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Chapter 18 The French Revolution

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					C h a p te
T h e
R ev o lu
        T h e
                                      1   -1




 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
S ecti o n
        M                                    o n a rch y
                                • 1. Why has pre-Revolutionary France been
                                  called a rich nation with an impoverished
                                  government? How did the financial weakness of
                                  the French monarchy lay the foundations of the
                                  revolution of 1789?
                                • 2. What did Chancellor René Maupeou do in an
     Jacques Necker               attempt to collect new taxes?
                                • 2. How was Necker's approach to dealing with
                                  France's financial difficulties different from
                                  Turgot?
                                • 3. What were Charles Calonne's economic
                                  proposals? Why was he shocked at the refusal of
                                  the Assembly of Notables to endorse them?
                                • 4. What was the impact of the American
                                  Revolution on France and on the rest of Europe?
Charles Alexandre de Calonne,   • 5. Why was the Estates-General reconvened
  portrait by Marie Louise
   Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun.        after a century and a half?
             Financial Problems
               in France, 1789
a Urban Commoner‟s
  Budget:
              –    Food               80%    a King‟s Budget:
              –    Rent               25%         –   Interest 50%
              –    Tithe              10%         –   Army        25%
              –    Taxes              35%         –   Versailles 25%
              –    Clothing            20%        –   Coronation 10%
              –    TOTAL              170%        –   Loans       25%
                                                  –   Admin.      25%
                                                  –   TOTAL      160%

         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                 Where is the tax money?




         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                        Marie
                                      Antoinette
                                       and the
                                        Royal
                                       Children


         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                Marie Antoinette‟s
                                “Peasant Cottage”




         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                Marie Antoinette‟s
                                “Peasant Cottage”




         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                  The Necklace Scandal


                                          1,600,000 livres

                                         [$100 million today]




Y Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan
Y The Countess de LaMotte
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
S ecti o n
• 1. In the local elections which
  ultimately sent representatives to
  the Estates General, which groups
  held a majority in each Estate?
• 2. What was Abbé Sieyès's view of
  the third estate? Why did the third
  estate clash with the other
  privileged estates?
• 3. What was the intent of the
  nobility when the Estates General     Abbé Sieyès
  was called into session? What was     1748-1836
  the reaction of the Third Estate?
• 4. How was the Estates General
  transformed into the National
  Assembly?
S ecti o n
             5. What events led to the Tennis Court
                 Oath on June 20, 1789? Why did Louis
                 XVI falter & support the nobles?
             6. What was the significance of the fall of
                 the Bastille? Why did it help save the
                 National Assembly and the Revolution?
             7. Trace and account for the increasing
                 intervention of the peasants and other
                 commoners in the summer and early
                 fall of 1789.
             8. What was the Great Fear? What was its
                 impact on the National Assembly?
             9. What principles of the new state were
                 created in the August 26, 1789
                 Declaration of the Rights of Man? What
                 role did women play?
             10. What were Louis XVI‟s most serious
                 mistakes during the French Revolution?
                 Had he been a more able ruler, could the
                 French Revolution have been avoided or
                 a constitutional monarchy could have
                 succeeded? Did the revolution have
                 little to do with the competence of the
                 monarch?
                   “The Tennis Court Oath”
                            by Jacques Louis David




         B y : Susan M. Pojer         June 20, 1789
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he Great Fear: Peasant Revolt
                                       (July 20, 1789)




Y Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos]
  were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and
  pillage their land.
          B y : Susan M. Pojer
 H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                      T he Path
                                        of the
                                       “Great
                                       Fear”


         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
    Night Session of August 4, 1789

       Y Before the night was over:
                    The feudal regime in France had
                            been abolished.
                    All Frenchmen were, at least in
                            principle, subject to the same laws
                            and the same taxes and eligible for
                            the same offices.


                         Equality & Meritocracy!
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
   National Constituent Assembly
                                       1789 - 1791

                Liberté!
                                                       Egalité!

                                      Fraternité!


                                 August Decrees
                                       August 4-11, 1789
              (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)

         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                      BUT . . . . .
Y       Feudal dues were not renounced outright
        [this had been too strong a threat to the
        principle of private property!]
Y       Peasants would compensate their landlords
        through a series of direct payments for
        obligations from which they had supposedly
        been freed.
           Therefore, the National Assembly made
                   revolutionary gestures, but remained
                   essentially moderate.

            Their Goal                  Safeguard the right of private
                                        property!!
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                  T he Tricolor (1789)




    The WHITE of the
   Bourbons + the RED &
      BLUE of Paris.



       Citizen!
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
    T he Tricolor is the Fashion!




         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 S ecti o n
          F r a n ce
• What was the difference between „active‟
  and „passive‟ citizens?
• How did the new Constituent Assembly
  raise money?
• What changes too place under the 1790
  Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
• Who were the émigrés?
• What was the Flight to Varennes? Why
  did this take place? What were its long
  term ramifications?                     •“Let them   eat
• What was the Declaration of Pillnitz?       cake”?
  How did this declaration unite the
  divided revolutionary factions against
  the monarchy & other European
  monarchies?
                   Revolutionary Symbols



     Cockade


                                                    Liberté
                                      La Republic



     Revolutionary
        Clock
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
   T he Declaration of the Rights of
        Man and of the Citizen
                                         August 26,
                                           1789
                                      V Liberty!
                                      V Property!
                                      V Resistance to
                                        oppression!
                                      V Thomas Jefferson
                                        was in Paris at this
                                        time.
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
   T he Declaration of the Rights of
        Man and of the Citizen
        Posed New Dilemmas

1. Did women have equal rights with men?
2. What about free blacks in the colonies?
3. How could slavery be justified if all men
   were born free?
4. Did religious toleration of Protestants
   and Jews include equal political rights?

         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                        March of the Women,
                                      October 5-6, 1789
                A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian
                           women for bread.




                  We want the baker, the baker’s wife
                         and the baker’s boy!
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)
V Women played a vital
  role in the Revolution.
V But, The Declaration
   of the Rights of Man
   did NOT extend the
   rights and protections
   of citizenship to
   women.


 Declaration of the
  Rights of Woman
 and of the Citizen
                         (1791)
  B y : Susan M. Pojer
      T he “October Days” (1789)




  The king was thought to be surrounded by evil
advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to
     Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
How to Finance the New Govt.?
 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790)




  One of the most controversial decisions of the
           entire revolutionary period.
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                      2. Print Assignats




V Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.
V Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as
   security.                                   B y : Susan M. Pojer
                                      H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                  T he Civil Constitution
                           of the Clergy
                                       July 12,
                                        1790

                                       Jurying

                                            vs.

                                     Non-Jurying
                                     [refractory]
The oath of allegiance permanently     Clergy
 divided the Catholic population!                B y : Susan M. Pojer
                                        H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
             New Relations Between
                Church & State
    V Government paid the salaries of the French
      clergy and maintained the churches.
    V The church was reorganized:
                    Parish priests  elected by the district
                     assemblies.
                    Bishops  named by the
                     department assemblies.
                    The pope had NO
                     voice in the
                     appointment of
                     the French clergy.
    V It transformed France’s
      Roman Catholic Church
      into a branch of the state!!                    Pope Pius VI
         B y : Susan M. Pojer                         [1775-1799]
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
     T he French Constitution of 1791:
        A Bourgeois Government
  V The king got the “suspensive” veto [which
    prevented the passage of laws for 4
    years].
                        He could not pass laws.
                        His ministers were responsible for their
                         own actions.

  V A permanent, elected, single chamber
    National Assembly.
                         Had the power to grant taxation.

  V An independent judiciary.

         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he French Constitution of 1791:
   A Bourgeois Government
V “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes
  amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs.
  “Passive” Citizen.
      1/3 of adult males were denied the
        franchise.
       Domestic servants were also excluded.
V A newly elected LEGISLATIVE
  ASSEMBLY.


     GOAL  Make sure that the country
       was not turned over to the mob!
   83 Revolutionary Departments




                                      February 26, 1790
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
        T he Royal Family Attempts
                           to Flee
   Y June, 1791
   Y Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel
             von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].
   Y Headed toward the
             Luxembourg
             border.
   Y The King was
             recognized at
             Varennes, near
             the border
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
              T he First Coalition &
             T he Brunswick Manifesto
                                       (August 3, 1792)

Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed,
                  Paris will be leveled!!


                                           1792-
               FRANCE                      1797
                                                      AUSTRIA
                                                      PRUSSIA
                                                      BRITAIN
                                                      SPAIN
                                                      PIEDMONT
                     This military crisis undermined the new
         B y : Susan M. Pojer  Legislative Assembly.
 H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
    French Soldiers & the Tricolor:
                                 Vive Le Patrie!
                                          V The French armies
                                            were ill-prepared for
                                            the conflict.
                                          V ½ of the officer corps
                                            had emigrated.
                                          V Many men disserted.
                                          V New recruits were
                                            enthusiastic, but
                                            ill-trained.
                                          V French troops often
                                            broke ranks and fled
                                            in disorder.
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 French Expansion: 1791-1799




         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
          Sir Edmund Burke (1790):
    Reflections on the Revolution in France




The conservative response
 to the French Revolution
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 S ecti o n
M o n a rch y :
• What was the Revolution of 1792 & why did it
  occur?
• What were the policies of the Girondins? What
  groups supported them?
• What happened when Francis II became
  Emperor of Austria?
• Who were the sans-culottes & how did they
  become a factor in the politics of the period?
• How influential were the sans-culottes during
  „the Terror‟?
 S ecti o n
M o n a rch y :
• Who were the Jacobins? What did they stand for?
• Why did the Jacobins and sans-culottes cooperate at
  first?
• Who was Citizen Capet? What was his fate?
              T he “Second” French
                    Revolution
 The National Convention:
               Girondin Rule: 1792-1793
               Jacobin Rule: 1793-1794
                    [“Reign of Terror”]
               Thermidorian Reaction:    1794-1795
 The Directory  1795-1799

         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
         Attitudes
                                             Fear of          Religious
         & actions
                                            Counter-          divisions
            of
                                            Revolution
         monarchy
          & court

                                        The Causes of
                                      Instability in France
                                          1792 - 1795


       Economi
                                                              Political
          c
                                              War             divisions
        Crises


         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                 T he Jacobins
                                           Jacobin Meeting House




                                       They held their meetings in the
                                        library of a former Jacobin
                                        monastery in Paris.
                                       Started as a debating society.
                                       Membership mostly middle class.
                                       Created a vast network of clubs.
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                   T he Sans-Culottes:
            T he Parisian Working Class

  Small shopkeepers.
  Tradesmen.
  Artisans.




They shared many of the
 ideals of their middle
class representatives in
      government!
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                    T he Sans-Culottes




       Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.

         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 T he Storming of the Tuilieres:
                                 August 9-10, 1792




        This was triggered in part by the publication in
         Paris of the August 3 Brunswick Manifesto,
        which confirmed popular suspicions concerning
                      the king’s treason.
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he September Massacres, 1792
   (T he dark side of the Revolution!)




 Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners
  were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the
  armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked
  from the front.
 Buveurs de sang [“drinkers of blood.”] over 1000 killed!
 It discredited the Revolution among its remaining
  sympathizers abroad.              B y : Susan M. Pojer
                                 H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                    T he National Convention
                            (September, 1792)
                Its first act was the formal
                 abolition of the monarchy on
                 September 22, 1792.
                         The Year I of the French Republic.
                The Decree of Fraternity
                         it offered French assistance to any
                          subject peoples who wished to
                          overthrow their governments.

                           When France sneezes,
                        all of Europe catches cold!
B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S.
  Cha ppaqua, NY
          T he Political Spectrum
TODAY:




1790s:
                                             The Plain
                                            (swing votes)
          Montagnards
           (“The Mountain”)                          Girondists
                                                                  Monarchíen
                                                                  (Royalists)

                                       Jacobins
          B y : Susan M. Pojer
 H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
          T he Politics of the
     National Convention (1792-1795)

        Montagnards                          Girondists

 Power base in Paris.                  Power base in the
                                         provinces.
 Main support from the
  sans-culottes.                        Feared the influence
                                         of the sans-culottes.
 Would adopt extreme
  measures to achieve their             Feared the dominance
  goals.                                 of Paris in national
                                         politics.
 Saw Paris as the center of the
  Revolution.                           Supported more
                                         national government
 More centralized [in Paris]
                                         centralization
  approach to government.
                                         [federalism].
          B y : Susan M. Pojer
 H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
    T he “Purifying” Pot of the
            Jacobin




         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                  Louis XVI as a Pig




      c        For the Montagnards, the king was a traitor.
      c        The Girondins felt that the Revolution had
               gone far enough and didn’t want to execute
               the king [maybe exile him].
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793)
                                      c   The trial of the king
                                          was hastened by the
                                          discovery in a secret
                                          cupboard in the
                                          Tuilieres of a cache of
                                          documents.
                                      c   They proved
                                          conclusively Louis’
                                          knowledge and
                                          encouragement of
                                          foreign intervention.
                                      c   The National
                                          Convention voted
                                          387 to 334 to
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
                                          execute the monarchs.
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet

 Matter for reflection
   for the crowned
       jugglers.




    So impure blood
  doesn’t soil our land!




          B y : Susan M. Pojer
 H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
  Marie Antoinette as a Serpent




                                      The “Widow Capet”
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                Marie Antoinette
          on the Way to the Guillotine




         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
              Marie Antoinette Died in
                  October, 1793




         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
S ecti o n
     th e
• On what points did Edmund Burke attack the
  Second French Revolution in his book Reflections
  on the Revolution in France?
• What were the political consequences of the
  French Revolution on British politics?
• What were the consequences of the French
  Revolution upon Poland?
• Why did France go to war with Austria in
  1792? What were the benefits & drawbacks for
  France of fighting an external war in the midst
  of a domestic political revolution?
S ecti o n
     th e
S ecti o n
• What nations formed the First Coalition against France?
  What were these nations seeking to achieve in going to war
  against revolutionary France?
• What was the result of the War of the First Coalition?
      • Napoleon at the Battle of Rivoli, by Felix Philipoteaux
                         T he Levee en Masse:
An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers




            An army based on merit, not birth!
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
S ecti o n
      • What were the causes of the Terror?
      • What was the Committee of Public
        Safety?
      • How did the Jacobins use the sans-
        culottes to secure power in the
        Convention in 1793?
      • What was the Levée en Masse? Why
        is it considered such an important
        aspect of early modern history?
      • What was the „Republic of Virtue‟?
        Who was its leader?
      • Why did the Jacobins attempt to de-
        Christianize France? What was
        Robespierre‟s reaction to this attempt?
                    T he Reign of Terror
    Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. --
    Robespierre
Let terror be the order of
         the day!

c         The Revolutionary
          Tribunal of Paris alone
          executed 2,639 victims
          in 15 months.
c         The total number of
          victims nationwide was
          over 20,000!
             B y : Susan M. Pojer
    H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
              Different Social Classes
                     Executed

                                      7%
                                8%
                                           28%

                          25%

                                       31%




         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he De-Christianization Program

   1. The adoption of a new Republican
      Calendar:
                  abolished Sundays & religious holidays.
                  months named after seasonal features.
                  7-day weeks replaced by 10-day
                   decades.
                  the yearly calendar was dated from
                   the creation of the Republic
                   [Sept. 22, 1792]


           The Convention symbolically divorced the
                   state from the Church!!
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he New Republican Calendar
 New Name     Meaning            Time Period
Vendemaire   Vintage    September 22 – October 21
Brumaire     Fog        October 22 – November 20
Frimaire     Frost      November 21 – December 20
Nivose       Snow       December 21 – January 19
Pluviose     Rain       January 20 – February 18
Ventose      Wind       February 19 – March 20
Germinal     Budding    March 21 – April 19
Floreal      Flowers    April 20 – May 19
Prairial     Meadow     May 20 – June 18
Messidor     Harvest    June 19 – July 18
Thermidor    Heat       July 19 – August 17
Fructidor    Fruit      August 18 – September 21
A New Republican Calendar Year
             I       1792 – 1793
             II      1793 – 1794
            III      1794 – 1795
             IV      1795 – 1796
             V       1796 – 1797
             VI      1797 – 1798
            VII      1798 – 1799
            VIII     1799 – 1800
             IX      1800 – 1801
             X       1801 – 1802
             XI      1802 – 1803
            XII      1803 – 1804
            XIII     1804 – 1805
            XIV         1805

   The Gregorian System returned in 1806.
S ecti o n
• What brought about an end to
  the Terror? What events led to
  the downfall of Robespierre &
  the Committee of Public Safety?
• How did Robespierre bring about
  his own downfall?
• What happened during the
  Thermidorian Reaction? What
  social class emerged triumphant
  from the Revolution?
• What was the Directory? What
  sort of government did it
  establish?
• How did General Napoleon
  Bonaparte secure a hold on
  power during the Directory?
   T he “T hermidorian Reaction”
       V Curtailed the power of the Committee
         for Public Safety.
       V Closed the Jacobin Clubs.
       V Churches were reopened.
                         1795  freedom of worship for all cults was
                          granted.

       V Economic restrictions were lifted in
         favor of laissez-faire policies.
       V August, 1795  a new Constitution is
         written
                         more conservative republicanism.
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 Characteristics of the Directory
       V The Paris Commune was outlawed.
       V The Law of 22 Prairial was revoked.
       V People involved in the original Terror
         were now attacked  “White” Terror
       V Inflation continues.
       V Rule by rich bourgeois liberals.
       V Self-indulgence  frivolous culture;
         salons return; wild fashions.
       V Political corruption.
       V Revival of Catholicism.
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
          T he Government Structure of the
                 New Directory
V 5-man executive committee or oligarchy [to avoid
  a dictatorship].
V Tried to avoid the dangers of a one-house
  legislature.
                  Council of 500  initiates legislation.
                  Council of Elders [250 members]  married or
                     widowed males over 40 years of age.
                      o They accepted or rejected the legislation.
                    Both houses elected by electors who owned or
                     rented property worth 100-200 days’ labor [limited
B y : Susan M.
     Pojer           to 30,000 voters].
    H orace
Greeley H. S.
 Chappaqua,         The electors were elected by all males over 21 who
                     were taxpayers.
      NY
 Political Instability: 1795-1796
 April, 1795  Inflation; bread riots.
 May 20, 1795  Revolt of Prairial [Year III]
 October, 1795 :
              Vendée and Brittany
               revolted.
              Military suppressed
               them.
 May, 1796  First
  “communist” revolt
              Gracchus Babeuf and
               the Conspiracy of Equals”
         B y : Susan M. Pojer
H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
              18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799)

 Coup d’état by
  Napoleon.
 Approved by a
  plebiscite in
  December.
 Abbe Sieyès:
  Confidence
  from below;
  authority from
  above.


          B y : Susan M. Pojer
 H orace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY

				
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