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PSB TERMS AND CONCEPTS TO KNOW FOR EXAM

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PSB TERMS AND CONCEPTS TO KNOW FOR EXAM Powered By Docstoc
					STUDY GUIDE—PSB 3002

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION
Neolithic humans (cranial surgery—trephinations)
Hippocrates (brain for intellect)
Aristotle (heart for intellect, brain to cool blood)
Galen (sensory vs. motor nerves; sensory & motor parts of brain)
da Vinci (drawings of brain, including ventricular system)
Vesalius (anatomy, including nervous system)
Harvey (physiology, including circulatory system)
Descartes (first mechanism by which brain produces movement)
Haller (disproved Descartes hypothesis)
Bell and Magendie (Bell-Magendie law)
Muller (Law of specific nerve energies, Labelled line theory)
Gall (phrenology)
Broca (localization of language in brain-damaged patient)
Flourens (first experimental brain damage; studied localization of function)
Lashley (localization of function; Law of Mass Action & Law of Equipotentiality)
Galvani (animal electricity in frog's leg)
Volta (nerves respond to electrical stimulation)
Helmholtz (speed of conduction)
Golgi (Golgi stain; reticular theory)
Cajal (neuron doctrine)
Sherrington (synapse; mechanism of reflex)
Bernard (curare; suggested chemical messengers in blood)
Dale (suggested acetylcholine acts as neurotransmitter on frog's heart)
Loewe (showed that acetylcholine is, in fact, released from nerve innervating frog's heart)
Hebb (Hebbian synapses; synaptic mechanism of learning)

CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
neuron
bilipid membrane or phospholipid bilayer
soma
dendrite, dendritic arbor or tree
axon
axon hillock
axon collateral
synapse
synaptic boutons, buttons, or knobs
synaptic vesicles
neurotransmitter
synaptic cleft
presynaptic terminal arbor
terminal bouton, button or knob
synaptosome
processes
unipolar neuron
bipolar neuron
multipolar neuron
sensory neuron
motoneuron
interneuron
local neuron (Golgi type I)
projection neuron (Golgi type II)
excitatory neuron
inhibitory neuron
glia
astrocytes--functions
microglia
oligodendroglia
Schwann cells
myelin sheath
functions of neurons
     reception and integration of inputs
     generation of action potential
     conduction of action potential
     synaptic transmission

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NEURON
membrane potential
resting potential
concentration gradient (osmotic pressure)
electrical gradient (electrostatic pressure)
selective permeability
dynamic equilibrium
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
depolarization
inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
hyperpolarization
ions and ion channels, channel proteins
     leak channels
     chemical-sensitive or chemically gated channels
     voltage-sensitive or voltage-gated channels
Nernst equation
equilibrium potential
threshold
subthreshold
suprathreshold
graded potential
temporal summation
spatial summation
membrane and internal resistance
action potential or spike
rising and falling phases
repolarization
undershoot
refractory period
propagation of action potential
sodium and potassium currents
sodium-potassium pump
closed, open and inactivated sodium channels
nodes of Ranvier
saltatory conduction
synaptic transmission
Ca2+ - dependent neurotransmitter release
exocytosis
electrical synapse (gap junction)
presynaptic inhibition
presynaptic facilitation

SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
second messenger systems
G-protein
guanosine diphosphate (GDP)
guanosine triphosphate (GTP)
second messenger
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
adenylate cyclase
protein kinase
phosphorylation
phosphoprotein phosphatase
phosphodiesterase
exocytosis
quantal release
pinocytosis
autoreceptors
quantal release
receptor
receptor subtypes

GROSS NEUROANATOMY
central nervous system
     brain andspinal cord
peripheral nervous system
     dorsal root ganglia
     motoneuron axons
     enteric nervous system
     autonomic nervous system
neuraxis
rostral, caudal
dorsal, ventral
medial, lateral
anterior, posterior
superior, inferior
afferent, efferent
proximal, distal
ipsilateral, contralateral
coronal, frontal, transverse
horizontal
sagittal
oblique

SPINAL CORD
spinal column (spine; vertebral column)
segment, segmental organization
vertebra
vertebral canal
dorsal root
ventral root
spinal nerve
mixed nerve
somatic motor neurons
somatic sensory neurons
final common pathway
primary afferents
gray matter
white matter
dorsal horn
ventral horn
intermediate gray (lateral horn)
ganglion
dorsal root ganglion
reflex arc--withdrawal reflex
cauda equina
spinal tap or lumbar puncture
decussation

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
sympathetic & parasympathetic divisions
sympathetic ganglia & sympathetic chain
cranial and sacral divisions of parasympathetic system
pre- and postganglionic cells and fibers
white rami
gray rami

BRAIN
prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
nucleus
hindbrain
     medulla (medulla oblongata)
     pons
     cerebellum
midbrain
     tectum (corpora quadrigemina)
          inferior colliculi & superior colliculi (optic tectum)
     tegmentum
          substantia nigra
          red nucleus
reticular formation

EXAM 1


forebrain
     diencephalon
          hypothalamus
          thalamus
               massa intermedia
               relay nuclei and association nuclei
               frontal lobotomies
     telencephalon
          basal ganglia
               corpus striatum
               lenticular nuclei
               caudate, putamen, globus pallidus
               nigrostriatal pathway
               Parkinson's disease and Huntington's chorea
          limbic system
               hippocampus, septum, amygdala
               mamillary bodies
          cerebral cortex
               occipital, temporal, parietal and frontal lobes
               visual cortex, auditory cortex, motor cortex, somatosensory cortex
cranial nerves-name, number
convolutions
sulcus (sulci)
gyrus (gyri)
fissures
lateral sulcus
central sulcus
corpus callosum
central canal
ventricles
     fourth, third, lateral
aqueduct of Sylvius (cerebral aqueduct)
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
choroid plexus
blood-brain barrier
tight junctions
meninges
     pia mater, dura mater, arachnoid
arachnoid granulations

NEUROPHARMACOLOGY
six criteria for identifying a neurotransmitter
precursors
enzymes
life history of a neurotransmitter
Dale's law
inactivation of neurotransmitter
      diffusion
      degradation
      reuptake
agonists
antagonists
acetylcholine (ACh)
neuromuscular junction
synthesis of ACh
choline
acetyl coenzyme A
inactivation of ACh
acetylcholinesterase
muscarinic receptors
nicotinic receptors
Alzheimer's disease
black widow spider venom
botulinum toxin
atropine
curare
anticholinesterases
catecholamines (CA)
dopamine (DA)
norepinephrine (NE)
synthesis of CA's
tyrosine
tyrosine hydroxylase
DOPA decarboxylase (or aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase)
dopamine B-hydroxylase
inactivation of CA's--mechanisms
monoamine oxidase (MAO)
catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT)
catecholamine theory of mood
chlorpromazine (major tranquilizers; neuroleptics; Thorazine)
tricyclic antidepressants
MAO inhibitors
amphetamine
cocaine
CA theory of mood
DA theory of schizophrenia
Parkinson's disease
tardive dyskinesia
mesolimbic dopamine system; nigrostriatal pathway
serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)
synthesis of 5-HT
tryptophan
tryptophan-5 hydroxylase
5-hydroxytryptophan
inactivation of 5-HT--mechanisms
fluoxetine (Prozac)
bulimia
obsessive-compulsive neurosis
fenfluramine
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
psilocybin
mescaline
bufotenine
histamine
excitatory amino acid transmitters
      glutamate
      receptor subtypes
           n-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA)
           kainate,
           quisqualate (also alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxasole-proprionic acid; AMPA)
      excitotoxins
inhibitory amino acid transmitter
      gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)
      glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)
benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizers; anxiolytics; Librium; Valium)
alcohol
tetanus toxin
peptide neurotransmitters
      neuromodulators
      substance P
      gut hormones
      hormone releasing factors
      opiates
           endorphins, enkephalins
           exercise-induced euphoria ("runner's high")
colocalization of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators
nitric oxide (NO)
synthesis of NO
arginine
nitric oxide synthase
citrulline
carbon monoxide (CO)
synthesis of CO
heme
heme oxygenase
biliverdin
GTP, cyclic GMP
tetrodotoxin (TTX)
puffer fish & Zombie powder
batrachotoxin (BTX)
tetraethylammonium (TEA)
tolerance
      up- and down-regulation of receptors
addiction
withdrawal
psychological dependence

SENSORY SYSTEMS
five basic senses
proximal senses
distal senses
acoustic and vestibular divisions of auditory system
cutaneous and proprioceptive divisions of somatosensory system
exteroceptive systems
interoceptive systems

VISUAL SYSTEM
iris
pupil
iris dilators and sphincters
cornea
lens
ciliary ligaments or zonules
ciliary muscles
fovea
optic disk (blind spot)
retina
choroid layer, or pigmented epithelium
tapetum
photoreceptors (rods and cones)
neurons of the retina (horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells)
photopigments
      rhodopsin
      iodopsin
11-cis retinal
all-trans retinal
opsin
signal detection and signal-to-noise ratio
photoreceptor sensitivity
receptor potentials or generator potentials (graded potentials of receptors)
receptive field
center and surround
lateral inhibition
convergence
divergence
visual pathways
      cranial nerve II (optic nerve)
      retinogeniculostriate system
      retinotectal system
retinotopic organization
feature detectors, feature detection
simple cortical cells
complex cortical cells
hypercomplex cortical cells
"grandmother cells"
cortical orientation columns
cortical ocular dominance columns
trichromatic theory of color perception
opponent process theory of color perception
cortical "blobs"
saccades
smooth pursuit, or visual tracking
vergence
stabilized retinal images
monocular and binocular mechanisms of depth perception


AUDITORY SYSTEM
outer ear
     pinna, auditory canal, tympanic membrane
middle ear
     ossicles
     malleus, incus, stapes
inner ear
     cochlea
     oval window
     round window
perilymph
endolymph
scala vestibuli
scala media
scala tympani
Reissner's membrane
basilar membrane
tectorial membrane
inner hair cells
outer hair cells
organ of Corti
travelling wave
tonotopic organization
spiral ganglion (cochlear ganglion)
cochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII, acoustic nerve)
cochlear nucleus
central acoustic pathways
frequency locking
phase locking
cochlear microphonics
mechanisms of pitch perception
     place theory
     frequency theory
mechanisms of sound localization
     differences in phase, time of arrival, intensity
     spectral cues
mechanisms of intensity coding and perception of loudness

VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
vestibule
semicircular canals
linear and angular acceleration
ampulla
cupula
crista
hair cells
statocysts (saccule, utricle)
otoconia
stereocilia
kinocilium
vestibular ganglion
cranial nerve VIII, vestibular nerve
central vestibular pathways
vestibular and visual nystagmus
post-rotary nystagmus
righting reflex
neck reflexes

SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM
free nerve endings
Pacinian corpuscles
receptive fields
pain perception
lateral inhibition
two-point discrimination
central somatosensory pathways
     lemniscal system
     extralemniscal systems
          paleospinothalamic tract
          neospinothalamic tract
referred pain
somatosensory cortex
homunculus
somatotopic organization

GUSTATION
taste buds
papillae (fungiform, foliate, circumvallate, filiform)
taste cells
microvillae
five "primary tastes", characteristics
cranial nerves VII, IX, X
taste aversion learning
gustatory pathways

OLFACTION
olfactory mucosa
olfactory receptors
Amoore's stereospecific theory of smell
cribiform plate
olfactory nerve (I)
cranial nerve V, free nerve endings
olfactory bulb
mitral cells
glomeruli
lateral olfactory tract
medial olfactory tract
olfactory areas in the brain
pheromones
vomeronasal organ
role of olfaction in sex, territoriality and aggression

MOTOR SYSTEMS
actin
myosin
cross bridges
motor unit
extrafusal muscle fibers
intrafusal muscle fibers or muscle spindles
nuclear bag
annulospiral endings
muscle spindle afferents
alpha motoneurons
gamma motoneurons
monosynaptic stretch reflex
patellar tendon reflex
Golgi tendon organs
synergists and antagonists
flexors and extensors
degrees of freedom problem
reciprocal inhibition
crossed-extensor reflexes
mark-time reflex
oscillators
central pattern generators
motor programs
supplementary motor area
hierarchical motor control
     spinal cord
     brainstem
     forebrain
motor homunculus
pyramidal motor system--anatomy and function
     corticospinal tract
     corticobulbar tract
extrapyramidal motor systems--anatomy and function
     extrapyramidal feedback loops involving basal ganglia and cerebellum
          caudate-putamen
          globus pallidus
          thalamus
          pontine nuclei
     red nucleus
     rubrospinal tract
Parkinson's disease
MPTP, MPP+Huntington's chorea
GABAergic neurons
cholinergic neurons

NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY
endocrine glands
exocrine glands
hormones vs. neurotransmitters
pituitary gland (hypophysis)
anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
hypothalamic releasing hormones or factors
negative feedback loops (direct, indirect, short)
adenohypophysial hormones (direct- and indirect-acting)
neurohypophysial hormones
somatotrophin (growth hormone, GH)
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
prolactin
melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
thyrotrophin
thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH)
thyroxine
cretinism
hypothyroidism
hyperthyroidism
corticotrophin (adrenocorticotrophic hormone, ACTH)
adrenal cortex
adrenal medulla
glucocorticoids
mineralocorticoids
cortisol
gonadotrophins
     luteinizing hormone (LH)
     follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)
androgens
estrogens
ways to define sex
sexual dimorphisms
organizational effects of sex hormones
activational effects of sex hormones
bipotentiality
masculinization
defeminization
alpha-fetoprotein
adrenogenital syndrome (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, CAH)
progestin-induced syndrome
androgen-insensitivity syndrome, testicular feminization
Imperato-McGinley's studies of Dominican Republicans
Benbow & Stanley's studies of gifted males and females
male-female differences in cognition
hormonal cyclicity and cognitive performance of women
interstitial nuclei of the hypothalamus and sexual orientation
LHRH secretion and sexual orientation
vasopressin
oxytocin

Brain Disorders

Korsakoff’s syndrome
dorsomedial thalamus, mammilary bodies
memory loss
confabulation
role of thiamine (vitamin B1)
Alzheimer’s disease
senile dementia, presenile dementia
cognitive and behavioral deterioration
learning and memory
gross changes in cortex
loss of ACh cells
basal nucleus of Meynert
5-HT systems
neurofibrillary tangles
β-amyloid plaques
apoptosis
somatostatin
Down’s syndrome, trisomy 21

Schizophrenia
acute, reactive, or Type 1
chronic, process, or Type 2
positive and negative symptoms
dopamine theory of schizophrenia
mesolimbic DA systems
atypical antipsychotics
partial agonists
hypofrontality
connections between ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex
ventricular enlargement
limbic system abnormalities
NMDA receptor involvement
theories of causation of schizophrenia, evidence for each
monochorionic and dichorionic identical twins
MZ and DZ twins
cytomegalovirus

Unipolar depression
dysphoria
anhedonia
role of 5-HT, norepinephrine
MAO inhibitors
tricyclic antidepressants
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
electroconvulsive therapy ECT)
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
hormone-depression interactions
cytokines and depression

Bipolar affective disorder
mania and depression
familial studies
subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
lithium

Parkinson’s disease
symptoms
MPTP, MPP+
Lewy bodies
a-synuclein
parkin
ubiquitin
feedback loops of the basal ganglia
direct pathway
indirect pathway
l-DOPA
medial pallidotomy
deep brain stimulation
gene therapy

				
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