APARTHEID

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					APARTHEID
How Nelson Mandela Freed a
         Nation
Nelson
Mandela
•PRESIDENT OF SOUTH
AFRICA
•ANTI- APARTHEID
•ARRESTED AND CONVICTED
OF SABOTAGE
•IMPRISONED IN 1964,
CONTINUED TO FIGHT
THROUGH HIS LETTERS TO
DESMOND TUTU AND HIS
WIFE
•URGED THEM TO FIGHT
AGAINST APARTHEID
•BRAINS BEHIND THE
MOVEMENT EVEN IN
PRISON.
•27 YEARS IN PRISON
•RECEIVED MORE THAN 250
AWARDS OVER FOUR
DECADES
The British

• British left south Africa in 1910.
• They left the small white population of south African born whites to rule
  the country.
• Population…
   – 10% white
   – 70% black
   – 20% other
Apartheid
• A rigid separation of races.
• None whites were not allowed to vote.
• Non whites were told where to live.
   – These places were called ‘homelands’
• Non whites were told where to work.
• The theory was that if they were kept within their own ethnic groups they
  could develop their own culture.
Inequality
• Strict laws were passed to ensure a peaceful
  country
• To control the movement of the non-white
  population, they created the passbooks
• Passbooks gave certain workers permission to
  be in city. All others could not come into the
  city. – Divided families
Inequality cont...
• All aspects were divided into white or black
  areas.
  – Beaches
  – Bathrooms
  – Schools
  – Restaurants
  – Funding was not distributed evenly.
Non-violence
• ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU.
  – Advocated a nonviolent approach to change the
    government.
  – Staged peaceful protest rallies
  – Won the Nobel peace prize in 1984.
  – Staged a peaceful protest rally in Sharpeville.
     • The government used extreme force to disburse the
       protesters.
     • 60 people were killed.
Poverty
• Poverty was one of the largest problems for
  blacks.
• Forced to live in areas unsuitable for humans,
  these degrading shacks were called home by
  millions.
Desmond
Tutu
•Desmond tutu respected holy man
who advocated a non violent approach
to changing the government.
•He would win the Nobel peace prize
in 1984 for his efforts.
Government Reacts
• The racist government looked to stop these
  protest rallies.
• They banned all opposition groups to the
  government.
• Among them was the African national congress
  (ANC).
  – One of its leaders, nelson Mandela, was forced to flee.
  – He would later be captured and sentenced to life
    imprison in 1964.
International Pressure

• The violent acts against the peaceful
  protesters made national headlines.
• The OAU, organization of African unity, urged
  countries to boycott south Africa.
• The U.N. Placed an arms embargo on the
  country.
• The U.S. Even imposed economic sanctions.
Steps Towards Change
• The International sanctions took there toll on
  the country.
• Many white business men urged the
  government for change.
• By 1980, it repelled the passbook laws.
• By 1989, the ban on opposition groups, such
  as the ANC, was lifted.
  – Nelson Mandela was finally freed after 25 years of
    imprisonment.
Freedom For Mandela!
 • Continuing to lead the ANC through his letters and
   his wife, Winnie, Mandela would emerge from
   prison, not a forgotten casualty of apartheid, but
   the voice of the south African black population!
New Constitution
• By the early 1990’s, the president of south africa,
  de klerk, agreed to hold talks with tutu and
  Mandela.
• A new constitution was drawn up to include basic
  rights to all citizens, regardless of the race.
   – Including voting rights!
• The first free elections were held in 1994 and
  Mandela was overwhelmingly elected as
  president.
The End

				
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posted:9/27/2011
language:English
pages:15