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RELATIONAL ANATOMICAL TERMS RELATIONAL ANATOMICAL TERMS

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RELATIONAL ANATOMICAL TERMS RELATIONAL ANATOMICAL TERMS Powered By Docstoc
					          RELATIONAL ANATOMICAL TERMS
          ______                          ______
_______
   or                           _______            _______
_______              Neuraxis   ______             _______


 ______            ______




                                                     also:
                                                     - ___________
                                                     - _____________
                                                     - ___________


          ________
             or
          ________
                                                               Chap. 2- 2




          RELATIONAL ANATOMICAL TERMS
                                _______




_________
    or                                                  _________
________                                                    or
                                                         _______




                            ________



                                                               Chap. 2- 3




                                                                            1
Some jargon for neural projections in the Central Nervous System
             (or how neurons talk to other neurons!)

 Neural Projections: ___________________________________________
 ____________________________________________________

 Track: _______________________________________________________
 Nerve: __________________________________________________________



 Afferent: _______________________________
 Efferent: __________________________________

  Ganglion(a): ________________________________________
  Nucleus(i): ______________________________________



                                                                   Chap. 2- 4




          MENINGES AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID




  Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF):

  - your brain is “floating” inside your head!!!

                                                                   Chap. 2- 5




                                                                                2
                   NERVOUS SYSTEM




                      (includes cranial nerves)




                                                        Chap. 2- 6




            PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

1. Somatic Nervous System: ____________________________
   _____________________________________________
   ____________
2. Autonomic Nervous System (self-regulating): ____________
   _______________________________________________

  a. Sympathetic Nervous System: ________________________
     _______________________________
  b. Parasympathetic Nervous System: ____________________
     _________________________________
  c. Enteric Nervous System: ____________________________
     ____________________________



                                                        Chap. 2- 7




                                                                     3
                AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM




                                                          Chap. 2- 8




               SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Sensory: _______________________________________________
         Carries sensory signals from skin, skeletal muscles
______________________________________________________
(proprioception), joints, bones, and other sensory systems to
______________________________________________________
central nervous system = afferents to CNS
 - ___________________________________________
 - ___________________________________________________
   _______________________________
Motor: ________________________________________________
         Carries motor information from the central nervous to
______________________________________________________
  skeletal muscles = efferents from CNS
 - _____________________________________
 - _____________________________________________________
   ___________________________________
Cranial nerves: ________________________________________
                 are also part of the somatic nervous system
 - ____________________________________________________
  ______________________________________________________
   _________________________________________
 - axons enter and exit brain via “cranial nerves”.
                                                          Chap. 2- 9




                                                                       4
                    CLASSIC DERMATOMAL MAP




                                              Chap. 2-10




    AFFERENTS AND EFFERENTS OF THE SPINAL CORD




                                    Dorsal




                                    Ventral

Blue = Ascending (sensory) tracts
Red = Descending (motor) tracts
                                              Chap. 2-11




                                                           5
                                           CRANIAL NERVES
                                            II. Optic
                                            Vision
                                                            III. Occulomotor Eye
                  I. Olfactory                              IV. Trochlear    Movement
                  Smell




                                                                 V. Trigeminal
 XII. Hypoglossal                                                Jaw muscles, facial touch and pain
 Tongue movement



XI. Accessory Spinal
                                                                  VI. Abducens
Neck muscles
                                                                  Eye movement


                                                                     VII. Facial
                                                                     Facial movement and sensation



       X. Vagus
       Internal organs
                                                        VIII. Vestibulocochlear
                                                        Hearing, balance

               IX. Glossopharyngeal
               Taste, muscles of throat,
               pharynx, and larynx.

                                                                                          Chap. 2-12




   Oh, oh, oh to touch and feel very good velvet Ah, Ha

                                 1. Olfactory nerve
                                 2. Optic
                                 2 O ti nerve
                                 3. Occulomotor nerve
                                 4. Trochlear nerve
                                 5. Trigeminal nerve
                                 6. Abducens nerve
                                 7. Facial nerve
                                 8.
                                 8 Vestibulocochlear nerve
                                 9. Glossopharyngeal nerve
                                 10. Vagus nerve
                                 11. Accessory spinal nerve
                                 12. Hypoglossal nerve




                                                                                                       6
THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

                          ___________
                          Forebrain
                          - ____________
                          - ____________


                          ____________
                          Midbrain
                          - ______________


                          ____________
                          Hindbrain
                          - ______________
                          - ______________



                                              Chap. 2-13




      HINDBRAIN
            MYELENCEPHALON (MEDULLA)
            - origin of several“nuclei” that give rise
               to cranial nerves;
            - dorsomedial medulla contains relay
               nuclei for sensory stimuli (nuclei
               cuneatus and gracilis) on their way to
               thalamus;
            - contains all tracts to/from spinal
               cord/brain.
              METENCEPHALON
               1. ______________: involved in motor
                 coordination, fine motor movements,
                                     (ex
                 and habit learning (ex., riding a
                 bike)
               2. ____: associated with several
                 cranial nerves (especially for
                 hearing), several tracts, and pontine
                 reticular formation.

                                              Chap. 2-14




                                                           7
       MIDBRAIN
             MESENCEPHALON (MIDBRAIN)
                  1. _________:
                    - Inferior colliculus:
                       auditory information
                    - Superior colliculus: visual
                       information

                  2. ____________:
                    - Substantia Nigra:
                        Dopamine producing cells
                        sending their axons to
                        basal ganglia
                      (these are the cells that die
                        in Parkinson’s disease)
                    -Reticular formation : sleep,
                        wakefulness, attention,
                        etc.

                                           Chap. 2-15




FOREBRAIN. DIENCEPHALON
                  1. ___________: dorsal part of
                      diencephalon
                    - important relay of all types
                      of information (vision,
                      hearing, pain, touch,
                      temperature,
                      proprioception) from all
                      over the body (spinal cord)
                      to neocortex.

                  2. _______________:
                    - ventral part of diencephalon
                    - controls autonomic nervous
                      system
                    - controls motivated behavior
                      (sex, eating, drinking, etc.)
                    - controls many hormones
                      from pituitary gland (master
                      gland)

                                           Chap. 2-16




                                                        8
                FOREBRAIN. TELENCEPHALON
  CEREBRAL CORTEX: _______________________________________




                                                                       Chap. 2-17




                FOREBRAIN. TELENCEPHALON
  ___________________: motor learning, feedback, and control
- _________________ (also called Striatum; receives dopaminergic axons from
  Substantia Nigra)
- ________________
- nucleus Accumbens (ventral striatum; involved in drug addiction and reward
      h i      D     i      d            i t           tid )
  mechanisms; Dopamine, endogenous opiates neuropeptides)




                                                                       Chap. 2-18




                                                                                    9
            FOREBRAIN. TELENCEPHALON
LIMBIC SYSTEM: _______________________________________________

                                         - _____________________:
                                             social behaviors,
                                             “working” memory,
                                               d th “executive”
                                             and other “       ti ”
                                             functions.

                                         - ______________:
                                             Learning and memory,
                                             stress.

                                         - ____________:
                                             Aggressiveness, fear,
                                             anxiety and other
                                             emotions.



                                                              Chap. 2-19




                                                                           10

				
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