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					 RUSSIA
                   Россия
Chase, Dashmeet,
Elizabeth, Patty
and Ibraheem
  Russia is a
  FEDERATION
Divided into 7 federal
districts            Name of district
                                                                 Area        Population    Federal    Administrative
                                                                 (km²)       (2002 est.)   subjects   center
                                        Central Federal
                                                                 652,800     38,000,651    18         Moscow
                                        District


And suffers from
                                        Southern Federal
                                                                 418,500     13,973,252    6          Rostov-on-Don
                                        District
                                        Northwestern Federal
                                                                 1,677,900   13,974,466    11         Saint Petersburg

a condition called
                                        District
                                        Far Eastern Federal
                                                                 6,215,900   6,692,865     9          Khabarovsk
                                        District


ASYMMETRIC
                                        Siberian Federal
                                                                 5,114,800   20,062,938    12         Novosibirsk
                                        District
                                        Urals Federal District   1,788,900   12,373,926    6          Yekaterinburg


federalism                              Volga Federal District
                                        North Caucasian
                                                                 1,038,000

                                                                 170,700
                                                                             31,154,744

                                                                             8,933,889
                                                                                           14

                                                                                           7
                                                                                                      Nizhny Novgorod

                                                                                                      Pyatigorsk
                                        Federal District
                 Executives

    DUAL EXECUTIVE
   President ( Dmitry Medvedev)
       Prime Minister ( Vladamir Putin)
               Cabinet
               Ministers


     Federal council
     Duma
                   Legislatures
   Federal Council (upper house of parliament)
     166 members
     Chairman: Sergey Mironov

   State Duma
     450 members
     Chairman:
      Boris Gryzlov
   4 year terms
     Separation of Powers…or the lack
         of Separation of Powers
The executive branch is
  NOT really checked
  by the legislative
- After Putin’s decision
  to make the Duma
  appointed solely by
                           - The Federal Council also
  Proportional
                           doesn’t check the executive
  Representation he
                           because their chairman
  owns almost the whole
                           happens to be Putin’s best
  house ( 315/450)
                           friend… how convenient
              But in THEORY
   If there was a need to override a presidential
    veto… 2/3rd of the Council and 3/4th of the
    Duma would need to vote
    Federal Council and the Duma
                               Have the power to
   Delays legislation
                               override the council with
   Has more powers than       a 2/3rds vote
    the Duma.
   For laws to pass, a vote
    of more than half of the
    member (176) is required
    Party System (in Duma...today)
                           #4: A Just Russia
#1: United Russia
                                        - 38/450
       - 315/450
       (Dmitry
                            (Andrei
       Medvedev)            Bogdanov)

#2: Communist           #3: Liberal Democratic
Party of the Russian    Party of Russia
  Federation (Gennady         - 40/450
  Zyuganov)
                                         ( Vladimir
     - 57/450                            Zhirinovsky)
                   The others…
   Russian United Democratic Party Yabloko
       Led by Sergey Mitrokhin



   The Union of Right Forces
       Led by Nikita Belykh
         Presidential Elections
How it works: winning candidate requires an
   absolute majority of the total vote. If no
   candidate secures this majority in the first-round
   ballot, then a second-round run off election
   must be held three weeks later in which the only
   contestants are the two front-running candidates
   in the first round
- 6 year terms (starting in 2008)
- Limit is 2 terms
    Competitive or non competitive?
   Depends on the way you
    look at it
   Technically election is
    competitive but in
    the end you always
    now who the
    winner will be
                Referendums
   Constitution of 1993 allows the PRESIDENT
    to call for a referendum on important issues
        - has happened
        - first time occurred before the constitution
    with Yeltsin
        - second was held in order to decide who
    was for/ against the new constitution
        - third (most recent) held in Chechnya
    dealing with the development of a regional
    constituion
                   Judiciary
   Courts
   Jurisdiction
   Restrictions
   Reforms
                Military
   Obstacles
   Need
   Issues
“The stifling of
  freedoms and the
  rolling back of
  democratic rights will
  mean, among other
  things, that the
  terrorists will have
  won.”
                Political Culture
   As many as ~70% of Russians regret the fall of the
    USSR
   Many see democratic values as remote and unattainable
   Fears of authoritarianism strong with Putin’s reign
   Most still support Putin due to rise oil prices and as a
    result a rise in living standards
   Critics of Putin beaten and suppressed; little support
    from public
               Political Culture
   St Petersburg liberals, led by Kudrin and Gref,
    emphasize a more free market liberalization
   Putin’s main objective is to limit these groups’
    influence, and to stand above them
   Appointments of Premiers and other high-level
    officials tend to not belong to either
         Political Socialization
 Akin to Chinese model - mass line propaganda
  and mass movements
 Education stress class struggle & international
  solidarity to ultra-nationalism
 Promotes nationalism & monitors public
  opinion
 Voting, though some are skeptical

about its power
    Political Socialization

A study of Russian political culture has
produced three conclusions:
     People want democracy so long as it
     benefits them personally
     People are much more concerned with

     majority rule than minority rights
     Young & educated much more likely to

     support democratic values
                   Cleavages
   Political Party affiliation; which party you
    support often acts as political cleavage
   Age; the young have a higher tendency to
    support democratic values, the elderly tend to
    support the govt. of old, the USSR
                  Cleavages
   Ideals for the future; one major division is
    between those who believe Russia should adopt
    a more western approach and those who believe
    Russia needs its own culture/tradition
   Economic desires; some want a strong govt.
    controlling much of the economy, others wish
    for a market based economy
           Political Participation
   Respectable # of people vote; 64.4% voted in
    2004 election
   Average Russian is paying less and less attention
    to politics
   Many are willing to accept one party system as
    values have turned towards individual well being
   Though few claim to be members of a party (as
    little as .05%), most maintain a level of political
    awareness
          Political Participation
   Several political “clans” act as independent
    political forces in Russia
   The “siloviki” are the most prominent; believe
    in a strong state and have a distaste for the
    wealth and influence acquired by Russia’s
    business oligarchs
    Led to revision of history and education to
    show Soviet system in a more positive light
           Political Participation
   In a 2007 poll, nearly two-thirds of voting age
    Russians don’t believe elections will be honestly
   Nearly half say if they do vote, it’ll be out of
    duty
   Kremlin controlled legislature, media, and
    agencies maintain that the country has a reliable
    democratic system
     Media
   Largely controlled by the government
   Predominantly promotes United Russia party
    while minimizing appeal for opposition
   United Russia platform called Putin’ Plan does
    not discuss any real issues, simply conveys that
    “Putin’s Plan is Russia’s Victory”
                          Media
   Media machine in Russia consistently report Putin to
    have popularity rating of ~65%
   Say that parties matter, when in fact most have little real
    influence thanks to United Russia party and Putin
      Some parties are Kremlin controlled pseudo-
       opposition groups designed to siphon votes away
       from independent organizations
        Citizenship / Social Rep.
~140 million people     79.8% Russian, 3.8%
                        Tatar, 2% Ukranian, 1.2%
 Growth rate: -.465%
                        Bashkir, 1.1% Chuvash &
  (about 650,000        12.1% unspecified
  people per year)

Male to Female
Ratio: .85M / 1 Fm
         Citizenship / Social Rep.
   Most governmental structures are dominated by
    ethnic Russians
   Constitution of 1993 attempts to minimize distinction
    between federal and non-federal
   The republics, territories, oblasts, and cities of federal
    designation are held to be "equal in their relations with
    the federal agencies of state power”
   Represents an attempt to end the complaints of the
    non-republic jurisdictions about their inferior status
     Processes of Democratization
•   Russia has a dual executive, (president and Prime Minister)
•   There is a direct election of the president. The prime minister is
    elected by the president but must be approved by the lower
    house of the parliament (State Duma)
•   The is a bicameral legislation. Upper house (Federation Council)
    appointed by heads of regional executive and representative
    organs
•   The Lower house (State Duma) chosen by direct election until
    2003.
                  Components
•   Democratic centralism- mandated a hierarchical
    party structure in which leaders were elected
    from below, with freedom of discussion until a
    decision was taken, but strict discipline was
    required in implementing party policy.
•   The concept of vanguard party governed the
    Bolsheviks relations with broader social forces:
    party leaders claimed that they understood the
    interests of the working people better than the
    people did themselves.
       During Stalin Revolution
   collectivization- campaign that was justified as a
    means of preventing the emergence of a new
    capitalist class in the country side but it actually
    targeted the peasantry as a whole, leading to
    widespread famine and the death of millions.
              Collapse of USSR
•   On August 19, 1991, a coalition of conservatives
    tried an attempt of a coup d'état. The failed
    coup proved to be the death knell of the Soviet
    system. Boris Yeltsin declared himself the true
    champion of democratic values and Russian
    national interest.
•   USSR fell and leaders of Ukraine and Belorussia
    declared freedom. In December of 1991, the
    Russian Federation stepped as independent.
            Rise of Democracy
•   Yeltsin quickly proclaimed his commitment to
    Western-stlye democracy and market economic
    reform, marking a radical turn from the Soviet
    past.
•   The new Russian constitution failed to reach
    consensus of exectuvie and legislative branch.
•   New elections in 1993 after a bloody turnover
    occurred and a consituitional referendum in
    December 1993. It was adopted by a narrow
    margin of voters.
                    New reforms
•   In 1999, Yeltsin nominated a surprise candidate
    to the post of prime minister of Russia. Vladimir
    Putin, a former KGB.
•   Later Yeltsin was unable to carry out power in
    December of 1999 and resigned as president of
    Russian Federation.
•   Russia is apart of NATO. Democracy in Russia
    is under concern.
•   Many reforms have been introduced and a lot of
    controversy recently is being stirred up.
                 New reforms
   Russia continues to seek new forms of collective
    identity. They are no longer a superpower.
   Dominance of Western economic and political
    models and the absence of a widely accepted
    ideology have contributed to Russia’s growth
    and fit in this world as a whole.
         Political and Economic
              Development
•   Under the USSR command economy, land,
    factories and all other important economic
    assets belonged to the state.
•   Short and long term economic plans defined
    production goals.
•   Environmental quality and ecologival goals
    deteriorated under Soviet rule. Energy intensity
    surged after the fall of USSR
•   Firms and individuals are now allowed to
    develop links to foreign partners.
         Economic Improvement

•   Now businesses are allowed to have foreign relationships
    and the economy has boomed.
•   The downside was that Russian consumer goods were
    low by international standards which denied access to
    many advances available in Western industrial society.
•   Despite all these disadvantages, they had rapid
    industrialization, provision of social welfare, and mass
    education, relatively low levels of inequality.
•   Only after the fall of USSR did fundamental economic
    change take place.
         State and Economy in the
            Russian Federation
•    In 1992, Yeltsin endorsed radical market reform,
     sometimes referred to as shock therapy because of the
     radical rupture it implied for the economy.
•    Four main pillars of reform were:
1.    The lifting of price controls
2.    Encouragement of small private businesses
3.    The privatization of most state-owned enterprises
4.    Opening the economy to international influences.
                 State & Economy
•   Many obstacles were faced by this new economy with high
    unemployment and high prices.
•   In 1994 joint-stock companies were transformed. The most
    widely adopted method for privatizing state enterprises gave
    managers and workers of the enterprise the right to acquire a
    controlling packet of shares.
•   Each citizen of Russia was issued a privatization voucher with a
    nominal value of 10,000 rubles (10 US dollars).
•   This allowed Russians to acquire shares.
                      Reform
   Insider Privatization placed substantial obstacles
    to reform of business operations because it
    made managers reluctant to increase efficiency
    by firing excess labor, which kept work
    discipline lax.
                 Downturns
   The Russian mafia came around as wealthy and
    powerful people became targets for them.
   Russia’s economy became known as a pyramid
    debt. This is when a situation when a
    government or organization takes on debt
    obligations at progressively higher rates of
    interest in order to pay off existing debt.
    Economic Reform and Russian
              Society
   Woman still endure many of the same hardships form which
    they suffered in USSR.
   They continue to have household responsibilities etc. Many
    woman take advantage of three year maternity leave.
    Social impacts of economic stress led to higher crime rates,
    suicide, and alcoholism.
   Birth rate has declined in Russia and the population is
    decreasing. Immigration into Russia has declined as well.
   The decline in Russians population has been tempered by
    immigration.
    Russia in the Global Economy
   Russia has become a more global figure since
    the end of USSR.
   Russia has problems attracting foreign
    investments.
   Russia’s position in the international political
    economy remains undetermined.
    Governance and Policy making
   Russia’s leadership endorsed liberal democratic
    principles as the basis of its new political
    institutions.
   Disagreement over the status of Russian
    democracy and its future form the backdrop for
    our examination of Russian state structures and
    policy making.
           The New Russian State
•   There is competitive elections in Russia. But the power is in the
    prime minister and presidents hands.
•   The constitutuion establishes a semipresidential system, formally
    resembling the French system, but with stronger exectuve power.
    President holds primary power.
•   President is elected directly every four years. Mikhail Fradkov
    was elected prime minister after Putin became president in 2004.
             National Bureaucracy
•   The new Russian state inherited a large bureaucratic apparatus.
•   The downsize of executive bureaucratic apparatus was
    successful.
•   Patron-client networks, which were important in the Soviet
    period, continue to play a key role in both the presidential
    administration and other state organs. These linkages are similar
    to old-boy networks in the West.
•   Siloviki- Russian politicians and gov. officials drawn from
    security and intelligence agencies and put under Putin in the
    bureaucracy.
        Subnational Government
   Asymmetrical federalism is giving different
    regions varying privileges.
   Power vertical is a concept that involves the
    strengthening of an integrated structure of
    executive power from the top level down
    through to the local level.
        Supranational/International
               Institutions
   UN/UN security Council
   IMF (International Monetary Fund)
       Bail-outs
   WTO(Observer)
   World Bank meetings with Russia
   APEC ( Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)
   Many More
      Public Policy and Current Issues
   Economic Performance
   Social Welfare
   Civil Liberites
   Environment
   Population and Migration
   Corruption
   Merger with British Petroleum
     Recent Economic Performance
   Unemployment rate decreases
       13.1% below the poverty line
   Inflation rate decreases
   National Debt increases
       Debt is mostly to the US
   Exchange Rates
   GDP -1.477 trillion
                 Social Welfare
   Literacy
   Education expectancy
   Education Budget
   Alcohol abuse in Russia
     Infant Mortality Rate
     Medvedev’s push for sobriety

   Life Expectancy
   Poverty 13.1% below poverty line
                  Civil Liberties
   Suffrage at 18
   Equal Rights for everyone
       Not opportunity
   Freedom of speech
   Freedom of religion
   Due process and fair trial
   Freedom to vote
   Putin impedes certain liberties
                    Environment
   Pollution
       Air/water etc
   Toxic Waste
   Nuclear Radiation
         Population and Migration
   Russia’s declining population
       Birth rate/death rate
   Urbanization decreases
   Migration
   Ethnic Groups
                   BP/ Rosneft
   British Petroleum and Russian Oil ( Rosneft)
    merged two weeks ago
     This gave BP the right to drill for oil in Russia’s
      Artic region
     Gives Rosneft 5% of BP shares and the use of BP’s
      technology and skill.
Suicide Bombers in Moscow
              Terrorist groups that
               most frequently
               attack Moscow are
               from this general
               area

				
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