of water. Although insect infestation, particularly thrips and mosquito bugs is reported on both the Maboonkrong and DOA varieties, it is significant that the former types are more prone to attack by these pests than the latter varieties. Stem borers (Plocaederus ferrugineus) cause damage in the form of small holes in the collar region of the tree trunk which results in gummosis, yellowing and shedding of leaves, drying of twigs and ultimately, the death of the tree. The pest can be controlled effectively by mechanical removal of the larval stages in the early stages of the infestation. The pest is also controlled by injecting carbaryl or ichlovos into the tunnels. Severely affected trees beyond recovery should be cut and removed from the plantation. Many other insects have been reported including aphids and mango shoot weevils. Control measures using insecticides are possible, but alternating between different chemicals is advisable in order to prevent the build up of resistance. Damping off of seedlings can occur under wet conditions or due to poor drainage in the nursery. Different fungi including Fusarium sp., Pythium sp., Phytophthora palmivora and Cylindrocladium scoparium have been reported as causal organisms. The fungi attack either the root or collar region or both, mainly at the tender seedling stage. Control measures include provision of adequate drainage in the nursery and the use of benalaxyl. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia sp.) can infect the panicles by penetrating through the wounds on panicles caused by sucking insects such as thrips. The anthracnose pathogen penetrates the dead tissue. The fungus enters the fruit through the stigma of flowers at the blooming stage. The disease is severe when rainy weather occurs during flowering. Recommended control measures include removal of affected parts and spraying trees with copper oxychloride or mancozeb at 40-50 gm per 20 l of water. 6. TOPWORKING OF OLD TREES For rejuvenation of old trees, topworking can be done using scions from superior varieties. This is being practiced in most cashew orchards in the South where trees were established from unselected seeds. A two to three fold increase in yield in the third year after topworking has been reported provided proper fertilizer application, regular chemical sprays and weeding operations were practiced. 7. HARVESTING OF NUTS AND YIELD Mature nuts are manually harvested and collected over a period of 8-10 weeks in the months of March-April. Fruits are usually allowed to drop during the first 4-6 weeks at the beginning of the harvesting season. Nuts can later be picked from the trees. After separation from the apples, nuts are cleaned in water and sun dried for 2-3 days to reduce the moisture content before disposal. 8. MARKETING In 1992, Thailand exported 3334 tons of raw nuts at a value of US$2.7 million and 102 tons of kernels valued at US$55 million. Exports have however, greatly decreased since 1993 because of poor productivity, particularly in the North and Northeast. Production now almost equals consumption and there is only a small net export trade. In 1995, export of raw nut and kernel was only 70 and 79 tons, respectively. Any future increases in production may have to find export markets. The cashew nut shelling industry in Thailand is relatively small. There is only one company (Maboonkrong) operating nut shelling on a large scale. Most cashew nuts produced in the country are sold and sent across to factories in the East for shelling although there are several local factories for each region. Processing starts from sun drying of nuts for 2-3 days. Before shelling nuts are boiled for 2-3 hours. Shelling is done manually by hand and leg operated shelling machines. The kernel is scooped out by means of a sharp needle. On average one operator can shell 1-1.5 kg per hour depending on individual skill. After shelling, kernels are oven-dried at 50°C in a home-made gas oven to reduce the moisture and to loosen the adhering testa. Peeling of the testa is later done by hand. Then kernels are graded into three grades, namely, Jumbo, A and B grades. Labor costs for shelling, peeling of testa and grading amounts to about Baht 20-25 per kg of finished kernels. Although seed coats and seed testa can be utilized, they offer only marginal returns. Cashew kernels are usually sold to a central market in Bangkok and are then subsequently traded for domestic consumption and export. In addition, particularly in small scale processing in the South, after separating nuts from the fruit, the nuts are roasted to drive off the caustic cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and then opened individually using hand shelling machines. 9. POTENTIAL FOR CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT Although cashew was considered to be a low-potential crop as indicated by an obvious decrease in planting extents, especially in the North and Northeast, it is increasingly becoming an important commercial crop in the Eastern region. The market price of cashew in this area remains high in comparison to other crops. It has also been found that the productivity of trees in this area is much higher than those grown in the North and Northeast. It is also noteworthy that farmers in the Eastern region have turned to cashew growing instead of sugarcane which requires very high labor inputs, especially at harvest time. 10. MAJOR CONSTRAINTS IN CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT During extension of cashew production in 1984, the major constraints included insect infestation from thrips, mosquito bugs, stem borers, and disease infection from anthracnose, all of which could be satisfactorily controlled by chemical application. In 1991, die-back of panicles and insect problems became widespread and adversely affected productivity of nuts. In addition, it was evident that trees with satisfactory flowering did not set fruit even if chemical sprays were appropriately applied. It is probable that trees had undergone environmental stress such as an extended drought period resulting in a marked drop in relative humidity and/or higher day temperatures. This affected flowering, fertilization and even fruit growth and development. Since the DOA varieties were mostly early types, they had a better chance of evading drought conditions, in comparison to Maboonkrong varieties. Nonetheless, under certain conditions, the DOA varieties which were selected for the wetter regions were less adaptable to long droughts. Starting in 1985, BAAC in conjunction with a commercial company, offered a medium term loan plan to farmers which resulted in a successful extension effort to increase the management skills of farmers. Using improved varieties, fertilizer and clean cultivation methods, farmers were given the technical knowhow by extensionist who made regular visits. Production inputs were provided in kind by the agency servicing the loan. Despite the fact that there was strong government backstopping for the program, many farmers were unable to exploit the situation to their advantage due to the poor production skills of workers. 11. CONCLUDING REMARKS Cashew development in Thailand has declined since 1991 due to poor productivity of cashew orchards. Planting extents, particularly in the Northeast have rapidly decreased whereas in the South the change has only been marginal. In the East however, cashew production is expanding and several shelling factories have been installed which augurs well for the future of this region. It is possible that cashew production will play a significant role in the regional economy of the East. Despite the relatively low cost of orchard establishment when seedlings are used, it is recommended that grafted plants be used for new plantations. The recommended varieties available now include Si Sa Ket 60-1 and Si Sa Ket 60-2 released by the DOA. In addition, the agro-techniques recommended should be strictly followed if higher productivity is to be achieved. Further research on cashew improvement would have to focus on development of better adapted varieties with tolerance/resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses through conventional and non-conventional breeding programs. Other problems that research need to concentrate would be the physiological causes that affect fruit set. The germplasm thus developed would not only benefit Thailand but the neighboring countries as well.  Si Sa Ket Horticultural Research Centre, Muang District, Si Sa Ket 33000, Thailand. 10. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CASHEW IN VIETNAM - Nguyen Minh Chau 1. INTRODUCTION The cashew was introduced into Vietnam in the 19th century. It was originally grown in home gardens as a shade tree. Cashew has been recognized as an industrial crop since about 10 years ago. Soil and climatic conditions in Quangnam-Danang province and further to the South are considered suitable for cashew production. In 1980, the area under cashew occupied only 30,000 ha. It has since gone up to 250,000 ha by 1996. The total production in 1996 was 122,070 tons with an export value of US$122,070 million for cashew kernel. At present, many provinces in the South including Dongnai, Songbe, Tayninh and Binhthuan are having large extents of cashew plantations in production. 2. PRESENT STATUS OF CASHEW PRODUCTION In the early 1980s, the cashew tree was considered as a forest tree or a shade tree for home gardens. Seedlings were mostly used as planting material and little care was given for its culture. As a result, the crop gave very low yields and poor quality nuts. In August 1989 however, the crop was recognized by the government as an industrial crop and came under the Ministry of Agriculture. In 1990, The Vietnam Cashew Tree Association was set up to promote the development of the crop, and since then there has been a rapid increase in the area of production (Table 1). Cashew yields however, have not improved yet, mainly because of inferior germplasm, poor management and aftercare of orchards which have resulted in low yields. In 1995-1998 about 30,000 ha of cashew trees were cut down and replaced by mango and longan; also other trees in Songbe, Dongnai and Tayninh provinces due to their unstable yields and low income. 3. PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL The most popular practice was selecting high yielding trees and using the seeds for planting. This method has led to low yields as most progenies from such trees were not true to type. However, since 1994, about 46 % of new cashew plantations have been planted with selected clones raised vegetatively (Table 2). Table 1. Area and Production of Cashew in Some Provinces of Vietnam Zones/Provinces Area (‘000 ha) Production (‘000 tons) 1995a 1996b 1995 1996 1. Eastern Provinces 135.29 149.00 39.31 83.32 Dongnai 32.99 45.00 11.40 25.00 Songbe 77.54 82.00 16.22 45.00 Tayninh 7.51 15.00 7.64 8.40 Baria-Vungtau 17.25 7.00 4.05 3.92 2. Central Coastal Provinces 21.12 61.00 5.26 26.70 Binhthuan 12.98 20.00 3.90 11.20 Ninhthuan 0.45 5.00 0.14 1.75 Khanhhoa 1.86 4.00 0.49 1.50 Phuyen 10.00 3.50 Binhdinh 5.86 7.00 0.67 2.50 Quangngai 0.27 10.00 0.06 3.50 Quang-nam-Danang 5.00 1.75 3. Central Highland Provinces 28.44 27.00 3.93 9.50 Gilai 11.48 10.00 0.30 3.50 Kontum 5.00 1.75 Daklak 9.63 5.00 1.88 1.75 Lamdong 7.34 7.00 1.75 2.50 4. Other Provinces 5.70 13.00 5.18 4.55 Total 187.55 250.00 50.68 122.07 a Agricultural statistics, 1994-1995 b Donafood, 1996 Table 2. Variety Situation and Planting Density of Cashew Plantations Year Varieties (%) Density (trees/ha) Selected Unselected > 400 300-400 200-300 150-200 Prior to 1987 0.0 100.0 67.2 27.8 5.0 - 1988-1990 5.8 92.2 31.0 45.6 15.4 8.0 1991-1993 28.3 71.7 35.3 30.0 23.7 11.0 1994-1996 46.5 53.5 12.3 19.5 52.2 16.0 Source: Bien and Binh, 1997. Cleft grafting is recommended for propagation of planting material while the best time for grafting is from May to August (Donafood, 1996). 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS Cashew trees were usually established on degraded soils in the eastern provinces and central coastal provinces of the South. The current spacing applied is 10m x 5 m (200 plants/ha). Before 1990 however, farmers resorted to high density planting as high as 400 trees/ha (Table 2). It was the general practice to add organic manure at the rate of 10-20 kg/planting hole. 5. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDS Most of the cashew growers neither apply fertilizer nor prune their trees. This is mainly because the low and unstable yields from their cashew crop does not encourage them to manage their crop using such inputs. It has been estimated that only 37.7 % of the cashew plantations were fertilized while the rest did not receive any fertilizer (Table 3). The survey also revealed that the fertilized cashew yielded on average 155 kg more than the unfertilized orchards with an overall yield of 698 kg/ha for the fertilized orchards and 543 kg/ha for the unfertilized, respectively. Table 3. Application of Modern Agro-Techniques for Cashew Technologies Percentage of Farmersa Applying Modern Agro-Techniques Applied Applied Yield (kg/ha) Not Applied Yield (kg/ha) Fertilizerb 37.7 698 62.3 543 Pruning 56.5 672 43.5 672 Plant protectionc 21.7 - 78.3 - a Total survey sample: 143 farmers b 50-100 kg/ha (NPK 16:16:8) c Agro-chemicals applied Source: Hien, Bien et al, 1996 6. PESTS AND DISEASES Of the pests that afflict the cashew crop, shoot borer and red bug were recorded as the most serious pests on the crop. (Hien, Bien, 1996), Table 4. Control measures applied for pests and diseases were practiced only in 2.17% of orchards. Table 4. Pests and Diseases Recorded in Cashew Orchards in Dongnai, 1996 Diseases and Pests Percentage of orchards showing Damage infestation level Insects Red Bug (Helopeltis antonii) 60.5 Serious Shoot borer (Alcides sp.) 92.3 Serious Stem borer (Plocaederus ferrugineus, P. 23.4 Moderate obesus) Leaf miner (Acroercops sp.) 84.3 Serious Mealy bug (Coccidae), Ants 65.8 Moderate Diseases Sooty mold (Mellol sp., Capnodium sp) 7.2 Limited Anthracnose (Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium 32.4 Moderate sp.) 7. REJUVENATION OF ORCHARDS BY TOPWORKING Although rejuvenation of old trees by topworking with selected high yielding clones has been recommended, this has however, not been widely applied by farmers, despite the fact that production and productivity of cashew can be certainly improved if the method is practiced (Donafood, 1996). 8. HARVESTING OF NUTS AND YIELD Due to the fact that the majority of plantations were established with low yielding genetic material and managed poorly, average yields of cashew are as low as 500-600 kg per ha per year. The size of cashew kernels is also below accepted standards and market acceptance is a problem for the producers. 9. MARKETING Nearly 90 percent of cashew kernels produced in Vietnam are exported mainly to Canada, China, USA, Japan and Australia. The export price ranged from US $ 5,300 to 5,500 per ton. In 1996, about 24,000 tons were exported. This brought US $ 120 million to the country in 1996. The local market consumed only about 10 % of total production, mainly as snack food and confectionery items such as cashew candy, popular among local consumers in Song Be province. Marketing has not been well organized and most of the cashew kernel is exported by several companies incorporated in the provinces. There are no Growers’ Cooperatives established for the marketing of cashew as yet. Competition for the export of cashew exists strongly among the private companies. National policy is towards the establishment of a single export Agency to handle cashew exports. This strategy has yet to be ratified by the Central government. The current practice therefore of exporting processed and unprocessed cashew, is bound to continue for some time. 10. POTENTIAL FOR CASHEW PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT Cashew production projections for the year 2000 is planned to increase to 250,000 tons as against 126,000 tons at present (Table 5). The export value of kernels by the year 2000 is estimated to be around US $ 240 million as compared to US$115 million in 1996. The anticipated average yield is expected to increase to reach 1 ton/ha by then, which the country hopes to achieve through the application of advanced technologies such as use of fertilizer, better cultural practices and high yielding clones raised vegetatively through the adoption of grafting techniques. Table 5. Current Area of Production and Future Projections Criteria 1996 2000 2010 1. Production extents (in ‘000 ha) 250 400 600 2. Average yield (tons/ha) 0.7 1.0 1.2 3. Production (‘000 tons) 126 250 600 4. Planned exports (kernel) 24 50 120 Projected export value (millions in US$) 115 240 576 Processing labor force (‘000 persons) 60 150 250 Source: Vietnam Cashew Tree Association, 1997 11. CONSTRAINTS IN CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT The major constraints in the cashew industry are as follows: Technical Issues Lack of improved varieties. Agro-ecological areas suitable for cashew are yet to be identified. Lack of sufficient high quality planting material. Policy Aspects The following policy issues need to be approved by government to support the cashew industry: Amount of capital investment required for care and management of existing cashew plantations and for new plantings will be around 1,250 billion VN dong by the year 2000 (Vietnam Cashew Tree Association, 1997). Another 500 billion VN dong will be required for new processing facilities for cashew. A Cashew Tree research center should be established to backstop production activities. Growers’ Cooperatives should be organized for marketing of cashew products. Demonstrations and extension programs to assist farmers in topworking old trees should be initiated in order to attain higher yields. 12. CONCLUDING REMARKS The cashew crop has demonstrated its adaptability to local growing conditions in Vietnam and has emerged as an important export crop which at present provides valuable foreign exchange of nearly US$115 million per year (1996). This has amply demonstrated its place in the agricultural production system of the country although many policy changes and technical inputs are needed to assist further development of the crop. In order to realize the projected targets of expanding the area under production to 400,000 ha with a yield of 1 ton/ha producing about 300,000 tons, more research and development efforts are urgently needed. It is therefore hoped that the target of earning US $ 288 million by the year 2000 can be achieved. REFERENCES Bien, P.V and N.T Binh, 1997. Cashew tree technical aspects. Workshop on Cashew Tree Development in Vietnam, Hanoi. (11 pages). National Institute of Planning and Projects, 1997. Orientation for Cashew Tree Development in Vietnam, Hanoi (20 pages). Vietnam Cashew Tree Association, 1997. Present Situation of Cashew Production and Programs for Cashew Development up to 2010. Workshop on Cashew Tree Development in Vietnam, Hanoi (12 pages). Donafood, 1996. Cultural Practices for Cashew Trees. Agric. Services Department of Dongnai Province (18 pages).  Director, Long Dinh Fruit Research Center, Long Dinh, Chau Thanh, Tiengiang, Vietnam. 11. CASHEW NUT NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS - B.K.Nandi 1. INTRODUCTION The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) produces nuts, the kernels of which have increased considerably in economic importance over the past few decades. Indigenous to Brazil, the cashew was taken to West Africa, East Africa and India by the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was noticed that the tree grew well on poor sandy soils along the coastal belt and was used by the Portuguese in Africa as an anti-soil erosion measure. The tree prospered and spread naturally, particularly in East Africa and India and the progeny of these wild cashew has formed the basis of the raw material for the cashew industry. Though the plant was primarily intended for checking soil erosion, it is now mainly grown for its commercially important kernel and shell oil (Aiyadurai, 1963). After the war in 1945, world production and consumption of cashew nut increased sharply and it soon became the world’s most important dessert nut after almonds. World consumption of cashew nuts has been increasing steadily from 125,000 tons in 1955 to 1,000,000 tons in 1995, and is estimated to be around 1,260,000 tons by the year 2005 (Ohler, 1979). The production of cashew nut has also kept pace with demand in Europe and Africa and the increase in production has been achieved mainly through extension of the area under the crop. The production of cashew nut in India, however, is far short of the capacity of the existing processing industries and consequently, the cashew industry in India has been stagnant for the past two decades. To increase yields, improved planting material and better crop management practices will have to be given some attention (Russel, 1979). Other countries in South East Asia and the Pacific region including many islands in Indonesia where the cashew nut as well as the cashew apple are appreciated. In Malaysia, where its suitability for cultivation has been shown and the Philippines where its economic potential has yet to be exploited are some of the new areas with future potential although labor requirements seem to be prohibitive, especially in Australia where conditions also appear suitable for its cultivation. Trends in production of cashew are also related to consumption and these in turn will depend on the world economic situation. With the increase in the standard of living in developing countries, a large consumer market is developing, especially in cashew producing countries (Ohler, 1979). There is also the need to explore the possibility of wider dietary utilization of the oil obtained from the shell during processing of raw nuts, which is also a potential exportable product. 2. NUTRITIVE VALUE/COMPOSITION Cashew is a highly nutritious and concentrated form of food, providing a substantial amount of energy. The cashew nut kernel has a pleasant taste and flavor and can be eaten raw, fried and sometimes salted or sweetened with sugar (Manay et al, 1987). It also contributes as an important source of invisible fat in the diet, being widely used in a variety of ways. There has been a growing demand for cashew in many temperate countries where the demand is increasing (Russel, 1979). The nut contains an acrid compound which is a powerful vessicant that is abrasive to the skin. The cashew shell contains 25% of this reddish brown oil, industrially known as Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) which is a by-product of the roasting process. 2.1 Overall Composition The kernel is considered to be of high nutritive quality and growing conditions or the variety of cashew may have an influence on kernel composition (Ohler, 1979). The overall composition of the kernel is protein 21%, fat 46% and carbohydrates 25%. 2.2 Total Nutrient Content The total nutritive value of 100 g of cashew nut is presented in Table 1. Table 1. Nutritive Value in 100 g of Cashew Nut Moisture 5.9 Total Minerals 2.4 Total Fiber 1.3 Energy 785 Protein 24 Total Fat 64 Saturated 12.9 Unsaturated (Oleic) 36.8 Unsaturated (Linoleic) 10.2 Carbohydrate 41 Ca 53 P 52.2 Fe 5.3 Thiamin 0.63 Riboflavin 0.19 Niacin 2.5 Beta-carotene 60 Retinol Equivalent 33 IU; 10 mcg Vitamin K 650 2.3 Protein Content Wide differences in the protein content ranging from 13.13 to 25.03% have been reported from various regions of India. It has been suggested that protein content be considered as one of the most important factors in future breeding and selection programs on cashew nut. The amino acid composition of kernel protein has been reported by various experts (Table 2). Table 2. Amino-Acid Composition of Cashew Kernel Protein Amino Acid Composition (%) Glutamic Acid 28.0 Leucine 11.93 Iso Leucine 3.86 Alanine 3.18 Phenylalanine 4.35 Tyrosine 3.20 Arginine 10.30 Glycine 5.33 Histidine 1.81 Lysine 3.32 Methionine 1.30 Cystine 1.02 Threonine 2.78 Valine 4.53 Tryptophane 1.37 Aspartic Acid 10.78 Proline 3.72 Serine 5.76 2.4 Carbohydrate Content Analysis of cashew nut kernels from different regions of India have revealed that there are variations in the reducing sugar content from 1% to 3% and the non-reducing sugars from 2.4% to 8.7%. Starch content ranged from 4.6% to 11.2% and the oil content also showed a wide variability from 34.5% to 46.8%. 2.5 Fatty Acid Composition The fat and oil content of cashew nut contributes substantially to its energy content and consists mostly of glycerides of oleic acid (73.8%) and linoleic acids (7.7%) (Ohler, 1979). Table 3 gives the composition of fats in cashew kernels. Table 3. Fatty Acid Composition of Cashew Kernels (%) Oleic Acid 73.3 Linoleic Acid 7.67 Palmitic Acid 0.89 Stearic Acid 11.24 Lignoseric Acid 0.15 Unsaponifiable Matter 0.42 It may be mentioned that the high proportion of oleic and stearic acid contents may limit its use in the diets advocating low energy intake. The high content of MUFA oleic however, might be beneficial in cases of bowel enteropathy. Also from the point of view of essential fatty acid requirements, the ratio of linoleic to linolenic (values for cashew nut not available) acid is considered important. Studies at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) have shown that cereals and pulses on average contribute 3% and 2% respectively, of invisible fat, providing 1.5% LA and 0.08% ALNA and pulses furnish 1.3% LA and 0.28% ALNA to the diet. On this basis, habitual rural Indian diets were found to provide 7 en % of invisible fat (both from cereals and pulses) (Ghafoorunissa, 1989). WHO/FAO (1977) had recommended an LA intake of over 3 en %, the requirement of LA being around 8g/capita/day. In rural diets, the invisible fat present in cereals, pulses and milk can meet about 66% of the daily LA requirements. To furnish the remaining 33%, different amounts of vegetable oils would be required from various sources of nuts and oil seeds. In the Indian context, figures available for two edible oils furnishing the recommended intake of LA works out to be 11 g or 4 en % in the adult diet, wherein the fat intake of total calories would be 11% or 30 g. The judicious use of cashew in the diet in suitable proportions so as to enhance dietary quality with respect to fat and protein should therefore be possible. Owing to its high protein content, it could be used along with cereals/staples and pulses in small amounts in association with vegetables to improve the dietary profile. The level of oil present in the cashew to ensure energy density in the diet appears to be adequate, but whether it can meet with the diets LA requirements needs to be studied further. 2.5 Vitamin Content The vitamin content of cashew nut kernels shown in Table 4 indicates that 0.5 to 1.4 mg per 100 g of thiamin and 0.58 mg per 100 g of riboflavin, a good proportion of vitamin E and traces of other vitamins are present in cashew. Table 4. Vitamin Content (mg per 100 gm) of Cashew Kernels Thiamin 0.56 Niacin 3.68 Riboflavin 0.58 Tocopherol 210 Pyridoxine traces Axerophtol traces Vitamin D traces It may be mentioned that the vitamin E content of cashew nut could be a beneficial factor, in view of the wider use in the diet of the elderly and those who run the risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin E is also a powerful anti-oxidant and its role in lipid metabolism has been well established. Fats containing a lesser amount of tocopherol in the unsaponifiable fraction have been reported to be more atherogenic as compared to most crop species containing higher concentration of tocopherols (Kurup, 1989). Thus, the amounts of cashew to be incorporated and the economic feasibility in utilizing for local diets need to be critically examined. Cardiovascular diseases which affect individuals mostly around middle age is common among the more affluent. The use of small amounts of cashew nut in the diet could therefore be a deterrent in controlling cardiovascular ailments. 2.6 Mineral Content The mineral content of cashew kernel (Table 5) appear to be minimal as compared to the higher mineral content of the cashew apple, especially the high Vitamin C content (240 mg). Most citrus species such as orange have only 45 mg of Vitamin C. However, the cashew apple is yet to be utilized on a large scale to alleviate Vitamin C nutrition requirements in the tropical countries where the crop is grown. Cashew is also one of the few sources of phenols (contains about 60 % of anacardic acid by weight). This acid is responsible for the vesicative activity of the shell liquid extract and can cause acute dermatitis. It is therefore essential to ensure that as little contamination as possible of CNSL should occur during processing of kernels. In traditional medicine however, this extract has been used successfully (Ohler, 1979). The high price of cashew kernels will certainly stimulate the planting programs in various countries. Since the cashew nut market competes with other nuts, there is bound to be increased production of all nuts. The present cost of processing cashew is much higher as compared to other nuts which allows little flexibility in cashew kernel prices. It is therefore necessary to develop more efficient and cost-effective processing systems for cashew (Russel, 1979). Table 5. Mineral Content of Cashew Kernels (%) Ca 0.04 P 0.88 Na 0.005 K 0.57 Mg 0.28 Fe 0.008 Cu 0.002 Zn 0.004 Mn 0.002 2.7 Groundnut In contrast, groundnut (Arachis hypogea) which is also an important oil crop of Brazilian origin, is now cultivated in tropical and warm temperate climates. The Portuguese were initially responsible for introducing the crop to Goa, India and the rest of Asia and Africa. With 31 % of the world’s production, India ranks first in groundnut production today. Groundnuts are not only rich in proteins which are easily digestible and consequently, a higher biological value, but are also rich in B-complex vitamins. Like other edible nuts it is used in different ways and it is an essential item in several confectionery products, and in supplementary feeding programs such as in weaning food formulations in combination with cereals and pulses in many developing countries. Various cultivars of groundnut tested in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India have shown high contents of P and K, possibly due to varietal differences (Pillai et al, 1984). There is a similar need to investigate the variability in mineral content of cashew nut varieties in order to produce better varieties and optimize their use. Whilst groundnut, when processed into margarine is gaining popularity as a substitute for butter in the USA and elsewhere, specifically due to its alternate use in instances of lactose intolerance, it is fast replacing dairy products due to the absence of cholesterol. The principal use of groundnut however, is in the production of oil (Cummins, 1986). 2.8 Comparative Nutritive Value of Groundnut vs Cashew Nut The comparative proximate composition of groundnut and cashew nut is given in Table 6. The nutritive value of both nuts are apparently similar with the exception of iron, where cashew nut has twice the level of groundnut as well as the chromium content which is higher in cashew. The bio-availability of these minerals need to be studied as cashew also has a high oxalate content. This aspect need to be investigated in view of its possible application in meeting the iron requirements of vegetarian diets which are usually deficient in iron. The presence of chromium can also help in formulating better diets for diabetics. Table 6. Comparative Nutritive Value of Cashew Nut and Groundnut Cashew Nut Groundnut Energy Keal 596 567 Protein (g) 21.2 25.3 Fat (g) 46.9 40.1 Minerals (mg) 2.4 2.4 Fiber (g) 1.3 3.1 Carbohydrates (g) 22.3 26.1 Calcium (mg) 50 90 P (mg) 450 350 Fe (mg) 5.81 2.5 Cr (mg) 0.163 0.048 The fatty acid composition of groundnut is presented in Table 7. The oleic acid content of groundnut is much lower than that of cashew nut, while linoleic acid is three times the level in cashew nut. The WHO/FAO expert group has recommended that 30-35 percent of the Calorie requirements should be met from fats and oils in the ratio of 1:1 of saturated to unsaturated. It is also generally accepted that the total fat in human diets should not exceed 30en % or even lower in sedentary individuals (Fats and oil News, 1988, Grundy et al, 1987). The dietary fat (both visible and invisible) which were so far considered as an important nutrient component merely as a concentrated source of energy, has in recent years assumed tremendous nutritional significance with close links to the quality of fat in relation to its constituent fatty acids. In view of this, it may be of interest to nutritionists and food scientists to evaluate the merits and de-merits of the usage of cashew nuts and groundnuts in the diet in suitable proportions to improve the nutritional fat quality and optimize its dietary benefits and applications. Table 7. Total Fatty Acid Composition of Groundnut Oil Saturated 20 Monounsaturated 54 Oleic 47 Polyunsaturated 26 Linoleic 28 REFERENCES Aiyadurai, S.G. (1963). A review of Research on Spices and Cashew nut in India. Agriculture Commission, Government of India. Cummins D.G. (1986). Groundnut. The Unpredictable Legume! Production Constraints and Research Needs. Proc. International Symposium, ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Niamey, Niger. FAO/WHO (1977). Dietary Fats and Oils in Human nutrition. FAO, Food and Nutrition Paper 3, FAO, Rome. Fats and Oils News (1986). Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc, 63:718. Gafoorunissa. (1989). Nutritional Aspects in Indian Diets. Proc. Nutr. Soc. India. 35: 43-51. Gopalan, C. et al. Eds. (1991). Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. (Rev. Ed). NIN, ICMR, Hyderabad. Grundy, S.M, and Nestle, P.J (1987). Amer. Journ. Clin. Nitrit. 45: 1087. Kurup, P.A, (1989). Nutritional Factors and Atherosclerosis. Proc. Nutr. Soc. India: 34: 27-36. Manay, N., and M. Shadaksharaswamy (1987). Facts and Principles. Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi. Ohler, J.G., (1979). Cashew. Department of Agricultural Research, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam. Pillai, R. N., Ranganakulu, G., Padma Raju, A., Sankara Reddi, G.H (1984). Mineral Composition of Kernels and Shells of Four Cultivars of Groundnut. Andhra Pradesh Journ. (India). 31 (4): 351-352. Russel (1979). Cashew nut Processing. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin. Third Ed. FAO, Rome.  Senior Food Policy and Nutrition Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand.
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