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Team work in large scale protected areas by ps94506



Team work in large scale protected areas
                                                                                                                              CONTENTS         1

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3   Strengthening the team spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
                                                                       Participation and identification                               26
                                                                       Recognition – the reward for volunteering                     27
                                                                       Dealing with conflicts                                         28
Aiming for a goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4    Internal information work                                     31
The project in key words                                          5
The start – where do we begin?                                    6    Planning publicity and winning project partners . . . . . 32
The goal – what do we want to achieve?                            7    PR work and recruiting volunteers                         32
Planning step by step                                             7    Cooperating with opinion leaders                          36
What challenges will we face?                                     7    Cooperating with project partners – using synergies       37

Setting up the team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9    Drawing on experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
The structure of the volunteer programme                          9    Documentation, evaluation and quality management              40
The key figure – the volunteer coordinator                         9    Quality standards for volunteer management in
Full-time staff and volunteers – their roles in the team          10    large scale protected areas                                   41
Offers for volunteers                                             13
Written agreements with volunteers                               17    Reaching the goals and setting new ones . . . . . . . . . . 45
Insurance cover – secure provisions for voluntary                      Summary                                                     45
involvement                                                      18    Prospects                                                   46

Training the team. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Training of volunteer coordinators                               21    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Training of volunteers – fit for commitment                       23    Partners and imprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
                                                                                                                               FOREWORD        3

Dear reader,

“Together we are strong” – that applies both   heritage and thus gain valuable supporters        But convince yourself: Here we present the
for the network of Nationale Naturland-        for our interests – a win-win situation of        results of two years of work and share with
schaften (new family brand for the German      the best sort!                                    you the experience gathered in many pro-
national parks, nature parks and biosphere                                                       tected areas over this period. We hope you
reserves) and for their full-time employees.   The volunteer programme has proved its            can draw on these ideas and develop them
At the same time our team also includes        value in the direct cooperation with the          for your own applications. Benefit from the
volunteers – dedicated, creative, flexible,     volunteers. At the same time it is a suc-         opportunities offered by effective team work
qualified and interested people who provide     cessful instrument for lobbying and public        between full-time employees and volunteers.
valuable support in the protected areas.       relations work, as is demonstrated by the
                                               positive articles in the press and the reaction   We are grateful for the support given to
Through the project “Establishing a vo-        from politicians and opinion leaders. In this     this important project, in particular by
lunteer programme in German large scale        context the various cooperation projects, for     the Heidehof Foundation (formerly SBB
protected areas” we have established struc-    example with companies and schools, have          – Stiftung für Bildung und Behindertenför-
tures in 15 model areas within two years in    also shown positive effects.                       derung), the BINGO!-Umweltlotterie and
order to develop “team work” between the                                                         the Norddeutsche Stiftung für Umwelt und
full-time staff and the volunteers, and to      Two outcomes of the project are particular-       Entwicklung (NUE), without which our
strengthen the parks. With the volunteer       ly significant. The first is that the role of the   work would not have been possible.
programme we are making protected areas        full-time volunteer coordinator has turned
more open to the public than in the past       out to be of key importance. Our expe-            I hope you find this brochure interesting
and demonstrating our ability to act as team   rience shows that the deployment of full-         and informative.
players. This is a management strategy for     time personnel is not only crucial for the
large scale protected areas which has long     management of large scale protected areas
been practiced elsewhere, and our expe-        in general, but also acts as a “catalyst” for
rience has shown it offers many advantages.     voluntary work. Secondly, our project work
Within the framework of the project, we        has also given rise to quality standards for
were able to draw on existing attempts at      volunteer work in large scale protected areas
volunteer participation, and to promote and    – a milestone on the way to the professional
develop these through exchanges with spe-      management of volunteers.
cialists. Various types of work and projects
in the parks can now be carried out with       Now we are on the same footing with
the support of volunteers more intensively     regard to volunteer management as, for ex-
or more extensively than would have been       ample, social institutions, and this will have
possible without such voluntary support.       the significant advantage that our views will
We received considerable feedback from         be heard and taken seriously in the political
volunteers who are active in the protected     discussions on the promotion of voluntary
areas, and they confirm that the voluntary      activities (and thus also by the institutions
work is a fulfilling and enriching activity     promoting these).
and that it represents a rewarding way to
spend ones free time. In many cases it is      With the volunteer programme in                   Holger Wesemüller
possible to promote enthusiasm among the       Germany’s Nationale Naturlandschaften             Deputy Chair EUROPARC Germany
active participants for our national nature    we have taken an important step forward!          and project leader

    Fig. 1: The volunteer coordinators in large scale
    protected areas1 (basic qualification for volunteer
    management, Nov. 2004) from left to right;
    Front row: Peter Körber (Hamburg Wadden See
    NLP), Roland Ertl (Bavarian Forest NLP);
                                                            What is a voluntary activity?
    Second row: Uwe Schneider (Schorfheide-Chorin
    BR), Anne Spiegel (Lower Saxony Wadden Sea
                                                            What are its particular qualities?
    NLP), Thomas Kegel (Academy for Voluntee-
    ring Germany), Rae Lonsdale (Yorkshire Dales            It is
    NLP/GB), Elfi Laack (Schorfheide-Chorin BR),
    Jürgen Herper (Flusslandschaft Elbe-Branden-
                                                          • the personal choice of the
    burg BR);                                               individual
    Third row: Kerstin Barfod (Hainich NLP),              • unpaid
    Ulrike Walter (interpreter), Sibylle von Hoff         • of benefit to the community
    (Müritz NLP), Ingo Höhne (Nuthe-Nieplitz
    NRP), Uwe Ipsen (Lauenburgische Seen NRP),
    Anne Schierenberg (EUROPARC Germany);                   What is volunteer management?

    Back row: Henning Ohmes (Harz NLP), Jürgen
    Herpin (TERRA.vita NRP), Silke Ahlborn                • planning, organising and coordi-
    (Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea NLP)                     nating the work of volunteers in
    Not present: Pamela Clausius (Schaalsee BR),            an organisation
    Timo Kluttig (TERRA.vita NRP), Dieter Mey/            • harmonising the goals, duties and
    Uwe Müller (Eichsfeld-Hainich-Werratal NRP),
                                                            interests of the organisation with
    Annett Rabe (Thuringian Forest NRP/Vessertal
    BR)                                                     the motivations, expectations,
                                                            interests and needs of the volun-
                                                                                                                AIMING FOR A GOAL          5

Aiming for a goal
“If a man does not know to what port he is
steering, no wind is favourable to him.”
Seneca, Roman philosopher

The project in key words                      Methods:                                   Schleswig-Holstein:
                                                – Conceptional and structural prepara-     – Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea
Project title:                                    tion of volunteer work in the model         National Park (NationalparkService
    “Establishing a volunteer programme           areas                                       gGmbH)
    in German large scale protected areas”      – Further and continuous training of       – Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park
Duration:                                         park staff as volunteer coordinators    Thuringia:
    02/2004 – 01/2006                           – Definition of scope of action and the     – Hainich National Park
Responsible for the project:                      development of job descriptions for      – Eichsfeld-Hainich-Werratal
    EUROPARC Germany e.V.                         volunteers                                  Nature Park
Head of project:                                – Carrying out advertising measures to     – Thuringian Forest Nature Park/
    Holger Wesemüller                             recruit volunteer workers                   Vessertal Biosphere Reserve
Project coordination:                           – Training and involvement of                 (responsible: Vessertal Biosphere
    Anne Schierenberg, Stefanie Sommer            volunteers                                  Reserve administration)
    (intern 07–12/2005)                         – Evaluation of volunteer work and the
Project partners:                                 programme organisation
    Protected area administrations/           Model areas:
    responsible organisations, Gesellschaft   Bavaria:
    zur Förderung des Nationalparks             – Bavarian Forest National Park
    Harz, Academy for Volunteering            Brandenburg:
    Germany, Alfred Toepfer Academy for         – Flusslandschaft Elbe-Brandenburg
    Nature Conservation (NNA)                     Biosphere Reserve
Finances:                                       – Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere
    Heidehof Foundation (formerly                 Reserve
    Stiftung für Bildung und Behinderten-       – Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park
    förderung/SBB), BINGO!-Umwelt-            Hamburg:
    lotterie, Norddeutsche Stiftung für         – Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
    Umwelt und Entwicklung/NUE                Mecklenburg-West Pomerania:
Project goal:                                   – Schaalsee Biosphere Reserve
    Conceptional development of a pro-          – Müritz National Park
    gramme for the involvement of volun-      Lower Saxony:
    teers in German large scale protected       – Harz National Park
    areas and trials in 15 model areas          – Lower Saxony Wadden Sea
                                                  National Park                          1 Large scale protected areas = national parks,
                                                – TERRA.vita Nature Park                 nature parks, biosphere reserves

    The start – where do we begin?                   In 2003, EUROPARC Germany and the              in accordance with two principles: Identify
                                                     Naturwacht Brandenburg2 launched a             and appreciate existing voluntary contri-
    If we look at the volunteer management           pilot project with the goal of integrating     butions and optimise cooperation, as well
    in Germany’s national parks, nature parks        volunteers systematically into the task of     as creating attractive new opportunities for
    and biosphere reserves in an international       looking after large scale protected areas in   volunteers.
    comparison, then other countries are far         Brandenburg. The experience gained was
    ahead of us. The United States with their        very positive, for example with the training   The protected areas are in tune with recent
    “Volunteers-in-Parks Programme”, as well         and deployment of full-time volunteer          developments with their activities in
    as Canada and Great Britain can look back        coordinators or the development of remits      volunteer management. Public involvement
    on decades of very successful cooperation        for volunteers3. The Naturwacht Branden-       has been attracting considerable social and
    between full-time personnel and volun-           burg was in effect a pioneer for professional   political interest in particular since the “In-
    teers in the care and supervision of their       volunteer management in German large           ternational Year of Volunteers” in 2001. All
    protected areas. Germany is still a develo-      scale protected areas. What then could have    parliamentary parties in the 14th German
    ping country in this respect. But the positive   been more obvious than to extend the pro-      Bundestag called for voluntary work to be
    aspect of this is that although we have          ject to other parks in Germany? This was       further developed, for example in the report
    little experience of our own, we can benefit      how the two-year project “Establishing a       of the Enquête Commission “The future of
    from the experience of others who have           volunteer programme in German large scale      civil participation” (Deutscher Bundestag
    smoothed the way ahead for us. And this is       protected areas” was born. Fifteen national    2002). And public opinion polls show that
    precisely what has been happening over the       parks, nature parks and biosphere reserves     many people are very interested in volun-
    past three years.                                in seven federal states under the coordina-    teering to work in nature conservation and
                                                     tion of EUROPARC Germany began to              environmental protection. If people are in-
                                                     develop their cooperation with volunteers      deed to become active then the appropriate

    Fig. 2: The process of volunteer management
    (after: Academy for Volunteering Germany
                                                           1. Estimation of requirements
                                                           & programme planning
                                                                                                       Decision by management of protected
                                                           2. Development of fields of                 area, support from lower levels and by the
                                                           involvement and remits                      volunteer coordinator

                                                           3. Recruitment

                                                           4. Interviews and integration               Favourable conditions for voluntary
                                                                                                       participation, guidelines for volunteer
                                                           5. Orientation, start-up &                  management, quality criteria

                                                           6. Support, back-up,
                                                           supervision & motivation                    Integration of co-workers

                                                           7. Recognition

                                                           8. Evaluation                               Integration of the project partners

                                                           9. Programme optimisation
                                                                                                         AIMING FOR A GOAL               7

conditions must be created, and those who              Table 1:
are interested must be mobilised to take
part. The parks are meeting these require-
                                                       Benefits of the volunteer programme in
ments with the volunteer programme. The                large scale protected areas
innovative volunteer programme calls for
                                                       BENEFITS FOR THE LARGE SCALE PROTECTED AREAS AND
the appreciation of voluntary contributions            FOR THE FULL-TIME STAFF
and promotes contributions from volunteers
at a qualitatively high level.                         The integration of volunteers makes it possible for large scale protected
                                                       areas to make use of specific potentials. That means:
                                                       − a closer link to the local population and a better anchoring of the
The goal – what do we want to
                                                           protected area in the region,
achieve?                                               − new proponents and supporters when volunteers communicate their
The goal of the volunteer programme is to                  pleasure and their understanding for the park management to those
generate a variety of benefits, both for the                around them,
protected area and the full-time staff on the           − public attention and a higher profile – demonstrating that people who
                                                           actively contribute to the park increase its importance,
one hand, and for the volunteers and society
                                                       − new opportunities for environmental education – through the involve-
in general on the other hand (see tab. 1).                 ment of volunteers, greater public understanding can be generated for
                                                           the management of the protected area and thus a better contribution
Planning step by step                                      can be made towards educating for sustainable development,
                                                       − the possibility to carry out “special tasks” in addition to the usual duties.
Volunteer coordination makes use of classic
management techniques. These include
                                                       Full-time park staff benefit from
the formulation of goals, implementing
                                                       − an increase in their importance as “full-timers”, because they are key
goal-oriented measures, acquiring and                      contacts for the volunteers,
implementing resources, as well as evalu-              − the reduction in their work-load, e.g. at peak times (weekends, public
ating results and optimising the manage-                   and school holidays),
ment (see fig. 2). But while the approach               − additional “colleagues”, mostly highly motivated,
has to be planned strategically, flexibility is         − enrichment of their work through the creativity, special skills and
                                                           expertise of the volunteers.
also required. After all we are dealing here
with human beings. And they will want to
                                                       In large scale protected areas the integration of volunteers makes it possible
introduce their own ideas and have a say in            to achieve a higher level of effectiveness with the available resources than
what happens.                                          with the fill-time personnel alone.

What challenges will we face?
Where ambitious goals are being pursu-
ed, obstacles may be encountered which                 BENEFITS FOR SOCIETY AND FOR THE VOLUNTEERS

threaten the success of the project. In a
volunteer programme, as in other cases, it is          The volunteer programme offers
often found that an awareness of the special           – opportunities for the public to participate in shaping their own sur-
challenges in combination with the sensitive
                                                       – attractive offers for potential volunteers (a range of interesting activities
handling of tricky situations is often enough
                                                          to choose from, expert supervision from full-time staff, etc.),
                                                       – new opportunities for experiencing the protected areas: active, “mea-
2 Organisation of full-time rangers in Brandenburg‘s      ningful” leisure activities.
15 large scale protected areas
3 Final publication of the pilot project see
literature list (EUROPARC Deutschland 2003)

                             “I was out of a job and wanted to work as a
                             botanist again, and I live in the middle of the
                             national park.”

                                             Claudia Thorenmeier is active in
                                             the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea
                                             National Park on Borkum as a
                                             volunteer for botanic mapping

                                                                                Fig. 3: Volunteer on Borkum

    to prevent risks becoming threats. What           singly accepted internally and regarded as        part-time workers are already active, e.g.
    particular challenges do volunteer pro-           a sensible measure. In that way it is even        as field guides. An important element of
    grammes face?                                     possible to gain the support of those who         the responsible utilisation of volunteers is
                                                      were critical at the beginning.                   that their involvement should not reduce
    Integrating volunteer work                                                                          the opportunities for employment (full- or
    Experience shows that volunteer manage-           Binding agreements                                part-time) in the region. Correspondingly,
    ment structures in large scale protected          Care should be taken that voluntary activi-       suitable fields of application should be
    areas will only function well if they are         ties do not develop their own dynamic. This       determined for volunteers for a specific area,
    integrated in the park management. This           could otherwise mean that the volunteers          and if appropriate certain activities should
    presupposes that the measures have the            would increasingly be beyond the control          be excluded. There are enough fields in
    support of the main body of the full-time         of the administration of the protected            which volunteers can work without giving
    staff. Understandable reservations on the          area or the personnel supervising them.           rise to any problems!
    part of the full-time rangers (e.g. worries       In the worst case, the result could be that
    about competition) must be recognized             their activities would no longer be in line       No replacement for full-timers
    and taken seriously. Co-workers who are           with the goals of the protected area, and         Short-sighted political decision-makers
    critical should be given the opportunity          thus that the project would turn out to be        could be tempted to regard volunteers as a
    to become acquainted with the objectives          counter-productive. In order to counter this      “cheap” alternative to full-time personnel in
    of the volunteer programme and should             risk, it is necessary to have clear internal      an effort to cut costs. In order to counter
    participate in the steps towards realisation      structures (e.g. full-time supervisors for        this, it must always be emphasised that
    (see also p. 29 f.) It is usually more fruitful   the volunteers), clear information about          full-time personnel and volunteers in pro-
    to adopt a slow-and-steady approach which         the conditions for the cooperation and            tected areas have clearly different tasks and
    is transparent for all those involved, rather     binding agreements (e.g. in the form of a         abilities and are not interchangeable (see
    than to try to integrate many volunteers          written agreement between the park and the        also p. 11). Volunteers can only be recruited
    in the work of a protected area in one fell       volunteer).                                       because there are full-time personnel who
    swoop. It is not necessary to have the full                                                         can instruct and supervise them and in
    support of all co-workers right from the          Part-time employees                               particular can provide the continuous work
    start. But it is important to develop the         Conflicts are also possible where volun-           in the protected areas which is the precon-
    volunteer programme so that it is increa-         teers are involved in sectors in which            dition for the integration of the volunteers.
                                                                                                                                 SETTING UP THE TEAM         9

Setting up the team
“Because you have responsibility for achieving
something, it doesn’t mean you have to do all
the work yourself.”
Rae Lonsdale,volunteer coordinator in the
Yorkshire Dales National Park/GB

The structure of the volunteer
programme                                                                                                                                    + Cooperation
                                                                                      EUROPARC Germany                                       partners

Clear organisational structures, unambiguo-
us responsibilities, and clearly divided areas
                                                                  + Cooperation partners
of work form the basis for successful team
                                                          Protected area                                  Protected area
work. This ensures that the participants
                                                       Volunteer coordinator                           Volunteer coordinator
can work together effectively in the pursuit              Other full-timers                               Other full-timers
of their common objectives, and without                     Volunteers

“frictional losses”.
                                                                                  Protected area                                  Protected area
The structure of the volunteer programme                                       Volunteer coordinator                           Volunteer coordinator
                                                                                 Other full-timers                               Other full-timers
and the areas of work are the result of the                                                                                         Volunteers
interactions between the various actors in         Network of volunteer
                                                                                                                 + Cooperation partners
the network of the programme. The main             programme

actors involved in the organisation of the
                                                 Fig. 4: Structure of the volunteer programme and the actors
programme are the project organiser
EUROPARC Germany, and also the
protected areas, each with one full-time vo-
lunteer coordinator and other full-time em-      order to develop and implement the pro-                   The key figure –
ployees. At both levels, cooperation partners    gramme. The responsibility for a task lies at             the volunteer coordinator
such as educational institutions, voluntary      one of the two levels (see tab. 2), depending
agencies, and sponsors can be integrated in      on whether if it is nationally relevant for the           Volunteer coordinators are the key figures
the volunteer programme (see fig. 4).             programme (EUROPARC Germany) or                           for voluntary involvement in the large scale
                                                 regionally relevant (protected area).                     protected areas. This is demonstrated by the
EUROPARC Germany and the parks take                                                                        long experience of volunteer programmes
on the organisational responsibility and the                                                               in parks in other countries, as well as the
management tasks which are necessary in                                                                    experience already gained in German parks

     Table 2:
                                                                                 regarding the systematic involvement of
     Responsibilities for management tasks in                                    volunteers. The staff-member responsible
     the volunteer programme                                                     for volunteer management acts as a link
                                                                                 between the full-time staff and the volun-
                                                                                 teers. This person must have the necessary
                                                                                 personal qualities and professional qualifi-
                                                                                 cations (see p. 21 ff ). Another requirement
     Planning and coordination of the overall programme
                                                                                 is that the volunteer coordinator must be
                                                                                 given a clear remit by those in charge of the
     Training of volunteer coordinators in cooperation with educational
     institutions                                                                protected area with a suitable time allo-
                                                                                 wance for the work involved, and regular
     Specific advice for parks and the promotion of exchange of information       information must be passed on internally
     and experience between protected areas                                      and externally about this function. It is also
                                                                                 necessary to determine the specific duties
     Overall public relations (PR) measures
                                                                                 and direct responsibilities of the volunteer
                                                                                 coordinator – dependent on the availability
     Development of standard recognition measures for volunteers
                                                                                 of suitable personnel, the tasks carried out
                                                                                 by volunteers, etc. – and which tasks can be
     Documentation and evaluation of the volunteer programme
                                                                                 carried out by colleagues (see tab. 2).

     Cooperation with national organisations, companies, etc.

                                                                                 Full-time personnel and volunteers
     Collection of information relating to political developments relating to
     voluntary work, funding opportunities, competitions, events, etc. and the   – their role in the team
     acquisition of funds
                                                                                 In addition to the clear organisational
                                                                                 structure and division of responsibilities in
     PROTECTED AREAS                                                             the volunteer programme it is also impor-
                                                                                 tant to have a clear and transparent division
     Volunteer coordinator                    Volunteer coordinator and/or       of roles within the protected area between
                                              other full-timer                   full-time personnel and volunteers (see tab.
                                                                                 3). This helps new volunteers to find “their
     Planning and coordination of the         Development of job descriptions
     programme within the protected           for volunteers                     place” quickly and to feel at ease in the team,
     area                                                                        and at the same time it avoids unnecessary
                                                                                 conflicts about responsibilities and gives a
     Development of helpful internal          Local PR work and recruiting       clear political signal that volunteers do not
     framework conditions (informa-           volunteers                         replace full-time personnel.
     tion for park management and
     colleagues, clarification of insurance
     cover for volunteers, promoting the                                         The division of roles between full-timers
     flow of communication between             Instruction and qualification of
                                              volunteers in the protected area   and volunteers clearly shows that their
     volunteers and full-timers, etc.)
                                                                                 functions are not interchangeable. This is
                                                                                 underlined by other arguments (see p. 12).
     Cooperation with regional organi-        Supervision of the volunteers in
     sations, companies, etc.                 the protected area

     Exchange of information and              Development of locally adapted
     experience with other large scale        acknowledgement measures for
     protected areas                          volunteers

     Internal documentation and evalua-
     tion of the volunteer programme
                                                                                                                                SETTING UP THE TEAM                11

Table 3:

The role of volunteers in large scale protected areas4

Volunteers and part-time employees in national parks, nature parks and biosphere reserves differ in key respects from full-time personnel. They are a
valuable addition to the full-time management of large scale protected areas – but not a replacement.

                       Full-time staff                                 Temporary employee                           Volunteer

DESIGNATION            e.g. nature guards, national park              Guide, e.g. Certified Field Guide             Park volunteer; conservation volunteer
                       wardens, national park service, visitor        (BANU)                                       (volunteer appointed under state nature
                       service, rangers, park administrators                                                       conservation legislation); guest guide, etc.,
                                                                                                                   e.g. Certified Field Guide (BANU)

STATUS                 Permanent or limited employment, usu-          Part-time employment, usually freelance,     Unpaid voluntary work (costs and
                       ally under a public service contract           in some cases on behalf of an educatio-      expenses may be refunded) on the basis
                                                                      nal institution                              of a written agreement and an activity

LEGAL FRAMEWORK        International and national directives,         Commission to promote value creation         Commission to promote the value
                       laws and ordinances                            in the region and environmental educa-       creation in the region and environmental
                                                                      tion in the large scale protected area       education in the large scale protected area

SCOPE AND INTENSI-     Continuous full-/part-time work                Usually seasonal, hours vary                 Limited, project-related activity, and/or
TY OF ACTIVITY                                                                                                     short hours

DUTIES                 Responsibilities in the fields of infor-        Visitor related work (guided tours, talks,   Support and/or additional projects in
                       mation and PR work (environmental              region-related contents)                     the fields of information and PR work
                       education), visitor care, scientific studies,                                                (environmental education), visitor care,
                       monitoring and protection, mainte-                                                          scientific studies, monitoring and protec-
                       nance and repair works, supervision of                                                      tion, maintenance and repair works;
                       volunteers                                                                                  but not duties of the federal states, and
                                                                                                                   independent area control (exception:
                                                                                                                   additional official assignments, e.g. as
                                                                                                                   conservation volunteer)

QUALIFICATION          Experience in “green” vocations, usually       E.g. certificate as Field Guide (BANU,        Varied vocational/professional qualifica-
                       with nationally recognised training as         70 hrs.), further training                   tions, training for voluntary work, either
                       Nature and Landscape Conservator                                                            internal or external;
                       (GNL; 640 hrs.), further training                                                           Certified Field Guide equivalent training
                                                                                                                   (BANU, 70 hrs.), further training

RIGHTS                 Usually legal entitlements                     No legal entitlements                        No legal entitlements

DUTIES                 Vocational duties, obliged to act as           No vocational duties                         No vocational duties, binding agreement
                       instructed                                                                                  with place of deployment

CLOTHING /             Uniform (if prescribed)                        Badge; Certified Field Guide: ID with         ID card (when working with public); con-
AUTHORISATION                                                         yearly stamp                                 servation volunteer, etc.: card; Certified
                                                                                                                   Field Guide: ID with yearly stamp

4 Recommendation of EUROPARC Germany,                 tional Facilities for the Conservation of Nature and
Association of German Nature Parks (VDN), German      Environment (BANU), Academy for Volunteering
Ranger Asssociation (Bundesverband Naturwacht),       Germany
Federal Working Group of Governmental Educa-

     Fig. 5: Volunteers in Brandenburg
     mowing meadows

     The extensive and varied tasks in the           Political demands to promote volunta-          example as volunteer coordinators, thus
     large scale protected areas require con-        ry work also require the strengthening         represent a necessary prerequisite for volun-
     tinuous work by full-time staff.                 of the professional framework struc-           tary activities in large scale protected areas.
     Full-time personnel are essential, because      tures.
     volunteers will frequently only be able to      All the major political parties are calling    Volunteers do not want to help to cut
     work for a few hours, often oriented to         for voluntary work to be promoted and          costs, but are looking for meaningful
     a specific project and for limited periods       extended. These demands can only be met        activity in their spare time.
     in the year, usually they will take on very     if the appropriate framework structures are    Volunteers do not come forward because
     specific tasks, cannot be given “instructions”   available to provide information, coordi-      they want to help an organisation or insti-
     to carry out a task, do not represent an        nation, and organisational support. Such       tution to save money, but rather in order to
     authorized contact partner for authorities      structures can only be established perma-      carry out a meaningful activity, to work to
     or other institutions and organisations and     nently with full-time personnel. Protected     solve problems, and thus to find a fulfilling
     can therefore not ensure full, continual        area supervisors are a part of the necessary   activity for their free time.
     operations.                                     framework structure for voluntary activities
                                                     in large scale protected areas.                Experience in other countries shows
     The fulfilment of nature conservation                                                           the need for full-time employees
     duties at federal state level can only be       Volunteers need expert advice and              National parks in other countries, e.g. Great
     ensured with full-time personnel.               organisational supervision. Studies of         Britain and the USA, have a long tradition
     In large scale protected areas, the länder      volunteer work clearly demonstrate             of cooperation between full-time staff and
     (Federal States) are obliged to carry out       that volunteers expect good supervisi-         volunteers, and they regard the organisation
     certain duties in the field of nature conser-    on, direction and support.                     and coordination of voluntary contributions
     vation, for example those arising from EU       When involving volunteers in large scale       by full-time staff as a necessary part of their
     directives. In order to fulfil these duties,     protected areas, the size and complexity of    volunteer programmes.
     the länder must, among other things, make       the areas mean that the necessary super-
     available sufficient funds and sufficient           vision can only be provided by full-time
     numbers of full-time personnel.                 personnel. Full-time park staff, active for
                                                                                                                      SETTING UP THE TEAM           13

                                                                                              Volunteer             Motivation, interests,
                                                         Requirements of
                                                                                             programme            abilities, time resources
                                                         protected area
                                                                                                                              of volunteers

                                                Fig. 6: The requirements of protected areas and the potential of volunteers overlap in the volun-
                                                teer programme

                                                Offers for volunteers                                        Care of visitors’ facilities: e.g.
                                                                                                            maintenance of nature trail stations,
                                                When planning a volunteer programme,               benches and picnic areas; “adopting” nature
                                                two questions have to be addressed:                trails or pathways

                                                  – Where does the protected area need                   Office work: e.g. data entries and
                                                    support?                                             evaluation, press work, archive
                                                  – What can volunteers offer in terms              maintenance
                                                    of motivation, interests, abilities, time
                                                    resources, etc.?
Volunteers also incur costs
The efforts to integrate volunteers in the
                                                If the requirements and expectations
work of large scale protected areas cannot
                                                overlap, this is the best precondition for
be used as a front for ways to cut wage bills
                                                cooperation (see fig. 6).                                  Reasons for volunteering in
and other costs. In fact the integration of
                                                                                                          environmental protection and
volunteers requires appreciable personnel
                                                Suitable tasks for volunteers                             nature conservation (ranked
and financial resources, e.g. for
                                                The protected areas require support in a                  with most important first):
                                                variety of fields, so that there is a broad
  – the internal planning and preparation
                                                range of tasks which are suitable for volun-          • love of nature
    of the volunteer work,
                                                teers. These tasks can be categorised in the          • because I like to take
  – the qualification of the full-time volun-
                                                following fields:                                        responsibility
    teer coordinators,
                                                                                                      • for the fun and enjoyment of it
  – the recruitment of volunteers,
                                                        Practical protection of species and           • from a personal sense of
  – their supervision and training,
                                                        biotopes: e.g. maintaining amphibi-             obligation
  – the necessary insurance cover,
                                                an fences, mowing meadows, planting and               • because I want to do something
  – the purchase of working materials and
                                                caring for trees                                        reasonable in my free time
    equipment for the volunteers and
                                                                                                      • because I can contribute my skills
  – some system of rewards.
                                                        Monitoring areas: e.g. floristic map-          • in order to make social contacts
                                                        ping, monitoring fauna, contributing          • in order to achieve something
But establishing the volunteer management
                                                to research projects                                    politically
also makes it possible to access new resour-
                                                                                                      • in order to gain something
ces and sources of finance.
                                                        Public relations work/environ-                  personally/for my occupation
                                                        mental education: e.g. guiding
                                                excursions, advising visitors in information              (according to BMU 2004 –
                                                centres, programme planning and imple-                    Federal Environment Ministry)
                                                mentation for children’s groups

     Job descriptions for volunteers

                                                         Practical example 1: Helper for the Na-              Practical example 2: Caring for nest boxes,
                                                         tional Park Centre Wilhelmshaven, Lower              wild bees and wasps in the Lauenburgische
                                                         Saxony Wadden Sea National Park                      Seen Nature Park

     NAME OF ACTIVITY*                                   National Park Centre Wilhelmshaven                   Carer for nest boxes, wild bees and wasps
     DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITY*                            Providing advice and information for                 Regular care (examining, cleaning) of nest boxes
                                                         guests, preparing and organising events              in the woods of the nature park, including do-
                                                                                                              cumentation, possible including installation and
                                                                                                              cartographic mapping

     LOCATION*                                           National Park Centre (NLPC) Wilhelmshaven            Woods in the nature park and various section of
                                                         – Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park              the High Elbe riverside

     NO. OF VOLUNTEERS REQUIRED                          4                                                    Approx. 4

     DURATION: WORKING HOURS                             At least 5 months, all-year possible or 1-2 days /   Once a year in early winter approx. 2-3 days and
     (HOURS PER WEEK OR MONTH)*                          week, including weekends (hourly work possible       possibly new installations (several days, with
                                                         if preferred)                                        support by the forester)

     KNOWLEDGE/ SKILLS REQUIRED, INTERESTS*              Open for contacts, knowledge about the national      Interest in ornithology, handy with tools, and
                                                         park, special fauna & flora, cycle ways, tourism      safe on a ladder

     AGE LIMITS (IF ANY)*                                –                                                    None

     TRAINING OFFERS                                     Introduction by NLPC-co-worker, opportuni-           Introduction by the nature park administration
     (CONTENTS, FORM, LOCATION)*                         ties to take part in courses for mud-flat guides,     or the forester
                                                         participate in tours and information material
                                                         provided for home studies

     NECESSARY INTRODUCTION, SUPERVISION PERIOD          50 hours                                             1 day

     WHAT VOLUNTEERS REQUIRE*                            Smart appearance                                     Working clothes, protective gloves, stout foot-
     MATERIALS PROVIDED FOR VOLUNTEERS                   Identification badge, information material            Nesting boxes, ladder, nails, light tools

     POSSIBLE DETAILS OF FREE ACCOMMODATION*             –                                                    –

     COMMENTS*                                           Volunteers from Wilhelmshaven or vicinity            Familiarity with the woods is an advantage

     * Details to be included in public advertisements
                                                                                                                                SETTING UP THE TEAM              15

Practical example 3: Attendant for the                 Practical example 4: National park pho-              Practical example 5: Checking signs in the
animal enclosures in the Bavarian Forest               tographer in the Hamburg Wadden Sea                  Müritz National Park
National Park                                          National Park

Attendant for animal enclosures                        National park photographer                           Checking signs in the Müritz National Park

Visitor information, checks that paths and en-         We would welcome your support in setting up          Checking signs against the current cycle and
closures are clean and functional, minor repairs       a photo archive of the national park administra-     hiking maps
                                                       tion. We need in particular digital images from
                                                       the national park area. We look forward to your
                                                       images, which should be of the required motifs.

Area of the information centre of the Bavarian         Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park                     Throughout the national park
Forest National Park (especially the animal

1                                                      1                                                    1

Above all weekends and public holidays (but also       Decide for yourself how long you spend in the        12 weeks overall
weekdays) approx. 6 hours/day from 10 am to 4          park. We would imagine about 4-6 days per            10 hours per week
pm (with a 30 minute break)                            month.

Communicable, some knowledge of animals and            We are looking for someone who enjoys photo-         Knowledge in the field of tourism and nature
plants, do-it-yourself-skills, physically fit           graphy and has a feeling for interesting subjects.   conservation, interested in nature and the
                                                       Experience with the digital storage of images        environment, enjoys researching, able to work
                                                       would be desirable.                                  independently

18 or older                                            –                                                    None

Introduction by national park personnel, possi-        Provision of information material, joint site        Introduction to work area, tour, if interested
ble internal training (guided tours, etc.), first aid   inspections                                          participation in internal training courses

Introduction period – several days                     Introduction and instructions: 8 hours               Initially one day; a discussion every 14 days
Supervision time approx. 1 hour per week               Consultation between supervisor and volunteers:      about the current status of research – interim
                                                       2 hours/quarter                                      report, if necessary discussion of suggestions for

Stout shoes, weather-proof clothing, rucksack          Camera equipment would be desirable.                 Car, bicycle

Information material, binoculars, first aid set         Files can be downloaded onto PCs in the natio-       Maps, information materials, pen and paper
                                                       nal park administration (national park station,
                                                       Hamburg: Dep’t of Urban Development and the
                                                       Environment). Additional equipment, films and
                                                       storage media can be provided by the national
                                                       park administration, subject to agreement.

No free accommodation                                  Accommodation only available in individual           Not necessary
                                                       cases after agreement.
Long-term cooperation is favoured                      Free ferry trips arranged with Reederei Larsen       Compensation for trips with own car – up to
                                                       Eils (Cuxhaven – Neuwerk).                           EUR 300

                                                         Practical example 6: Cycle guide for
                                                         TERRA.trails in Terra.vita Nature Park

     NAME OF ACTIVITY*                                   TERRA.trail cycle tour guide

     DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITY*                            Each TERRA.trail is offered for visitors as a
                                                         guided excursion

     LOCATION*                                           The 17 TERRA.trails are spread over the
                                                         nature park

     NO. OF VOLUNTEERS REQUIRED                          Up to 3 guides per trail

     DURATION, TIME                                      At least once annually per trail; duration
     (HOURS/WEEKS PER MONTH)*                            between 3 and 8 hours

     KNOWLEDGE / SKILLS REQUIRED, INTERESTS*             Knowledge of soil and geology, map reading,
                                                         local knowledge, first aid, basics of cycle repairs   “I am a 43-year-old family father and I came
                                                                                                               across the “TERRA.trails” in an article in
     AGE LIMITS (IF ANY)*                                18 or older                                           the newspaper in the spring. Because I was
                                                                                                               always out in the countryside as a child and
     TRAINING AVAILABLE                                  Specialist knowledge about the trails and about       youth, I thought this would be a good oppor-
     (CONTENTS, FORM, LOCATION)*                         the topics of the nature park, information
                                                         material                                              tunity to combine my hobby of cycling (in
                                                                                                               particular mountain biking) with my interest
     NECESSARY INTRODUCTION TIME,                        Approx. 1 day per trail and volunteer                 in nature and the history of the region and
     SUPERVISION BY COORDINATOR                                                                                to pass this knowledge on to others with the
     WHAT VOLUNTEERS REQUIRE*                            Suitable mountain bike, cycle helmet, mobile          same interests.”
                                                         phone, appropriate clothing and equipment
                                                                                                                              Thomas Stipp, volunteer
                                                                                                                              cycle-tour guide in Terra.vita
     EQUIPMENT PROVIDED FOR VOLUNTEERS                   Information material/literature, maps, first aid                      Nature Park

     POSSIBLE DETAILS OF FREE ACCOMMODATION*             Not necessary

     COMMENTS*                                           Organisation of the event is responsibility of
                                                         volunteer; support by nature park subject to

     * Details to be included in public advertisements
                                                                                                                                         SETTING UP THE TEAM                   17

Fig. 7: Volunteer Christa Kugge leading a rambling group through the Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park

Written agreements with volunteers

A written agreement is recommended bet-
ween the protected area and the volunteer
about the planned cooperation (see practical                                                          Agreement on volunteer work
example 7). This underlines the binding                                  Between Eichsfeld-Hainich-Werratal Nature Park and Mr. XXX the following agreement is conclu-
nature for both sides, defines the rights and                             ded about a voluntary activity:
                                                                         Mr. XXX will be active as an inspector for nature park pathways for an indeterminate time on a
obligations of the volunteer and is a helpful                            voluntary basis without payment.
                                                                         Mr. XXX will carry out the activities described in the annex.
document in insurance cases (see p. 18).
                                                                         From the nature park, Mr. XXX will receive:
                                                                         • On request an information pack about the nature park and the field of activity,
                                                                         • An introductory discussion or meeting and if possible further training,
                                                                         • Support and instruction by the nature park personnel,
                                                                         • Personal liability and accident insurance cover during the work for the nature park
                                                                           1. Personal accident insurance: Insurance cover is provided within the framework of Section
                                                                              2.1.No. 10 SGB VII; for full cover of all risks, private accident insurance cover is recommen-
                                                                           2. Damage to private vehicles is not insured by the nature park.
                                                                         • Protective measures are required for the activity, instructions in their use, and equipment/mate-
                                                                         • On request a certificate about the type and extent of the voluntary work,
                                                                         • In the event of questions and difficulties, a confidential discussion.

                                                                         Mr. XXX agrees:
                                                                         • To comply with the general duty to take due care,
                                                                         • To carry out the voluntary activities in accordance with the goals of the nature park,
                                                                         • To take part in an introductory discussion and an introductory event,
                                                                         • To observe the duty not to disclose any confidential data,
                                                                         • To waive any repayments for expenses (receivable only after special agreement)
                                                                         • To wear and visibly display an ID badge of the nature park during voluntary work involving
                                                                           contact with the public,
                                                                         • To fulfil agreements reached about deployment times and duties and to give notice of any
                                                                           hindrance as early as possible,
                                                                         • To inform the nature park at the earliest possible time about the intention to terminate the
                                                                           voluntary activity.
                                                                         The agreement can be terminated at any time by either of the signatories.
                                                                         Place, Date:
                                                                         Signed for the

                         Practical example 7: Written agreement          Nature Park Administration                              Volunteer
                         between voluntary pathway inspector and the
                                                                         Annex: Description of activity
                         Eichsfeld-Hainich-Werratal Nature Park
                                                                         Eichsfeld-Hainich-Werratal Nature Park, Dorfstrasse 40, 37318 Fürstenhagen, Germany

     Insurance cover – secure provisions                  Insurance cover for volunteers in              Check list:
     for voluntary involvement                            large scale protected areas5                   – Under which insurance company has
                                                                                                           the institution responsible for the
     For voluntary involvement, two aspects of                                                             voluntary activities taken out accident
     insurance cover are particularly relevant                                                             insurance cover?
     – personal liability insurance and accident                                                         – Do the volunteers have to be reported
     insurance. As a “service”, the large scale                                                            by name to the accident insurer (or the
     protected areas should offer volunteers the                                                            number of them)?
     appropriate insurance cover during their                                                            – Are minors who are volunteers (e.g.
     involvement. Alternatively, in individual           PERSONAL ACCIDENT                                 14 – 18 years old) also covered by the
     cases the volunteer can examine whether             INSURANCE:                                        accident insurance?
     an existing private liability insurance or                                                          – How is the specified framework of
     accident insurance also covers the voluntary        Case: Personal injuries suffered by                activity of the volunteers defined
     activity.                                           the volunteer                                     exactly? (If appropriate sign a written
                                                                                                           agreement with a description of the
                                                           – According to the German Social                activity)
                                                             Code (i.e. by law) volunteers who are       – Has the responsible institution con-
                                                             active for a corporation under public         cluded an additional private (group)
                                                             law, or a statutory body, or their asso-      accident insurance for the volunteers
                                                             ciations, or who are taking part in a         (not compulsory)? If so, what are the
                                                             training event for this activity, are co-     levels of the insurance sum?
                                                             vered by the legal accident insurance       – Volunteers should be informed about
                                                             of the employer’s liability insurance         the specific provisions of the accident
                                                             association (Berufsgenossenschaft)            insurance (so that they can decide
                                                             for accidents at work, or on the way          whether to take out additional private
                                                             directly to and from work, and for            accident insurance).
                                                             vocational illnesses.
                                                           – Volunteers are only insured directly
                                                             when carrying out an activity within
                                                             the framework of the agreement
                                                             concluded with the responsible              PERSONAL LIABILITY
                                                             institution, and on the direct route to     INSURANCE
                                                             and from this place. Route diversions
                                                             taken for private reasons are excluded      Case: Damages suffered by the
                                                             from the insurance cover.                   volunteer
                                                           – Under the legal accident insurance
                                                             cover, if the capacity to work is           – If the responsible institution has
                                                             diminished by an accident or by               organisational liability insurance
                                                             a vocational illness related to the           cover, then as a rule this will only meet
                                                             voluntary activity by at least 20%            claims for damages suffered by the co-
                                                             then the affected party has a claim to         workers (and volunteers) themselves.
                                                             an injured person’s pension from the
                                                             26th week after the accident.               Case: Damages or injuries to others
                                                           – To obtain more comprehensive                caused by the volunteer
                                                             accident cover, it is possible for the
                                                             responsible institution to take out a       – If the responsible institution has orga-
                                                             private group accident insurance for          nisational liability insurance, then this
     5 Legal opinion by J. Rumpeltes, Berlin (Lawyer),       its volunteers, or for the volunteer to       covers liability claims by third parties
     05/2004; EUROPARC Germany offers no guarantee           take out private accident insurance           against the institution. Volunteers
     that the facts expressed here are correct.
                                                             cover.                                        must be expressly included.
                                                                                                             SETTING UP THE TEAM          19

– In some cases, private liability insu-        – What does the operator’s liability in-      Case: Damages caused to others by
  rance policies exclude from cover the           surance offer the institution responsib-     the volunteer as the result of a traffic
  damages caused during voluntary                 le for the voluntary activities regarding   accident
  activities.                                     material damages suffered by the
– Organisational liability insurance              volunteer personally?                       – The vehicle-owner’s car insurance co-
  policies exclude acts of gross negli-         – If the operator’s liability insurance         vers damages caused by the volunteer
  gence (failing to take very simple and          does not include volunteers, they             to the vehicles of others where the ac-
  obvious measures in consideration of            should be informed that their own             cident is not covered by comprehensive
  possible resultant damages) and acts of         liability insurance may not cover             insurance taken out by the responsible
  intent (intentionally causing damages).         damages incurred in the course of the         institution.
  In these cases the volunteer is liable          voluntary work.
  personally. However, according to                                                           Check list:
  the “Principles of possibly dangerous                                                       – Should volunteers use private cars in
  work” developed by the labour courts,                                                         the course of their voluntary work?
  the responsible institution can meet a                                                      – Has the institution responsible for the
  part of the damages.                          OFFICIAL TRIP FRAMEWORK INSU-                   voluntary work taken out comprehen-
                                                RANCE (OFFICIAL TRIP COMPREHEN-                 sive insurance cover for official trips?
Case: Damages to the institution                SIVE INSURANCE, INSURANCE AGAINST             – Are volunteers included under the
caused by the volunteer                         LOSS OF NO-CLAIMS BONUS)                        official trip comprehensive insurance,
                                                                                                and what conditions apply for the in-
– The responsible institution can take          Case: Damages suffered by the volun-             surance cover (written trip assignment,
  out cover for damages caused to it by         teer as the result of a traffic accident          etc.)?
  volunteers, e.g. insurance cover against                                                    – If volunteers are not covered by com-
  damages by fire, the piped water               – If a volunteer using their own car is         prehensive insurance for official trips,
  supplies, or storms, as well as cover           involved in an accident, the private          can they receive compensation through
  for electronic equipment. If no such            comprehensive vehicle insurance               official trip framework insurance for
  insurance cover exists, then damages            covers damages to the vehicle. In order       excess payments or loss of no-claims
  to the institution caused by volunteers         that a volunteer does not have to pay         bonuses on their own private car insu-
  are operational risks, i.e. the institution     the agreed excess or bear the loss of         rance?
  must pay for any damages. (Except in            the no-claims bonus within the fra-
  cases of intent or gross negligence, for        mework of the private comprehensive
  which the volunteer would be liable).           insurance, the institution responsible
                                                  can take out an official trip framework
Check list:                                       insurance (applies also if the volunteer
– What operator’s liability insurance             does not have fully comprehensive
  cover has been taken out by the ins-            insurance).
  titution responsible for the voluntary        – Alternative: The responsible institu-
  activities?                                     tion can take out fully comprehensive
– Are volunteers explicitly included              insurance for official trips (including
  under the insurance cover?                      for volunteers) which covers costs for
– Are minors who are volunteers (e.g.             the accident damage to the volunteer’s
  14 – 18 years old) also covered by the          vehicle.
  institution’s liability insurance?
– Are volunteers also insured during the
  training sessions for their activity?
– Does the liability insurance require a
  written agreement between the insti-
  tution and the volunteer in order to be

     Fig. 8: Volunteer coordinator advising colleagues

     Fig. 9: Volunteer coordinator and seminar mediator   Fig. 10: Group work during the course on volunteer
     in a course on volunteer management                  management
                                                                                                                TRAINING THE TEAM        21

Training the team

“Qualification (…) makes use of the needs of those involved to
express themselves, develop their personality and to be involved in
shaping things. (…) Training strategies should not only concentrate
on those who are actively involved in civil society, but also on the
full-time workers and on the organisations.”
Deutscher Bundestag 2002

If cooperation in a volunteer programme is       – basics of volunteer management
to be successful, those involved must have       – conditions for volunteer participation:        Why train full-time volunteer
appropriate skills and abilities. This applies     politics, insurance, etc.                      coordinators?
for both the full-time staff and the volun-       – organisational development: appropri-
teers.                                             ate internal structures (see fig. 11)         • Knowledge and experience in
                                                 – planning and deploying resources for           volunteer management are es-
Training of volunteer coordinators                 voluntary participation                        sential for the quality of volunteer
                                                 – identifying suitable activities for volun-     programmes.
“Volunteer management” is usually a new            teers                                        • Discussion with colleagues and
topic for personnel in protected areas in        – developing job descriptions for volun-         best-practice discussions promo-
Germany. The first step within the frame-           teers                                          te the specific implementation
work of the EUROPARC Germany project             – planning PR work                               of volunteer management in the
was therefore to train the prospective volun-    – written agreements between responsi-           individual protected areas.
teer coordinators in the large scale protected     ble institution and volunteers               • During the training sessions, the
areas in preparation for the tasks facing        – carrying out initial discussion with           volunteer coordinators can con-
them. A two-stage training programme               volunteers                                     tribute to developing strategies
was provided under the guidance of the           – accompanying and supervising volun-            for the volunteer programme and
Academy for Volunteering Germany. This             teers (see fig. 12)                             thus help to make it more suitable
consisted of an “Introduction to volunteer       – training volunteers                            for practical applications.
management” (two courses, five-days in            – motivating volunteers
total; see figs. 9 and 10) and the “Further       – acknowledging the dedication of
training in volunteer management” (three           volunteers
workshops, six days in total). The intro-        – giving volunteers the opportunity to
ductory stage provides an overview of the          participate
components of volunteer management and           – integrating special target groups, e.g.
covers the following points:                       young people
                                                 – evaluating volunteer work and the
                                                 – securing the quality of the volunteer
                                                   work and the organisation

                                                                          Park                                                                             PR
                                                                       management                                                                        workers
           Integration of volunteers:












                                                                           30a +







                     Departement 1                                   Departement 2                                                         N
                                                                                                                                           Departement 3
                                               REMIT SPECIFICATION

                                                                                                       REMIT SPECIFICATION

                                                                                                                                                                   REMIT SPECIFICATION
                    Personnel                                        Planning                                                             Wood marketing
                    Budget                                           Visitor guidance                                                     Hunting
                    Properties                                       Monitoring                                                           National park
                    Administration                                   Species protection                                                   service
                                                                     Youth hostel                                                         11 forest districts


     Fig. 11: An overview of the organisational structure (produced by a participant in the introductory
     course to volunteer management)

     After the introductory stage, the volunteer                                          – extending the range of activities of-                                                          – transfer experience in the “Volun-
     coordinators began to set up their own                                                 fered to volunteers                                                                              teers-in-Parks Programme”/USA to
     volunteer management structures. The                                                 – avoiding conflicts between full-timers                                                            German parks; presentation by former
     subsequent workshops which were offered                                                 and volunteers and coping with these                                                             participant in the programme
     as further training had the goal of encoura-                                           if they arise                                                                                  – transfer experience in the volunteer
     ging the exchange of experience between the                                          – planning public relations work for                                                               programme of the Friends of Nature
     coordinators. They offered the opportunity                                              specific target groups                                                                            Society/Czech Republic to German
     to consider practical questions which arose                                          – ways of acknowledging the work of                                                                parks; presentation by the volunteer
     in the course of the volunteer management,                                             volunteers                                                                                       coordinator of the society
     and to discuss problems with colleagues                                              – improving internal conditions for vo-
     (see fig. 8) as well as to present best-practice                                        lunteer workers (e.g. accommodation,                                                         The evaluation of the introductory training
     examples – including from other countries.                                             repayment of expenses)                                                                       course and the workshops clearly showed
     This helped the participants to reflect on                                            – discuss best-practice examples from                                                          that the volunteer coordinators were en-
     their own work with volunteers and to                                                  model areas and compare experience                                                           couraged and motivated by directly sharing
     introduce improvements.                                                              – define quality standards for volunteer                                                        experience and personal contacts with one
     The workshops included the following                                                   management in protected areas                                                                another. A further effect was that the joint
     points:                                                                              – using ways to promote voluntary work                                                         training of the full-time staff helps the large
                                                                                            (politics, forums, networks, events)                                                         scale protected areas to develop a shared
                                                                                          – transfer experience in the volunteer                                                         understanding of volunteer work – which is
                                                                                            programme of the Yorkshire Dales                                                             very important for the implementation of a
                                                                                            National Park/GB to German parks;                                                            national volunteer programme.
                                                                                            presentation by the volunteer coordi-
                                                                                            nator there
                                                                                                                              TRAINING THE TEAM      23

                                                 Fig. 12: The “perfect” volunteer coordinator (generated in an introductory
                                                 training course on volunteer management)

Training of volunteers –                         When planning training courses it should               – specific, individual introduction on-
fit for commitment                                be borne in mind that some volunteers will               site by full-timers and/or volunteers
                                                 already be qualified to a greater or lesser               with appropriate working materials
Further training opportunities for volun-        extent. It is therefore necessary to determine         – learning by doing in the course of ac-
teers can improve the quality of their work      suitable forms of instruction and to be able             tivities with supervision by full-timers
and help to avoid conflicts that can arise        to adapt the training to the skills and abili-           and/or experienced volunteers
due to a lack of suitability or different         ties of an individual volunteer, rather than           – participation in relevant internal
understanding of the role. This is in the        obliging them to attend a “one-size-fits-all”             further training events for full-time
direct interest of the protected areas. At       course.                                                  personnel
the same time, many volunteers are keen to                                                              – participation in relevant further
develop skills and expand their knowledge        The following forms of training have proved              training courses by external providers
and experience. This means that training         valuable in the volunteer programme:                     (possibly together with full-time
opportunities can also represent a way of                                                                 personnel) – for example from nature
acknowledging voluntary contributions.             – provision of information material                    conservation academies, nature conser-
Introduction programmes can help volun-              about the protected area and specific                 vation stations, first aid courses, etc.
teers in the early stages and also provide an        literature about the activity
opportunity to check their suitability for the     – theoretical introduction to specialist
task at hand and their commitment.                   topics for groups of volunteers from
                                                     various areas by full-timers and/or by
                                                     colleagues on specialist topics

     Fig. 13: Regional training for volunteers by Naturwacht Brandenburg

                                                        The contents of the available training          purpose – training the participants – it is
          Why train volunteers?                         courses will vary widely in accordance with     also possible to promote understanding and
                                                        the area of activity of the volunteer and can   cooperation between volunteers and full-
        • Training courses make it easier for           range from the identification of different        time personnel.
          newcomers to start their volunta-             species and handicrafts through environ-
          ry work.                                      mental training methods and legal questions     A new form of volunteer training has been
        • Appropriately qualified volun-                to natural and landscape history.               tested in Brandenburg. Regional training
          teers can make more valuable                                                                  events for volunteers of the Naturwacht
          contributions and work more                   In volunteer management the large scale         Brandenburg, which is active in the 15 large
          effectively for the protected area.           protected areas make use of principles          scale protection areas in the federal state,
        • Information about roles and allo-             such as “learning by doing”. This is possib-    were organised by the Naturwacht Bran-
          cations of tasks can help to avoid            le because full-time staff working in the        denburg, the Brandenburg Environmental
          conflicts.                                    protected area can “take volunteers by the      Ministry and EUROPARC Germany (see
        • Volunteers often want to incre-               hand” and introduce them to field work           fig. 13). The focus of the events was on legal
          ase their knowledge and gain                  techniques, e.g. showing how cranes are         questions concerning the dos and don’ts in
          experience, and they find training            counted, introducing the geological, bota-      protected areas and their importance for
          opportunities interesting and a               nical or historical specialties of the region   the work of the volunteers. The reports of
          sign of recognition (motivational             and teaching how this knowledge can be          the participants show that the joint training
          and promoting identification).                presented in an interesting way to others.      of volunteers from various areas provides
                                                                                                        an effective combination which allows
                                                        Joint training of full-timers and volunteers    volunteers to learn more about their area
                                                        is a particularly interesting form of for-      of activity and at the same time to establish
                                                        mal qualification. In addition to the main       personal contacts with others with the same
                                                                                                                          TRAINING THE TEAM   25

Fig. 14: Volunteers of Naturwacht Brandenburg erecting an amphibian fence

interests and to exchange views. In this way,                               “I enjoyed learning about this region in the
volunteers of all ages and from a wide range                                course of my volunteer work and passing it on
of areas are brought together. Another                                      to others, for example holiday-makers. You
advantage of this is that it gives the “old                                 learn more and more if you tell other people
hands” the opportunity to pass on the fruits                                about the things you have read or heard. And
of their experience to the new recruits to                                  it is also fun to have to respond to the que-
volunteer nature conservation.                                              stions that people ask you, because you have to
                                                                            have to think more intensely about a topic.”

                                                                                       Astrid Weissbach, student volunteer
                                                                                       in an information hut on Norderney
                                                                                       in the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea
                                                                                       National Park

     Strengthening the team spirit
     “No one can whistle a symphony.
     It takes an orchestra to play it.”
     Halford E. Luccock, Author (USA)

     The volunteer programme of the large scale     Participation and identification                 their interests can be taken into considera-
     protected areas thrives on the cooperative                                                     tion in this way, the better they will feel and
     and constructive cooperation between           The participation of volunteers – their         the more likely it is that the cooperation will
     full-time personnel and voluntary activists.   involvement in the voluntary programme          be long-lasting.
     It is therefore important that the protected   – means that they do more than just
     areas adopt measures in order to strengthen    helping out. Volunteers should be given         Specific ways of promoting the participation
     the team spirit of all those involved. These   more opportunities to contribute and to         of volunteers include:
     measures could include offering volunteers      help in appropriate areas, their views should
     opportunities to become more involved,         be heard and they should represent their          – involvement in official communication
     extending recognition to both them and to      interests and be able to assume responsi-           processes (e.g. taking part in consul-
     full-timers, supporting the volunteers, and    bilities. As a part of professional volunteer       tations, inclusion on the mailing list
     dealing professionally with any conflicts       management, every protected area faces the          for internal information, extranet or
     that arise between full-time personnel and     task of reviewing internal structures, action       newsletter)
     volunteers.                                    procedures and decision-making processes          – participation in working groups of
                                                    in order to identify where volunteers can be        full-timers
                                                    integrated. This is also a form of acknow-        – involvement in informal discussions
                                                    ledging voluntary involvement, because it           about matters affecting them
                                                    shows that the protected area authority           – joint (further-) development of their
                                                    takes the volunteers seriously and appre-           activity description, (tasks, responsibi-
                                                    ciates their contribution. In addition, the         lities, etc.), personal responsibility for
                                                    participation of the volunteers increases           implementation
                                                    their ties to the protected area in questi-       – participation in developing new fields
                                                    on. The more ways that volunteers can be            of activity for volunteers and then
                                                    involved in organisational structures, the          their introduction and supervision
                                                    more they will identify with their place of       – involvement in the evaluation of the
                                                    activity. The more opportunities they have          volunteer programme
                                                    to influence their activities and the more
                                                                                               STRENGTHENING THE TEAM SPIRIT                 27

                                                                                                                Practical example 8:
Recognition – the reward for                                                                                    Presentation of active
volunteering                                                                                                    volunteers in the regional
                                                                                                                press, Lower Saxony
                                                                                                                Wadden Sea National
Voluntary contributions are by definition                                                                        Park (Wilhelmshavener
provided without monetary reward in the                                                                         Zeitung, 2.12.2005)
classic sense. Against this background, an
important element of professional volunteer
management is ensuring that volunteers
receive other forms of recognition and
demonstrations of gratitude.

This requires that full-time personnel of the
protected area should adopt a positive and
appreciative attitude towards the volunteers,
and in particular those in charge should act
as a model for others to follow. In practical
terms this means firstly that structures
must be created so that the recognition
of volunteers has a fixed, formal place in
the management of the protected area and
becomes a standard procedure. A “culture
of recognition” in the large scale protected
areas means that volunteers are also made
to feel that they are appreciated personally.
This is the case in particular with measures
which take into account the individual
preferences, interests and activities of the
volunteers and their personal motivation for
being active as a volunteer (see p. 13).

It is frequently possible to combine these
two aspects, namely establishing a standard
procedure and providing individual forms of
recognising voluntary contribution. Suitable
forms of acknowledging voluntary work are

  – friendly contacts                               unusual monitoring excursions, joint      – mentioning volunteers by name when
  – informal acknowledgment and praise              rambles                                     the results of work are published
    by full-timers as the situation arises      –   compensation for expenses                 – public relation and press work, e.g.
  – taking time for a conversation              –   regular information about current           articles about the involvement of
  – exchanging experience with other                developments in the protected area          volunteers in regional newspapers (see
    volunteers and full-timers                      (see also “participation”)                  practical example 8), in annual reports,
  – transferring responsibility                 –   opportunities to express personal           presentation of volunteers on websites
  – food for volunteers on assignments              opinions and introduce ideas (see also      (see practical example 9) and in the
  – joint visits to see the results of the          “participation”)                            park newsletter
    work, e.g. flowering orchid meadows          –   possibilities to present the results of   – thank-you letters e.g. on birthdays or
    the year after mowing activities                the voluntary work, e.g. at internal        at Christmas / New Year
  – get-togethers, joint actions, e.g. a            meetings, on information displays in      – small presents, e.g. at the end of the
    picnic, a campfire, participation in             the protected area                          season or as a farewell gift (see prac-

                                                                                                         teers also deserve suitable recognition.
                                                                                                         Very often, measures organised to express
                                                                                                         recognition for volunteers also offer a good
                                                                                                         opportunity to praise full-timers for their
                                                                                                         contribution. Among other things, this pro-
                                                                                                         motes the team feeling between full-timers
                                                                                                         and volunteers and strengthens awareness
                                                                                                         of the fact that they are successful when
                                                                                                         they work together as a team.

                                                                                                         Dealing with conflicts

                                                                                                         In organisations in which full-time person-
                                                                                                         nel work together with volunteers, problems
     Practical example 9: Presentation of volunteers on the volunteer programme                          and conflicts can arise in the course of the
     website                                                                 activities. The reasons can include the fact
                                                                                                         that full-timers and volunteers have diffe-
                                                                                                         rent motivations (motivation of volunteers,
                                                                                                         see p. 13) and thus different ways of wor-
                                                                                                         king, or there may be different ideas about
         tical examples 10 and 11)                            in the protected area, such as visitor     the rights and obligation of the personnel.
       – diploma, certificate or letter of reco-               centres, zoos, etc.                        Conflicts also arise if full-time employees
         gnition showing the scope and nature               – possibilities to present personal hob-     fear that volunteers might “steal” the attrac-
         of the voluntary activity                            bies with a link to nature conservation,   tive tasks away from them, that they might
       – special event, e.g. at the end of the sea-           e.g. slide shows, photograph exhibi-       replace them or they could be impeded in
         son, with acknowledgement expressed                  tions in the rooms of the park             their work. In the volunteer programme, it
         by a regional dignitary (politician) (see          – use of the equipment and facilities of     is the responsibility of the head of the pro-
         practical example 12)                                the protected area                         tected area, and possibly also of the heads of
       – invitation to celebrations organised                                                            section, as well as of the volunteer coordi-
         by the protected areas, possible with           Full-time personnel who have contributed        nator, to encourage sceptical and critical
         vouchers for food and drink, or similar         to the success of a volunteer programme         full-time personnel to adopt a constructive
       – free or reduced entrance to institutions        or have supervised and supported volun-         attitude to cooperation with the volunteers.

     Practical examples 10 and 11: Rucksack and pocket knife – reward for
     participation in the volunteers in parks programme of the protected areas
                                                                                                                      STRENGTHENING THE TEAM SPIRIT                       29

Practical example 12: CDU-Bundestag deputy Georg Schirmbeck (front row, centre, with Anne Schierenberg, EUROPARC Germany, and Hartmut
Escher, Director of the nature park) presents volunteers in the TERRA.vita Nature Park with rucksacks as an acknowledgement of their dedication

It makes sense to present the objectives and
the measures of the volunteer programme
as clearly as possible through internal infor-
mation channels and to integrate full-time
personnel as far as possible into the project
planning and implementation (see p. 31).
                                                                                                                        Provide information
                                                                  Sound out doubts in individual
As part of the training courses for the                           discussion                                                      Give examples
                                                                                                   Show understanding
volunteer coordinators, participants had
                                                                                                                      Show first practical steps
the opportunity to discuss specific conflicts                   Perhaps EUROPARC can help?

relating to the volunteer programme in their                                                                                  Invite volunteers from existing projects
                                                        Where (apart from rangers)
                                                        does volunteer involvement
own park and to develop solution strategies             make sense?
                                                                                                                                                   Make recommendations
                                                                                                                                                   for work
(see fig. 15).                                                                                      General insecurity
                                                      Encourage verbalisation                                                                 Communicate that it will
                                                                                                    of the unknown
                                                                                                                                              augment not replace
Some of the most common objections put
                                                    Clarify responsibilities                                                       Highlight the specific
forward by full-time personnel to working                                                                                          expertise of rangers
together with volunteers are presented on                         Pick up on positive aspects of volunteer work             Explain the meaning of “volunteer”
the following pages with appropriate ways
                                                         Highlight advantages (peak periods,                      Present people interested in
of dealing with these arguments.                         holidays, etc.)                                          working as a volunteer

                                                  Fig. 15: Responding to full-timers with reservations about the volunteer programme
                                                  (produced by participants in the introductory course for volunteer coordinators)

     Objections by full-timers to                      one another, rather than having             • Give volunteers regular feedback:
     working together with volunteers                  to bother a full-timer with every             this can not only motivate them to
                                                       question. This can be in the form of          further involvement (positive feed-
                                                       a mentoring system (experienced +             back), but also gives volunteers the
                                                       new volunteers)                               opportunity to make the required
                                                     • Consider releasing certain volun-             changes (negative feedback)
                                                       teers; frequently it is only individual   – Develop clear guidelines and proce-
                                                       volunteers who require time-in-             dures to be adopted in the event of a
                                                       tensive supervision. If a volunteer         “dismissal”:
     ARGUMENT                                          persistently takes up excessive             • Decide on “dismissals” if possible in
     Volunteers will take up too much of               amounts of time, and this problem             consensus with the responsible bo-
     our time; they are an additional burden           does not arise with other volunteers:         dies (e.g. a volunteer working group)
     rather than support                               release volunteers, assign them               which includes representatives of
                                                       to different activities. Have them             the volunteers
     HOW TO RESPOND                                    supervised by different full-timers          • Have discussions with the volun-
     – Firstly, accept that volunteers can             if the difficulties lies in the existing        teer; where possible suggest other
       indeed take up time of the full-time            supervisor-volunteer combination              activities (if the volunteer rejects
       personnel, particular in the initial            and would probably not occur in the           these then the separation is HIS /
       stages                                          new constellation                             HER decision)
     – Draw attention to experience. Experts                                                       • Consider passing them on to ano-
       say that once the volunteer has been       ARGUMENT                                           ther, more appropriate organisation
       given an introduction, full-timers only    You cannot tell volunteers what they             • Provide volunteers with the oppor-
       have to invest 1 hour for the volunteer    should do, and can never get rid of                tunity to give feedback
       to be able to work for at least 10-15      them again even if they cannot do the
       hours                                      work or do not want to                         ARGUMENT
     – Give examples of “specialist volunteers”                                                  Volunteers are a risk when it comes to
       whose activities could never be carried    HOW TO RESPOND                                 the confidential handling of internal
       out by full-time personnel, however        – Ensure sceptics that volunteers can be       information
       long they took about it                      “dismissed”
     – Improve the relationship between           – Implement preventive measures that           HOW TO RESPOND
       inputs and benefits:                          reduce the numbers of dismissals that        – Make it clear that handling confi-
       • Recruit volunteers for activities          may become necessary:                          dential information is a normal thing
         which require relatively little su-        • Recruit or contact appropriate               in many occupations, and that most
         pervision by full-timers rather than         potential volunteers, select them ca-        people will be familiar with this
         requiring considerable additional            refully and assign them to activities      – In addition make sure that volunteers
         work                                         that suit them, rather than working          are trained in handling confidential
       • Give volunteers tasks for which they         on the principle “the more the bet-          data in the course of the introductory
         have the ability and the motivation,         ter”                                         period and their supervision
         so that they can work independently        • Explain the regulations about the          – Check whether so-called confidential
         for most of the time                         “dismissal” of volunteers in the intro-      data could in fact be made publicly
       • Give volunteers a thorough intro-            ductory information, training course         available
         duction to their task – the time             and during the supervision                 – Only allow volunteers access to confi-
         invested in the introduction avoids        • Make sure that the information               dential information if this is absolutely
         wasting time later in dealing with           sessions for volunteers and the              necessary for their activity
         unnecessary misunderstandings                introductory phases are realistic so       – Demonstrate to sceptics that volun-
       • Train several volunteers together (if        that volunteers can themselves reco-         teers may also be collecting confiden-
         organisationally possible)                   gnise at an early stage if an activity       tial information in the course of their
       • Establish volunteer networks and             is not suitable for them (rather than        activity, and it will be desirable that
         volunteer support structures. Volun-         having to be dismissed later on)             they pass this on in trust to the full-
         teers can often support and inform         • Agree on a trial period                      timers
                                                                                                STRENGTHENING THE TEAM SPIRIT                 31

ARGUMENT                                        ARGUMENT                                   Internal information work
Volunteers will take jobs away from the         Volunteers only want to do the at-
full-time employees and/or they will            tractive activities, and they leave the    A key factor for the successful cooperation
be misused as an argument for cutting           boring things for the full-timers to do    with volunteers in large scale protected are-
budgets for full-time employment                                                           as is that as far as possible all those involved
                                                HOW TO RESPOND                             within the institution must have a positive
HOW TO RESPOND                                  – Call on sceptics to formulate the job    attitude towards the volunteer programme
– Questions to decision-makers:                   descriptions for volunteers and in       (see also p. 8). Only convinced full-timers
  • Is it legal to transfer to volunteers         this way make clear their power to       will make efforts to recruit volunteers, to
     the duties, responsibilities, etc. asso-     shape how things develop                 provide them with the necessary support
     ciated with an activity?                     • Let them “reserve” activities for      and also contribute towards the qualitative
  • Would the appropriate support and                themselves                            improvement of the project. The greatest
     supervision of volunteers be possible        • What attractive activities can be      possible commitment to the volunteer
     without a sufficient number of full-              carried out in team work with full-   programme by the personnel working in
     time personnel?                                 timers and volunteers?                the protected area is dependent above all on
  • The motivation of volunteers and            – Point out to sceptics that they are      two factors:
     the effectiveness of their activities         getting paid for the work they do
     depends on good supervision and            – Draw attention to the fact that vo-      1.    The personnel must be sufficiently well
     support. Full-time personnel cannot          lunteers are often willing to take on          informed about the objectives of the
     supervise any number of volunteers;          “boring” tasks (manning infrequently           programme and the current status of
     experience shows that the number             visited information stalls, keying in          the implementation. Then they will
     of volunteers in an organisation rises       data, preparing mail-shots, etc.), if          not experience the implementation
     or falls proportionally to the number        the task is for a limited period and           as a secretive affair and will be able
     of full-timers                               has other attractions, e.g. working            to provide anybody who is interested
– Call on the supporters of cuts in               together in a nice team, official reco-          with adequate information.
  budgets for full-time personnel to              gnition of the work, etc.
  say clearly that they are prepared to                                                    2.    The personnel are integrated in the
  “sacrifice” the quality and intensity of          (after: SCHEIER 1996)                         planning for the volunteer programme,
  the work; make it plain that the expec-                                                        can make their own proposals and
  tations placed on volunteers are too                                                           introduce ideas, as well as participate
  high if they are supposed to replace                                                           in the implementation and evaluation
  full-time personnel                                                                            of the project.
– Show sceptics that satisfied volunteers
  can generate interest and support and                                                    In order to inform full-timers about the
  can speak out on behalf of the goals                                                     volunteer programme and to enable them
  of the protected area and the full-time                                                  to participate in the planning, implementa-
  personnel who are supervising them.                                                      tion and evaluation, it might be suitable to
  (Volunteers become involved because                                                      organise meetings, personal discussions of
  they support the goals of an organi-                                                     the volunteer coordinator with colleagues,
  sation and not because they want to                                                      regular reports on the state of the project in
  weaken the organisation and its full-                                                    personnel newsletters or on the intranet, or
  time staff )                                                                              also the participation in events with volun-
                                                                                           teers. A key element of successful internal
                                                                                           information work is also that the park
                                                                                           management should regularly highlight
                                                                                           the importance of the project and provide
                                                                                           arguments to support the personnel who
                                                                                           are working on the implementation.
32    P L A N N I N G P U B L I C I T Y A N D W I N N I N G P R O J E C T PA R T N E R S

     Planning publicity and
     winning project partners
     “If you want to put a dollar into your company, then
     you have to keep a second dollar ready in order to
     announce it.”
     Henry Ford

     PR work and recruiting                                     “Freiwillige in Parks” (volunteers in parks)   Strategies for PR work
     volunteers                                                 fulfils these requirements. The idea behind     Public relations work and advertising to
                                                                this is that the word “Freiwillige” (volun-    recruit volunteers requires strategic plan-
     Finding a good name                                        teers) is the modern wording for voluntary     ning and a methodical approach, in order to
     The basis for effective public relations work               active people and has been accepted by a       make the best possible use of the available
     is provided by names and concepts that                     majority of those involved in voluntary        resources and potential and to reach the
     can be easily remembered and recognised.                   work (cf. Rosenbladt 2001). “Parks” links      desired target groups. The following steps
     It is important to have striking words and                 to the US-american “Volunteers-in-Parks        lead to effective PR work in a volunteer
     slogans. A combination of words such as                    Programme” and refers to the categories of     programme:
                                                                national parks and nature parks.
                                                                                                                 1. Create the right internal conditions
                                                                                                                 – create good conditions for the volunta-
                                                                                                                    ry work
                                                                                                                 – develop descriptions for the activities
                                                                                                                    of volunteers (see pp. 14–16)

                                                                                                                 2. Plan and implement a strategic ap-
                                                                                                                 – define target groups: deduce who
                                                                                                                    would be appropriate for an activity
                                                                                                                    from the description
                                                                                                                 – collect ideas about how to find in-
                                                                                                                    terested people, or how to reach the
                                                                                                                    target group
                                                                                                                 – develop a media strategy and suitable
                                                                                                                    measures (see following sections)
                                                                                                                 – make use of media presentations
                                                                                                                 – evaluate the effects and the success
                                                                                                                    of the media activities and adjust the
                                                                                                                    media strategy appropriately

     Practical example 13: Mindmap planning forms the
     basis for applying media measures in PR work
                                                                               P L A N N I N G P U B L I C I T Y A N D W I N N I N G P R O J E C T PA R T N E R S   33

“I discovered my love of cranes two years ago.
Here I have the opportunity to do some bird-
watching and to learn more about these fas-
cinating animals. I often spend my free time
here and I am glad to contribute to research
and the protection of these wonderful birds.”

               Moana Nischan, volunteer in
               the Schorfheide-Chorin Bios-
               phere Reserve, is active in crane

                                                   Fig. 16: A volunteer observes cranes in the Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve

Developing a media strategy
A suitable way to develop a media strate-                What is press and PR work?
gy for the volunteer programme is to use                 Public relations work involves the
a “mindmap” (see practical example 13).                  intentional, planned, systematic,
This involves mapping out how the various                targeted and long-term activities
media can be used to attract and recruit                 of an organisation to shape their
volunteers and to advertise various activity             communicative relationships
locations.                                               internally and externally (Kegel
Developing suitable media measures
On the basis of the media strategy it is                What are the goals of PR work in
possible to derive individual measures for              a volunteer programme?
the various media (see practical examples               Primarily it should
14–20), each of which contributes in parti-           • show potential volunteers what
cular ways towards achieving the goals that             activities they could carry out
have been defined the PR goals.                          and persuade them to get into
Implementing media measures                           • activate “friends” to spread a
Media measures offer various advantages for              positive image of “volunteers in
PR work and should be used in a selective               parks” and about the protected
fashion depending on the project phase, the             areas in general and
specific requirement, target groups, etc. It is        • address potential project part-
often effective to combine various measures.             ners who are willing to support
                                                        the volunteer programme in spi-
                                                        rit, as well as providing material
                                                        or financial backing.
34    P L A N N I N G P U B L I C I T Y A N D W I N N I N G P R O J E C T PA R T N E R S

     Practical example 14: An advertising leaflet con-          Practical example 15: A supplement shows spe-
     tains basic information for potential volunteers           cific activities which might come into question

     Practical example 16: The website www.freiwillige- offers a lot of information for potential
                                                                              P L A N N I N G P U B L I C I T Y A N D W I N N I N G P R O J E C T PA R T N E R S   35

Practical example 17: The poster about the
project can for example be displayed in visitor
centres in the protected areas
                                                                           Practical example 18: Press articles in TERRA.vita Nature
                                                                           Park (Teuto-Express, 24.9.2005)

Practical example 19: Project presentation        Practical example 20: Newspaper article on the annual evaluati-
as part of an information evening in the          on with volunteers in the Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve
Eichsfeld-Hainich-Werratal Nature Park            (Märkische Oderzeitung, 28.2.2005)
36    P L A N N I N G P U B L I C I T Y A N D W I N N I N G P R O J E C T PA R T N E R S

     Cooperating with opinion leaders

     In recent years, a number of promotional
     institutions and service centres have been
     established in Germany which are linked
     to voluntary work in various ways. Their
     objectives include, for example, suppor-
     ting organizations working actively with
     volunteers by providing backing for their
     press and public relations activities. Within
     the framework of the volunteer programme,
     a number of forms of cooperation with opi-
     nion leaders have been found to be effective.
     In order to attract volunteers, protected
     areas can benefit from the support of the
     regional and local volunteer agencies, can                                            Practical example 21: Public relations activities
     participate in well-publicised events such as                                         within the framework of the Berlin Volunteer Day
                                                                                           2005 for voluntary work in the Nuthe-Nieplitz Na-
     the “Berlin Volunteers Day” (organised by                                             ture Park (
     Treffpunkt Hilfsbereitschaft – the Berlin
     Volunteer Agency; see practical example 21)
     and use volunteer portals on websites of the
     German länder (see practical example 22).

                                                                                           Practical example 22: The volunteer programme
                                                                                           presents itself on the internet on the Voluntary Work
                                                                                           Portal Lower Saxony
                                                                           P L A N N I N G P U B L I C I T Y A N D W I N N I N G P R O J E C T PA R T N E R S   37

                                                  Table 4:
                                                  Possibilities for cooperating with project partners
                                                  in the volunteer programme
Cooperating with project
partners – using synergies
                                                  SUB-SECTION OF THE         POSSIBLE PROJECT           PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE IN THE PROJECT
                                                  VOLUNTEER PRO-             PARTNER
The involvement of partners in the volun-         GRAMME

teer programme opens up opportunities to
                                                  Strategic project          Associations, clubs        Definition of the role of volunteers in the
access additional resources – material and        development                and institutions           large scale protected areas together with the
immaterial – and to benefit from syner-                                       who operate in the         Association of German Nature Parks (VDN),
gy effects. Cooperation with appropriate                                      large scale protected      German Ranger Association (Bundesverband
                                                                             area and in the            Naturwacht), Federal Working Group of
project partners is possible for the various                                 voluntary sector           Governmental Educational Facilities for the
sub-sections of the programme (see tab. 4).                                                             Conservation of Nature and Environment
                                                                                                        (BANU), Academy for Volunteering Germa-
Successful cooperation projects with
                                                                                                        Development of key points for the promotion
schools (see practical examples 25 and 26)                                                              of voluntary involvement in nature conservati-
show that there is a wide-range of possibili-                                                           on and environmental protection with German
ties for school students to be introduced to                                                            League for Nature and Environment (DNR)
                                                                                                        and its members
responsible activities in large scale protected
areas.                                            Training of volunteer      Training and educa-        Training by the Academy for Volunteering
                                                  coordinators               tion institutions          Germany and Alfred Toepfer Academy for
                                                                                                        Nature Conservation (NNA)

                                                  Training of volunteers     Educational institu-       Training by Landeslehrstätte für Naturschutz
                                                                             tions, cooperation         und Landschaftspflege Lebus (Brandenburg),
                                                                             between institu-           Environmental Ministry Brandenburg/Fore-
                                                                             tions                      stry and Nature Conservation Dep’t, District
                                                                                                        Osnabrück/Lower Nature Conservancy
                                                                                                        Council and Archaeology, District Office
                                                                                                        Schmalkalden-Meiningen/Specialist Services
                                                                                                        Veterinary and Foodstuff Monitoring and
                                                                                                        Water Authorities

                                                  Deployment and super-      Nature conser-             Cooperation with friends association of
                                                  vision of volunteers       vation societies/          National Park Centre Wilhelmshaven (Lower
                                                                             -associations with         Saxony Wadden Sea NLP), Friends of the
                                                                             projects or insti-         Earth (BUND) Thuringia and Friedrich-Lud-
                                                                             tutions in parks,          wig-Jahn Senior School Großengottern (link
                                                                             schools                    of volunteer programme with project “Save the
                                                                                                        Wild Cat” in Hainich NLP), School at
                                                                                                        Friedensring in Wittenburg (Schaalsee BR)

                                                  Recruiting volunteers,     Nature conservati-         Joint public information event with BirdLife
                                                  general PR work            on societies/asso-         International (NABU) and Schutzstation
                                                                             ciations, volunteer        Wattenmeer (Schleswig-Holstein Wadden
                                                                             agencies, sponsors         Sea NLP), advertising volunteer positions of
                                                                                                        Naturwacht Brandenburg by Treffpunkt Hilfs-
                                                                                                        bereitschaft – the Berlin Volunteer Agency and
                                                                                                        Volunteer Agency Wittenberge, free provision
                                                                                                        of graphics material by Zeiss Optik

                                                  Financial and other        Park’s friends             Financing of project participation by parks’
                                                  support                    associations for           friends associations (Schaalsee BR), free
                                                                             large scale protected      transport of volunteers by Cassen Eils ferries
                                                                             areas, sponsors            (Hamburg Wadden Sea NLP)

                                                  Exchange of experience     Protected areas and        Exchange of experience with the members of
                                                  (national and interna-     organisations with         the German League for Nature and Environ-
                                                  tional)                    experience in volun-       ment (DNR), integration of volunteer coor-
                                                                             teer management            dinator of Yorkshire Dales NLP/GB and the
                                                                                                        volunteer coordinator of Friends of the Earth/
                                                                                                        CZ in the training of volunteer coordinators
38    P L A N N I N G P U B L I C I T Y A N D W I N N I N G P R O J E C T PA R T N E R S

     Practical example 23: Cooperation with a school
     as project partner in the Schaalsee Biosphere
     top: Certificate for school partnership
     bottom: Julian Klimaschka plants trees on the
     water’s edge
                                                                              P L A N N I N G P U B L I C I T Y A N D W I N N I N G P R O J E C T PA R T N E R S   39

                                              “It’s important to get children interested in              “I didn’t like the dam because the fish couldn’t
                                              nature and to motivate them to do something                get past it. It was fun to see how that all
                                              about it. The students were always interested              changed. The stones and plants made the
                                              and were willing helpers with the planting                 water cleaner. I enjoyed planting the trees
                                              despite the bad weather. Some visited the site             and bushes.”
                                              after class with their parents to have their
                                                                                                                            Richard Puis, member of class
                                              photographs taken, and parents and grand-                                     4b / “Schule am Friedensring”,
                                              parents helped with the planting. This will                                   Wittenburg

                                              certainly give the children a lasting memory of
                                              the end of their primary schooling.”

                                                               Ilona Rassmann, Teacher of
                                                               class 4b / “Schule am Friedens-
                                                               ring”, Wittenburg; supervisor
                                                               of the project in the Schaalsee
                                                               Biosphere Reserve

Practical example 24: Pupils of the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn Grammar School
Grossengottern start work on the cooperation project “Save the Wild Cat” of
Friends of the Earth (BUND) and the Hainich National Park (Thüringer
Allgemeine, 8.9.2005)
40    D R AW I N G O N E X P E R I E N C E

     Drawing on experience
     “Quality is never an accident. It is always the
     result of intelligent effort.”
     John Ruskin, English essayist and critic

     Documentation, evaluation and
     quality management
                                                                                                             What are the goals of quality
     With the volunteer programme of the large                                                               management in volunteer pro-
     scale protected areas, the integration of                                                               grammes?
     volunteers in the park work has developed            Correct
     into a management sector in its own right                                                               Quality management helps,
     for the protected areas. Good management                                          Implement           • to improve structures, processes
     not only involves planning and imple-                                                                   and the results of volunteer pro-
     menting the goals and measures, but also                                                                grammes and
     documenting and regularly evaluating these.                                                           • to do justice to the interests and
     This makes it possible to monitor own acti-                                                             needs of all participants.
     vities and the results both quantitatively and
     qualitatively and to develop the programme       Fig. 17: The quality management cycle
     further in a targeted fashion on the basis of
     the evaluation (see fig. 17). Evaluation helps
     to achieve the programme goals and to
     realise the targeted benefits (see p. 7).

     The evaluation of the experience in the          to check the progress of the programme, e.g.      personnel about their work and to express
     course of the project so far has led to the      the type and the extent of the voluntary ac-      praise and recognition for their contribu-
     formulation of quality standards (see pp.        tivities and the satisfaction of the volunteers   tions.
     42–44). These are intended to function as        and of the full-timers. It is also important
     guidelines for EUROPARC Germany and              for the quality management of the volunteer       Positive and negative influences on the
     the large scale protected areas which make       programme that the resonance in the media         volunteer programme
     use of volunteers in their operations. The       is documented and evaluated. Among other
     quality standards relate to the internal park    things, this can indicate which forms of          The evaluation of the experience gained in
     structures and the processes of the volun-       public relations work are most effective.          the course of the project shows that there
     teer programme. They are supplemented by                                                           are various factors which influence the vo-
     additional quality management measures.          Evaluation and quality assurance should           lunteer management in the large scale pro-
     These include an annual evaluation of the        not only be used in order to regularly adjust     tected areas either positively or negatively.
     programme in the form of a written questi-       the internal organisation of the programme
     onnaire sent to the volunteer coordinators       to suit the programme goals. They can also
     and the volunteers (see practical example        be employed effectively in order to provide
     25). On the basis of the survey it is possible   positive feedback to volunteers and full-time
                                                                                                                                         D R AW I N G O N E X P E R I E N C E   41

                                                                            Voluntary programme (name of park) 2005

                                                 Thank you very much for your voluntary work in (name of park)!
                                                 We want to develop the volunteer programme so that you and many other volunteers enjoy working with us.
                                                 Please let us know about your experience, wishes, comments and ideas – we are very interested in your
                                                 opinion. Thank you!

                                                 Name (optional):
                                                 You can also return this form anonymously to EUROPARC Germany (address below).

                                                 I had the following activity, at the following location (optional):

                                                 Please tick the appropriate boxes!
                                                                                                      Fully            Agree   Devided      Disagree   Completely
                                                                                                      agree                                             disagree
                                                 I had the feeling I was doing something
                                                 My expectations about voluntary work were
                                                 I felt well supervised
                                                 I had enough opportunities to introduce my
                                                 own ideas
                                                 I was well informed about matters relating
                                                 to my activity
                                                 I always knew who to contact if I had ques-
                                                 The relationship with the full-time park
                                                 personnel was positive
                                                 I have learnt a lot about the work of the park
                                                 Overall I was satisfied with my voluntary

                                                 I found out about the volunteer programme through:

                                                 I would wish the following for my further activity in (name of park)/
                                                 I have the following idea to make the volunteer programme more attractive for volunteers:

                                                 Other remarks:

                                                 Please return to:                                          or:
                                                 (Name of park)                                             EUROPARC Deutschland
                                                 (Name of volunteer coordinator)                            Anne Schierenberg
                                                 (Address)                                                  Friedrichstr. 60, 10117 Berlin, Germany
                      Practical example 25:      (Tel./Fax)                                                 Tel.: 030/2887882-15, Fax: 030/2887882-16
                      Assessment sheet for       (E-mail)                                                   E-mail:

Positive factors include:                     Negative factors (constraints) include:                                  Quality standards for volunteer
  – a recognised and qualified volunteer        – obscure legal and financial framework                                  management in large scale protected
     coordinator                               – unclear responsibilities of the volun-                                areas
  – support for the volunteer coordinator         teer coordinators
     by park management and other              – lack of support for the volunteer coor-                               On the basis of the experience in the project
     full-timers                                  dinator from the management of the                                   and the evaluation of the results, quality
  – clear activities for volunteers in            protected area and other full-timers                                 standards for volunteer management in
     specific fields                             – time pressures on the volunteer coor-                                 parks were formulated in consultation with
  – regular contact with the volunteer            dinators                                                             the volunteer coordinators of the model
  – exchange of experience between parks                                                                               areas (see tabs. 5–7). These are intended to
  – individual support of the parks in                                                                                 act as guidelines for the parks and EURO-
     terms of content and organization,                                                                                PARC Germany in the further development
     step-by-step guidance and coordi-                                                                                 of the volunteer programme.
     nation by the programme executing
42       D R AW I N G O N E X P E R I E N C E

     Table 5:

     Activities in the large scale protected areas
     Internal preparation
             STANDARD                                                                                         ALTERNATIVE (A) OR ADDITIONAL (+)

     1       Protected areas direction and heads of the competent department explicitly approve the pro-
             motion of volunteer management in the park
     2       A technical and personal apt full-timer is appointed volunteer coordinator and given respon-
             sibility for volunteer management, with an appropriate time budget and responsibilities; all
             protected area personnel are informed about this

     3       For the protected area, the goals of the volunteer management are formulated by the director     +: The goals of the volunteer management were
             of the protected area, the heads of department and the volunteer coordinator                     formulated with the participation of other per-

     4       Other park personnel are regularly informed by the volunteer coordinator about the volunteer     +: Other park personnel are regularly involved in
             programme (e.g. goals of the volunteer programme, rights and duties of volunteers)               the volunteer management, e.g. definition of rights
                                                                                                              and duties of volunteers, recruiting of volunteers

     5       The volunteer coordinator has been trained in volunteer management, and appropriate materi-
             als are available (check lists, best-practice examples, etc.)
     6       Volunteer management forms (agreements with volunteers, evaluation sheets, certificates for
             volunteers, etc.) are available, adapted to the large protected area
     7       Fields of operation for volunteers and appropriate target groups are agreed between volunteer    +: Park personnel have proposed fields of operati-
             coordinator and relevant park personnel (on-going)                                               on for volunteers independently (on-going)
     8       The volunteer coordinator has prepared appropriate job descriptions for volunteers (on-going)    +: Park personnel have prepared their own job
                                                                                                              descriptions for their volunteers in consultation
                                                                                                              with the volunteer coordinator (on-going)

     9       A ressource planning is developed for the volunteer management

     10      The park provides liability insurance cover for volunteers                                       a: Volunteers are insured under private personal
                                                                                                              liability insurance
     11      The park provides accidental damages insurance cover for volunteers                              a, +: Volunteers are insured under private acciden-
                                                                                                              tal damages insurance
     12      In collaboration with the responsible PR departement and in coordination with the park’s         +: Further full-timers are integrated in the deve-
             direction the volunteer coordinator develops an advertising strategy depending on the chosen     lopment and implementation of the advertising
             fields of volunteer involvement, the target groups and the job descriptions for volunteers (on-   strategy (on-going)
                                                                                                                           D R AW I N G O N E X P E R I E N C E   43

Table 6:

Activities in the large scale protected areas
Involvement of volunteers
     STANDARD                                                                                             ALTERNATIVE (A) OR ADDITIONAL (+)

13   The volunteer coordinator is available to discuss with prospective volunteers and to advise and      a: The information, advice and support are also
     support active volunteers                                                                            available to potential and active volunteers from
                                                                                                          other technical and personal apt full-timers depen-
                                                                                                          ding on the field of activity

14   People enquiring about volunteer work receive an information pack about the opportunities in
     the park and the framework conditions
15   The volunteer coordinator conducts an introductory interview with prospective volunteers in          a: Other technical and personal apt full-timers
     order to discuss the expectations and interests, as well as the rights and obligations               carry out an introductory meeting with potential
                                                                                                          volunteers after consulting with the volunteer

16   Volunteers are deployed in accordance with their interests, their skills, their suitability, the
     goals of volunteer management and the needs of the park
17   A written agreement is drawn up between the volunteer and the park about the cooperation             a: For short-term or one-off assignments, a verbal
     (to strengthen ties and for insurance reasons)                                                       agreement is reached unless insurance cover de-
                                                                                                          mands other procedures

18   Volunteers with whom a long-term agreement has been reached begin with a taster or trial
     phase, followed by an informal talk with a full-time supervisor
19   Volunteers are introduced by the volunteer coordinator to their assignment area and the team,        a: Volunteers are introduced, supervised and
     and during their activity they are advised by specialists and if necessary trained                   trained by other technical and personal apt
                                                                                                          full-timers after consulting with the volunteer

20   According to the interests, skills and aptitude of the volunteers and according to the conditions
     within the park the volunteers are offered a “volunteer career” (increasingly responsible tasks,
     training possibilities, etc.)

21   Volunteers are informed about matters affecting them and involved as far as possible (e.g.
     relevant alterations to their field, the introduction of new volunteers)
22   Volunteers can consult the volunteer coordinator in confidence                                        a, +: Volunteers can consult other technical and
                                                                                                          personal apt full-timers in confidence
23   The volunteer coordinator promotes good cooperation between volunteers and full-timers               +: Other full-timers promote good cooperation
     (possibilities for exchanges, mediation of conflicts, etc.)                                           between volunteers and full-timers
24   If interested volunteers are offered contact and exchange opportunities with other volunteers

25   The park highlights the importance of voluntary involvement, the results of voluntary work
     etc. in its PR activities
26   Volunteers are requested at a suitable time (e.g. at the end of the season or of their project) to
     provide feedback about their satisfaction with their activity, the supervision, etc.
27   Volunteers are given recognition and are thanked for their dedication

28   Volunteers can receive a certificate about the type and extent of their work

29   The park director publicly supports the volunteer programme (public statements, expressions
     of gratitude, etc.)
30   The volunteer coordinator documents the deployment of volunteers, feedback from volunteers,          +: Other full-timers are involved in the evaluation
     etc., informs the park director, heads of department and park personnel about the results and        of the volunteer management
     draws the consequences
44    D R AW I N G O N E X P E R I E N C E

     Table 7:

     Activities of EUROPARC Germany

     31   The contact to the protected areas is maintained in order to identify risks and opportunities in
          good time and provide appropriate advice
     32   The parks are informed about relevant political developments, funding programmes, competi-
          tions, etc.
     33   The bi-lateral and multi-lateral exchange of experience between the protected areas is encou-
          raged in the form of transfers of best-practice examples, support for the provision of mutual
          advice and the further training of volunteer coordinators

     34   Relevant work aids are made available to the parks (volunteer management forms, notification
          of insurance regulations, etc.)
     35   In consultation with the parks, a general strategy is developed for PR work and advertising

     36   Relevant measures are organised and implemented e.g. a standard form of recognition for
     37   On the basis of the park specific documentation and evaluation of the volunteer management
          the overall volunteer programme is evaluated and appropriate conclusions derived
     38   People interested in volunteer work are advised about possibilities and introduced to appropri-
          ate protected areas
     39   Contacts are promoted between protected areas and potential cooperation partners in the
          field of volunteer management (volunteer agencies, educational institutions, partner protected
          areas, etc.) e.g. by information transfer and organisation of meetings
                                                                                    REACHING THE GOALS AND SETTING NEW ONES                 45

Reaching the goals and setting new ones
“I am particularly interested in the future because
that is the time I shall live in.”
Albert Einstein

Summary                                         The following results were achieved in the        able to achieve new successes with the
                                                course of the project:                            help of the volunteer programme, e.g.
After completion of the two-year project                                                          in addressing political decision makers
“Establishing a volunteer programme in            – The volunteer coordinators from the           and attracting project partners,
German large scale protected areas”, the            15 large scale protected areas invol-       – the quality standards developed for the
national network of parks in Germany has            ved went through basic training and           volunteer management in large scale
gained valuable experience in volunteer             received a certificate as “Volunteer           protected areas combine the expe-
management. As a result of the project and          Coordinator – Basic skills in volunteer       rience of the model areas and provide
the experience gained in volunteer manage-          management” from the Academy for              conditions for a professional approach
ment in the protected areas of Brandenburg          Volunteering Germany and extended             to volunteers as well as for the quali-
since 2003, it has been possible to initiate        their knowledge and their abilities in        tative assurance and further develop-
programmes in parks in six other German             an additional training course in volun-       ment of the volunteer programme;
federal states for the coordinated and syste-       teer management,                              they also give valuable guidelines for
matic integration of volunteers. The model        – applicants interested in working as a         parks which wish to integrate volun-
areas, with their various organisational and        volunteer could be offered a wide range        teers in their work,
staff structures, levels of equipment, special       of possible assignments to suit varying     – the volunteer programme as national
fields and geographic features now illustrate        personal interests, abilities, individual     network brought together the large
the many different ways volunteers can be            time budgets, etc.,                           scale protected areas involved and en-
integrated in the work of the large scale         – the large scale protected areas can           abled them through joint work and by
protected areas. And they can therefore act         make use of various ways of adverti-          exchanging experience to benefit from
as models for other parks in Germany.               sing for new volunteers, e.g. brochures       a range of synergy effects.
                                                    with inlays for specific areas, posters
                                                    and the project website,
                                                  – volunteers were active seasonally in
                                                    2004 and 2005 within the framework
                                                    of the volunteer programme, working
                                                    in a broad spectrum of nature conser-
                                                    vation and environmental education
                                                    projects and they were trained appro-
                                                    priately for their activities,
                                                  – the public relations and lobby work
                                                    in the large scale protected areas were

     Prospects                                     – Against the background of the current        – Voluntary activities are not only
                                                     discussion about educational reforms,          limited to the efforts of individuals.
     The way forward is to integrate the public      the large scale protected areas and            Companies are also increasingly
     in the management of large scale protected      their volunteer programme can emerge           discovering how they can “profit”
     areas. The report of the German federal         as particularly attractive partners for        from activities for the general good,
     government on the State of the Nature           schools and as locations for extra-mu-         and they are supporting community
     2005 (Lage der Natur 2005) says: “Modern        ral education and training. They can           institutions or staff members who are
     nature conservation also needs the com-         offer students the opportunity to take          engaged in voluntary activities. Large
     mitment of the individual to be environ-        on responsible duties in nature conser-        scale protected areas can be attractive
     mentally aware and to be active for nature      vation. In this way they promote the           partners for the business sector. The
     conservation” (BMU 2005). Promoting             skills and motivation of future decision       volunteer programme provides an
     modern nature conservation is the duty          makers to work independently and               appropriate framework for demons-
     and responsibility of Germany’s large scale     responsibly for a sound environment.           trating “corporate social responsibility”,
     protected areas and is also in their vital                                                     and future strategies should aim to
     interests.                                    – Nature does not recognise boundaries.          expand this cooperation.
                                                     In view of this, the volunteer pro-
     A network of parks has already been             gramme offers an ideal opportunity          The volunteer programme of the large scale
     established which are working together in       to combine nature conservation and         protected areas demonstrates a promising
     the volunteer programme for more public         international understanding. Volun-        approach for the future. EUROPARC
     participation. This opens up all sorts of       teers from other countries can enrich      Germany is happy to strengthen education
     linkages and opportunities for inputs from      the nature conservation and environ-       for sustainable development by promoting
     other protected areas, prospective volun-       mental protection activities of the Ger-   involvement of the society and supporting
     teers and project partners such as schools      man large scale protected areas and        personal competencies of active citizens
     and colleges, volunteer agencies, sponsors      add new aspects. Equally, the German       – for the benefit of all.
     or the media. The protected areas offer the      protected areas can act as a starting
     opportunity to conclude new, mutually           base for people who are interested in
     beneficial alliances.                            working for parks in other countries.
                                                     The practical cooperation, shared
     In this modern nature conservation strategy     interests and the successes achieved
     of the large scale protected areas, some        bring together people from various
     aspects will be of particular importance:       nations. The parks have the opportu-
                                                     nity to present themselves through an
                                                     international volunteer programme as
                                                     a driving force in Europe.
                                                                            REFERENCE SECTION               47


ABBREVIATIONS                                        Further literature
                                                     EUROPARC Germany 2003: Anstoß geben
BANU Bundesweiter Arbeitskreis der staat-
                                                     – Freiwilliges Engagement in Großschutzge-
     lich getragenen Bildungsstätten im
                                                     bieten, Freiwillige integrieren und qualifizieren
     Natur- und Umweltschutz (Federal
                                                     – Möglichkeiten der Planung und Umsetzung
     Working Group of Governmental
                                                     am Beispiel der Naturwacht Brandenburg, Ber-
     Educational Facilities for the Conser-
                                                     lin. Download:
     vation of Nature and Environment)
BR   Biosphere reserve                               DNR (Deutscher Naturschutzring) (Ed.)
                                                     2005: Eckpunkte zur Stärkung des ehrenamt-
BUND Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz
                                                     lichen Engagements im Natur- und Umwelt-
     Deutschland (Friends of the Earth)
                                                     schutz, Bonn.
FFH  Flora-Fauna Habitat (EU Directive)
GNL  Geprüfter Natur- und Landschafts-
     pfleger (approved Nature and Lands-              LINKS
     cape Conservator)
NABU Naturschutzbund Deutschland
                                                     (Service site for the volunteer programme
     (BirdLife International)
                                                     in German parks)
NLP  National park
NRP  Nature park
                                                     (site for German national parks, nature parks
PR   Public relations                                and biosphere reserves)
LITERATURE                                           (EUROPARC Germany)
Akademie für Ehrenamtlichkeit Deutschland  
(fjs e.V.) 2004: Lehrbuch Strategisches Freiwilli-   (NaturSchutzFonds Brandenburg/Naturwacht
gen-Management. Berlin.                              Brandenburg)
BMU (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Natur-  
schutz und Reaktorsicherheit) 2004: Umwelt-          (Volunteers-in-parks Program, National Park
politik – Umweltbewusstsein in Deutschland           Service/USA)
2004. Berlin.
BMU (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Natur-            (Internet magazine for voluntary work)
schutz und Reaktorsicherheit) 2005: Lage der
Natur. Berlin.                             
                                                     (Academy for Volunteering Germany)
Deutscher Bundestag, 2002: Bürgerschaftliches
Engagement: auf dem Weg in eine zukunftsfä-
hige Bürgergesellschaft. Bericht der Enquete-        (Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft der Freiwilligen-
Kommission “Zukunft des bürgerschaftlichen           agenturen: provides addresses of volunteer
Engagements”. Leske + Budrich, Opladen,              agencies in Germany)
Bundestagsdrucksache 14/8900.              
Kegel, Thomas 2001: Was ist Öffentlichkeitsar-        (Stiftung Mitarbeit: Service centre for public
beit? Arbeitsmaterialien zum Ausbildungsgang         participation outside of political parties and large
Freiwilligen-Management, Akademie für Ehren-         associations)
amtlichkeit Deutschland.
Rosenbladt, Bernhard von 2001: Der Freiwil-
ligensurvey 1999. Konzeption und Ergebnisse          PHOTOS
der Untersuchung. In: Rosenbladt, Bernhard von       EUROPARC Germany: p. 4, 20 (top), 48
(Ed.): Freiwilliges Engagement in Deutschland        Meßner, Ulrich: Cover
– Freiwilligensurvey 1999. Ergebnisse der Re-        Müller, Uwe: p. 35
präsentativerhebung zu Ehrenamt, Freiwilligen-       Naturwacht Brandenburg: p. 2, 12, 25, 33
arbeit und bürgerschaftlichem Engagement. Vol.       Parton, Elvira: p. 29
1 – Gesamtbericht (Schriftenreihe des BMFSFJ         Schierenberg, Anne: p. 17, 20 (bottom r. & l.),
194.1). Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart: pp.              24, 28, 38
31-143.                                              Spiegel, Anne: p. 8
Scheier, Ivan H. 1996: Building staff/volunteer
relations 2nd ed., ENERGIZE Inc., Philadel-
phia / USA.
48    PA R T N E R S & I M P R I N T


                                                                                                    Published by:
                                                                                                    EUROPARC Deutschland e.V.
                                                                                                    Friedrichstr. 60
                                                                                                    10117 Berlin, Germany
                                                                                                    Tel: +49 (0)30 288 7882-0
                                                                                                    Fax: +49 (0)30 288 7882-16

                                                                                                    Anne Schierenberg,
     STEERING GROUP OF THE PROJEC T:                                                                EUROPARC Germany

     (left to right)                                                                                Editors:
                                                                                                    Anne Schierenberg, Stefanie Sommer,
                                                                                                    Axel Tscherniak and Holger Wesemüller,
     • Thomas Kegel, Academy for Volunteering                                                       EUROPARC Germany
     • Anne Schierenberg, EUROPARC Germany                                                          Design and layout:
     • Holger Wesemüller, EUROPARC Germany                                                          Boris Buchholz AGD
     • Jan Brockmann, Head of Naturwacht Bran-
       denburg until 06/2005                                                                        Translation:
     • Rüdiger Biehl, Hainich National Park
     • Olivia Grudzinski, Adviser for organisational                                                First published in German 01/2006
       development                                                                                  English translation 02/2008
     • Prof. Johann Köppel, Technische Universität
       Berlin                                                                                       Some figures have been modified and
     • Manfred Lütkepohl, Head of Naturwacht                                                        are therefore different to the original
       Brandenburg from 07/2005 (not shown)                                                         German publication.

                                                                                                    The editors accept no liability for the
                                                                                                    observation of the private rights of third
                                                                                                    parties. Reproduction, in whole or in
                                                                                                    part, including by any photo-mecha-
                                                                                                    nical or electronic means, requires the
                                                                                                    prior approval of the editor.

     PARTNERS                          Financing                                 Project partners                         Media partners
                                                                                                                          of the Nationale
     We thank all
     our partners,
     who helped the
     project “Establi-
     shing a volunteer
     programme in
     German large scale
     protected areas” in
     so many ways:

     The translation and preparation of the English version was supported by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) with
     funds from the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Heidehof Foundation, die Saxon
     Regional Conservation Foundation / Conservation Fund, the Manfred-Hermsen Foundation, die Norddeutsche Stiftung für Umwelt und
     Entwicklung (NUE) and the BINGO!-Umweltlotterie.
Published by
EUROPARC Deutschland e.V.
Friedrichstraße 60, 10117 Berlin
Tel. ++49 (0) 30 2 88 78 82–0
Fax ++49 (0) 30 2 88 78 82–16

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