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Treatment of Dementia and Alzheimer with Ginkgo Biloba

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the treatment of dementia and alhezeimer with ginkgo Biloba

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									 ASSIGNMENT PHC 215

Ginkgo Biloba for Dementia
 and Alzheimer’s disease

    Lecturer’s Name: Tuan Haji Isa Bin Tahir
   Student’s Name: Khairul Azmi Bin Mat Arifin
           Student’s ID: 2009579645




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Contents
 ..................................................................................................................................................... 1
 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 3
    What is Dementia? .................................................................................................................. 3
    What are the symptoms Of Dementia? ................................................................................... 3
    What is Alzheimer?................................................................................................................. 4
    Difference between Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease ........................................................ 4
 Gingko Biloba ............................................................................................................................. 5
    History of Ginkgo Biloba in Memory Aspect......................................................................... 5
    Uses of Gingko Biloba ............................................................................................................ 6
    How Much Ginkgo Biloba Do You Need To Take To Help with Alzheimer’s Dementia? ... 7
 Adverse Effects of Ginkgo Biloba .............................................................................................. 8
    Common Side Effects ............................................................................................................. 8
    Allergic Reactions Symptoms................................................................................................. 8
    Ginkgo Toxicity ...................................................................................................................... 8
    Ginkgo for Children and Pregnant Women ............................................................................ 8
    Interaction with Other Medications ........................................................................................ 8
 References ................................................................................................................................. 10




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Introduction

What is Dementia?


Dementia is caused by the death of brain cells. Brain cells can be destroyed by brain diseases,
such as Alzheimer’s disease, or strokes (called vascular or multi-infarct dementia), which
decrease blood flow to the brain.



What are the symptoms Of Dementia?



In most cases, the symptoms of dementia occur gradually, over a period of years. Symptoms of
dementia caused by injury or stroke occur more abruptly.

Difficulties often begin with memory, progressing from simple forgetfulness to the inability to
remember directions, recent events, and familiar faces and names.

Other symptoms include difficulty with spoken communication, personality changes, problems
with abstract thinking, poor personal hygiene, trouble sleeping, and poor judgment and decision
making.

Dementia is extremely frustrating for the patient, especially in the early stages when he or she is
aware of the deficiencies it causes. People with dementia are likely to lash out at those around
them, either out of frustration or because their difficulty with understanding makes them
misinterpret the actions of others.

They become extremely confused and anxious when in unfamiliar surroundings or with any
change in routine. They may begin a task, such as cooking, then wander away aimlessly and
completely forget what they had been doing.

Dementia is often accompanied by depression and delirium, which is characterized by an
inability to pay attention, fluctuating consciousness, hallucinations, paranoia, and delusions.

People in advanced stages of dementia lose all control of bodily functions and are completely
dependent upon others.




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What is Alzheimer?


Alzheimer's disease (AD), also called Alzheimer disease, senile dementia of the Alzheimer type,
primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer's type, or simply Alzheimer's, is the most
common form of dementia. (Wikipedia)



Difference between Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease


Dementia is a progressive condition but it is similar to a bodily dysfunction rather than a disease.
It can begin with forgetfulness.

Dementia is an impairment of thinking and memory that interferes with a person's ability to do
things which he or she previously was able to do.



Alzheimer’s is a form of dementia. It is the most common form of dementia. The cause is a
degenerative brain disease that worsens with time.

Alzheimer's disease is the common cause of dementia, and is particularly common in older
people. Because it is the most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease is commonly
equated with the general term dementia. However, there are many other causes of dementia.




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Gingko Biloba

Gingko Biloba is an extract of the leaves of the ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) that is used as a dietary
supplement and is held to enhance mental functioning by increasing blood circulation to the
brain called also ginkgo



History of Ginkgo Biloba in Memory Aspect


Ginkgo biloba has multiple perhaps one of its most important benefits is boosting the memory
whether short or long.

Ginkgo biloba for memory has been used in various parts of the word for several thousands of
years. Being a living fossil, oldest tree in the world is a source for medicinal herbs too.
Widespread use of ginkgo biloba started in China some 5,000 years or so ago. As a matter of
fact, people above 50 are using ginkgo biloba for memory more and more.

It is commonly held belief that ginkgo biloba for memory can counter memory lapses and restore
it.

Ginkgo biloba for memory contains flavonoids and Terpenoids. These two major components of
ginkgo biloba for memory have beneficial effect to the brain. So much so that ginkgo biloba is
called as a brain tonic. Flavonoids can control free radicals that can cause premature aging and
dementia. The central nervous system is especially susceptible to these disorders. These
flavonoid compounds could stabilize cell membranes and blood vessel and red blood cells more
flexible, allowing blood to flow more freely in the tiny capillaries that feed the deepest parts of
the brain, limbs, hands and other extremities. Because of these important characteristic of
flavonoids, increase blood flow to the brain results in increase in oxygen in turn enhancing the
brain function including memory, concentration and problem solving. When a person aged,
blood flow functions also weakened. Thereby, cause memory loss.

Terpenoids have ginkgolides that block platelet activating factor (PAF). PAF is a blood clotting
substance. Overstimulation of PAF could lead to asthma, allergies and stroke.

Ginkgo biloba for memory is recommended to treat degenerating disease such as Alzheimer’s. In
Germany, using ginkgo biloba for memory in treating Alzheimer’s has been approved recently.
A recommended dosage of 240 mg of ginkgo biloba for memory should be taken daily in order
to counter this disease.


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Uses of Gingko Biloba


Treatment of Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease

Dementia, Alzheimer's, and other mental diseases are accelerated by the,


* The lack of blood to the brain
* The lack of oxygen to the brain
* The lack of minerals and vitamins to the brain
* The lack of glucose to the brain
* Increase of toxins to the brain.


The lack of blood to the brain is caused by arteriosclerosis - pluck build up along the arteries
causing them to narrow. Arteriosclerosis occurs when you have a diet that causes damage to the
artery walls promoting cholesterol and other minerals and nutrients to patch up the damage. Over
time, as this patching continues, this area will become narrow and in some case blocks the flow
of blood.


Ginkgo Biloba has been found effective in increasing the circulation of blood throughout
the body including the brain. When this happened more blood moves into the brain and
supplies it with the nutrients in the blood and improves concentration and memory.


Ginkgo Biloba also helps brain cells use glucose and thereby increases brain energy. It helps
improve brain cell transmission and brain wave tracing. It helps short-term memory by speeding
up the brain cell impulses.

In clinical studies in Europe, it was shown that taking ginkgo biloba extracts can help in the early
stages of Alzheimer’s dementia.

Although taking ginkgo biloba extracts is not a total cure for Alzheimer’s dementia, the studies
did show that ginkgo biloba extracts improved quality of life, memory and slowed down the
further progression of Alzheimer’s dementia in the early stages.




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Using Ginkgo Biloba for dementia and Alzheimer's have shown to slow down, delay, and even
reverse these conditions in some cases. Use of Ginkgo Biloba is more effective when used in the
early signs of senility, dementia, or Alzheimer's.


If Alzheimer's is well progressed, Ginkgo may have only a slight value. But when Alzheimer's
and other dementia issue are due arteriosclerosis or lack of blood to the brain, then Ginkgo may
provide some relief and improvement in these conditions.



How Much Ginkgo Biloba Do You Need To Take To Help with Alzheimer’s Dementia?

In clinical trials in Europe, it showed that taking between 120 to 240 mg a day of a ginkgo biloba
extract helped in the early stages of Alzheimer’s dementia.

The disease can be slowed and the quality of life, memory and concentration can be improved.

It can take between 6 and 12 weeks of taking ginkgo biloba extracts before any signs start to
show.




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Adverse Effects of Ginkgo Biloba

Common Side Effects

The common side effects of ginkgo include dizziness, diarrhea, nausea, headache,
gastrointestinal upset, palpitations, restlessness, and allergic reactions. If you experience these
symptoms, stop using any ginkgo product and visit your doctor for medical advice. The doctor
will tell you whether you need to stop using ginkgo or you need to lower the dosage.

Allergic Reactions Symptoms

Many organic compounds have been isolated in ginkgo. Some of these compounds can trigger
allergic reactions. Symptoms of ginkgo allergy include skin rashes, hives, swelling, itching,
breathing difficulty, sneezing, breathing difficulty, and anaphylactic shock. Seek medical help if
you experience these allergic reactions after using any ginkgo product. Special medical attention
should be given to people with anaphylactic shock because of the fatality of this condition.

Allergens found in ginkgo are long-chain alkyphenols and urushiols. Urushiols, a potent
allergen, are an oily poisonous irritant found in the resin and on the leaves and stems of poison
ivy, lacquer tree, mango, and related plants. If you have a history of allergy to any of the
mentioned plants, you are likely to experience adverse reactions when taking ginkgo products. In
ginkgo seed, urushiols are found in the outer fleshy coating. When the coating is removed, the
seed is safe to handle.

Sadly, the only solution for ginkgo allergy is avoidance of ginkgo products.

Ginkgo Toxicity

Eating raw seed of ginkgo in large quantities (over 5 seeds a day) can cause poisoning due to the
presence of 4-methoxypyridoxine (MPN) in the seed’s gametophyte (meat). MPN, also called
ginkgo toxin, can cause seizure and convulsion. Ginkgo leaf and leaf extract contain little MPN.

Ginkgo for Children and Pregnant Women

Ginkgo products should not be taken by children, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers.

Interaction with Other Medications

Ginkgo can interact with other prescriptions and non-prescription medications by altering their
effectiveness and metabolism within the body. Medications known to interact with ginkgo
include anticonvulsants, antidepressants (SSRIs and MAOIs), antihypertensive medications,
blood-thinning medications, cyclosporine, blood sugar-lowering medications, trazodone, and
thiazide diuretics.



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The effectiveness of anticonvulsant medications such as carbamazepine and valproic acid can be
lessen when taken with ginkgo.

Ginkgo should not be taken with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as Celexa, Lexapro,
Zoloft, Paxil, Luvox, and Prozac. Interaction of ginkgo and SSRIs can lead to potentially fatal
serotonin syndrome.

Ginkgo can improve both the good and bad effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
like Nardil. Hence, the two medications should not be taken together.

If you are taking antihypertensive medications, consult your doctor before using ginkgo. Ginkgo
can lower blood pressure by dilating the blood vessels and physical characteristics of blood. It
may reinforce the effects of antihypertensive medications resulting to dangerous drop in blood
pressure. Ginkgo has been reported to interact with Procardia (nifedipine), a calcium blocker
used for arrhythmias and high blood pressure.

Ginkgo reinforces the effects of anticoagulants or blood-thinners such as aspirin, clopidogrel,
heparin, and warfarin. This can result to internal bleeding. People with bleeding disorder like
hemophilia should not take ginkgo. You should discontinue taking ginkgo at least 36 hours
before your scheduled surgery (including dental) to prevent bleeding complications.

Ginkgo can affect insulin secretion in people with diabetes. If you have diabetes, don’t take
ginkgo without first consulting your doctor.

Ginkgo can interact with cyclosporine, thiazide, and trazodone medications. Talk to your doctor
before using ginkgo with any of the three medications mentioned.




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References

http://www.thebrightesthub.com/ginkgo-biloba-side-effects/

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ginkgo+biloba

http://www.ec-online.net/Knowledge/articles/ginko.html




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