How Nelson Mandela Freed a
•PRESIDENT OF SOUTH
•ARRESTED AND CONVICTED
•IMPRISONED IN 1964,
CONTINUED TO FIGHT
THROUGH HIS LETTERS TO
DESMOND TUTU AND HIS
•URGED THEM TO FIGHT
•BRAINS BEHIND THE
MOVEMENT EVEN IN
•27 YEARS IN PRISON
•RECEIVED MORE THAN 250
AWARDS OVER FOUR
• British left south Africa in 1910.
• They left the small white population of south African born whites to rule
– 10% white
– 70% black
– 20% other
• A rigid separation of races.
• None whites were not allowed to vote.
• Non whites were told where to live.
– These places were called ‘homelands’
• Non whites were told where to work.
• The theory was that if they were kept within their own ethnic groups they
could develop their own culture.
• Strict laws were passed to ensure a peaceful
• To control the movement of the non-white
population, they created the passbooks
• Passbooks gave certain workers permission to
be in city. All others could not come into the
city. – Divided families
• All aspects were divided into white or black
– Funding was not distributed evenly.
• ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU.
– Advocated a nonviolent approach to change the
– Staged peaceful protest rallies
– Won the Nobel peace prize in 1984.
– Staged a peaceful protest rally in Sharpeville.
• The government used extreme force to disburse the
• 60 people were killed.
• Poverty was one of the largest problems for
• Forced to live in areas unsuitable for humans,
these degrading shacks were called home by
•Desmond tutu respected holy man
who advocated a non violent approach
to changing the government.
•He would win the Nobel peace prize
in 1984 for his efforts.
• The racist government looked to stop these
• They banned all opposition groups to the
• Among them was the African national congress
– One of its leaders, nelson Mandela, was forced to flee.
– He would later be captured and sentenced to life
imprison in 1964.
• The violent acts against the peaceful
protesters made national headlines.
• The OAU, organization of African unity, urged
countries to boycott south Africa.
• The U.N. Placed an arms embargo on the
• The U.S. Even imposed economic sanctions.
Steps Towards Change
• The International sanctions took there toll on
• Many white business men urged the
government for change.
• By 1980, it repelled the passbook laws.
• By 1989, the ban on opposition groups, such
as the ANC, was lifted.
– Nelson Mandela was finally freed after 25 years of
Freedom For Mandela!
• Continuing to lead the ANC through his letters and
his wife, Winnie, Mandela would emerge from
prison, not a forgotten casualty of apartheid, but
the voice of the south African black population!
• By the early 1990’s, the president of south africa,
de klerk, agreed to hold talks with tutu and
• A new constitution was drawn up to include basic
rights to all citizens, regardless of the race.
– Including voting rights!
• The first free elections were held in 1994 and
Mandela was overwhelmingly elected as