Human Anatomy Physiology Notes Outline Purpose Use of this

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					                      Human Anatomy & Physiology I – Notes Outline

Purpose & Use of this Outline

This is strictly an outline, there are no definitions or explanations provided. You should use this
outline as a guide to help prepare for class, organize your notes, and study for exams. Not all
of these topics will be covered during class – you will be responsible for learning some of this
information on your own from the textbook and online sources, with the help of homework
assignments. If you miss class, be sure to get the notes from a classmate or complete the missed
section of this outline using your book.

Unit 1

Chapter 1

   1. Basic Terms
         a. Anatomy
                  i. Gross/Microscopic
                 ii. Systemic/Regional
         b. Physiology
   2. Levels of organization
         a. Chemical
         b. Cell
         c. Tissue
                  i. Epithelial
                 ii. Connective
                iii. Muscular
                iv. Nervous
         d. Organ
         e. Organ system – major structures & functions
                  i. Integumentary
                 ii. Skeletal
                iii. Muscular
                iv. Nervous
                 v. Endocrine
                vi. Cardiovascular
               vii. Lymphatic/Immune
               viii. Respiratory
                ix. Digestive
                 x. Urinary
                xi. Reproductive
         f. Organism
3. Basic Life Processes
      a. Metabolism
                i. Catabolism
               ii. Anabolism
      b. Responsiveness
      c. Movement
      d. Growth
      e. Differentiation
      f. Reproduction
4. Homeostasis
      a. Body Fluids
                i. Intracellular Fluid (ICF)
               ii. Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
      b. Feedback Systems
                i. Receptor
               ii. Control center
              iii. Effector
              iv. Negative feedback
               v. Positive feedback
      c. Homeostatic Imbalances

5. Anatomical Terminology
      a. Anatomical position
      b. Regional Terms
            i. Head/Cephalic
               a. Cranial                      f.   Buccal
               b. Facial                       g.   Nasal
               c. Orbital/Ocular               h.   Oral
               d. Temporal                     i.   Mental
               e. Frontal
           ii. Neck
               a. Cervical
          iii. Trunk
               a. Thoracic                     b. Abdominal
                    i. Sternal                     i. Umbilical
                   ii. Mammary                    ii. Coxal
                  iii. Scapular                c. Pelvic
                  iv. Vertebral                    i. Inguinal
                                                  ii. Sacral
     iv.     Upper Limb
             a. Axillary                            d. Antebrachial
             b. Brachial                            e. Carpal
             c. Antecubital                         f. Manual
       v. Lower Limb
             a. Femoral                             d. Crural
             b. Patellar                            e. Tarsal
             c. Popliteal                           f. Pedal
c.   Directional Terms
          i. Superior, inferior
         ii. Anterior, posterior
        iii. Medial, lateral, intermediate
        iv. Ipsilateral, contralateral
         v. Proximal, distal
        vi. Superficial, deep
d.   Planes & Sections
          i. Frontal
         ii. Transverse
        iii. Sagittal
                1. Parasagittal
                2. Midsagittal
        iv. Oblique
         v. Cross section
        vi. Longitudinal section
e.   Body Cavities
          i. Dorsal
                1. Cranial
                2. Vertebral
         ii. Thoracic
                1. Pleural
                2. Pericardial
                3. Mediastinum
        iii. Abdominopelvic
                1. Abdominal
                2. Pelvic
f.   Cavity Membranes
          i. Serous Membrane (parietal, visceral)
         ii. Pleura
        iii. Pericardium
        iv. Peritoneum
            g. Abdominopelvic Regions – location & organs in each
                   i. Right hypochondriac                          vi.    Left lumbar
                  ii. Epigastric                                  vii.    Right inguinal
                 iii. Left hypochondriac                          viii.   Hypogastric
                 iv. Right lumbar                                  ix.    Left inguinal
                  v. Umbilical
            h. Abdominopelvic Quadrants – location & organs in each
                   i. Right upper                                  iii.   Right lower
                  ii. Left upper                                   iv.    Left lower
Chapter 3

   6. Major parts of a Cell
         a. Plasma membrane
                 i. Phospholipids
                ii. Membrane Proteins
                         1. Linkers
         b. Cytoplasm
                 i. Cytoskeleton
                         1. Microfilaments
                         2. Intermediate filaments
                         3. Microtubules
                                a. Cilia
         c. Nucleus
   7. Cellular Diversity



Chapter 29

      NOTE: the purpose of learning information from this chapter is to see where the
      different types of tissues come from or develop during embryonic development. You
      should know the order of events of embryonic development as well as what tissues and
      organs develop from * terms.

   8. First Week of Development
          a. Fertilization
          b. Zygote
          c. Cleavage
          d. Blastocyst
          e. Inner Cell Mass *
          f. Implantation
   9. Second Week of Development
          a. Trophoblast
          b. Bilaminar Embryonic Disc
                  i. Hypoblast (primitive endoderm) *
                 ii. Epiblast (primitive ectoderm) *
          c. Amnion
          d. Yolk Sac
          e. Chorion
   10. Third Week of Development
          a. Gastrulation
          b. Trilaminar Embryonic Disc
                  i. Endoderm *
                 ii. Ectoderm *
                iii. Mesoderm *
          c. Notochord
          d. Neurulation
          e. Somites
                  i. Myotome *
                 ii. Dermatome *
                iii. Sclerotome *
          f. Cardiovascular System
                  i. Angiogenesis *
          g. Placenta
   11. Fourth Week of Development
          a. Embryonic Folding
          b. Organogenesis *
          c. Primitive Gut *
          d. Pharyngeal Arches
          e. Limb Buds

Chapter 4

   12. Major Tissues Types
          a. Epithelial                                         c. Muscular
          b. Connective                                         d. Nervous
   13. Cell Junctions – structure of each, including proteins
          a. Tight
          b. Adherens
          c. Desmosomes
          d. Hemidesmosomes
          e. Gap Junctions
14. Epithelial Tissue
       a. Cell Surfaces
                 i. Apical                                         iii. Basal
                ii. Lateral                                        iv. Basement Membrane
       b. Cell Layers
                 i. Simple                                         iii. Stratified
                ii. Pseudostratified
       c. Cell Shapes
                 i. Squamous                                       iii. Columnar
                ii. Cuboidal                                       iv. Transitional
       d. Covering & Lining Epithelial Tissues – structure, location, function
                 i. Simple Squamous
                ii. Simple Cuboidal
               iii. Simple Columnar – ciliated
               iv. Simple Columnar – non-ciliated
                v. Pseudostratified Columnar
               vi. Stratified Squamous
              vii. Stratified Cuboidal
             viii. Stratified Columnar
               ix. Transitional
       e. Glandular Epithelial Tissues
                 i. Endocrine
                ii. Exocrine
                       1. Unicellular
                       2. Multicellular
                       3. Merocrine
                       4. Apocrine
                       5. Holocrine
15. Connective Tissue
       a. General Features
                 i. Extracellular matrix
                       1. Protein Fibers
                               a. Collagen
                               b. Elastic
                               c. Reticular
                       2. Ground Substance
                               a. Hyaluronic Acid
                ii. Cells
                       1. Fibroblasts                               4. Mast Cells
                       2. Macrophages                               5. Adipocytes
                       3. Plasma Cells                              6. White Blood Cells
b. Embryonic Connective Tissue
       i. Mesenchyme
      ii. Mucous CT
c. Mature Connective Tissue – structure, location, function
       i. Loose CT
             1. Areolar
             2. Adipose
             3. Reticular
      ii. Dense CT
             1. Dense regular
             2. Dense irregular
             3. Elastic
     iii. Cartilage
             1. Hyaline cartilage
             2. Fibrocartilage
             3. Elastic cartilage
     iv. Bone
             1. Cells
                    a. Osteogenic
                    b. Osteoblasts
                    c. Osteocytes
                    d. Osteoclasts
             2. Compact bone
                    a. Osteon/Haversian system
                             i. Central/Haversian Canal
                            ii. Concentric Lamellae
                           iii. Lacunae
                           iv. Canaliculi
                            v. Perforating/Volkmann’s Canals
                    b. Circumferential Lamellae
                    c. Periosteum
                             i. Inner osteogenic layer
                            ii. Outer fibrous layer
             3. Spongy bone
                    a. Trabeculae
                    b. Bone marrow
      v. Liquid CT
             1. Blood
             2. Lymph
16. Membranes
      a. Epithelial Membranes
             i. Mucous Membrane/Mucosa
                    1. Lamina propria
            ii. Serous Membrane/Serosa
                    1. Visceral layer
                    2. Parietal layer
           iii. Cutaneous Membrane
      b. Synovial Membranes
             i. Synovial fluid

17. Muscular Tissues
        a. Properties
                i. Excitability
               ii. Contractility
              iii. Extensibility
              iv. Elasticity
        b. General Characteristics
                i. Epimysium
               ii. Whole Muscle
              iii. Perimysium
              iv. Fascicle
               v. Endomysium
              vi. Sarcolemma
             vii. Muscle Fiber (Cell)
             viii. Myofibrils
              ix. Filaments
        c. Types of Muscle Tissue – structure, location, function
                i. Skeletal
               ii. Cardiac
              iii. Smooth
18. Nervous Tissue
        a. Neurons
                i. Cell body
               ii. Dendrites
              iii. Axon
              iv. Axon Terminals
        b. Neuroglia
19. Tissue Repair
        a. Stem Cells & Regeneration
        b. Fibrosis
UNIT 2

Chapter 6

   1. Functions of the Skeletal System
          a. Support
          b. Protection
          c. Assistance in Movement
          d. Mineral Homeostasis
          e. Blood Cell Production
          f. Triglyceride Storage
   2. Structure of Bone
          a. Diaphysis
          b. Epiphyses
                  i. Epiphyseal (growth) plate
                 ii. Epiphyseal line
          c. Metaphysis
          d. Articular cartilage
          e. Periosteum
                  i. Outer fibrous layer
                 ii. Inner osteogenic layer
          f. Medullary cavity
          g. Endosteum

Chapter 7

   3. Divisions of the Skeleton
         a. Axial Skeleton
                  i. Skull
                 ii. Vertebral column
         b. Appendicular Skeleton
                  i. Pectoral girdle & Arm
                 ii. Pelvic girdle & Leg
   4. Types of Bones
         a. Long                                 d. Irregular
         b. Short                                e. Sesamoid
         c. Flat
   5. Bone Surface Markings
         a. Depressions & Openings
                  i. Fissure                          iv. Sulcus
                 ii. Foramen                           v. Meatus
                iii. Fossa
          b. Processes that form Joints
                  i. Condyle
                 ii. Facet
                iii. Head
          c. Processes that form Attachment points
                  i. Crest                            v. Trochanter
                 ii. Epicondyle                      vi. Tubercle
                iii. Line                            vii. Tuberosity
               iv. Spinous process
Chapter 10

   6. Functions of Muscle Tissues
         a. Body Movements
         b. Stabilization/posture
         c. Store and Move Substances
         d. Generate heat

Chapter 11

   7. Muscle Attachment Sites
        a. Origin
        b. Insertion
   8. Muscle Coordination
        a. Prime Mover
        b. Antagonist
        c. Synergist
   9. Naming Skeletal Muscles
        a. Direction of Fibers
                 i. Rectus
                ii. Transverse
               iii. Oblique
        b. Relative Size of Muscle
                 i. Maximus                           vi.    Longissimus
                ii. Minimus                          vii.    Magnus
               iii. Longus                           viii.   Major
               iv. Brevis                             ix.    Minor
                v. Latissimus                          x.    Vastus
        c. Shape of Muscle
                 i. Deltoid                           v. Orbicularis
                ii. Trapezius                        vi. Quadratus
               iii. Serratus                         vii. Gracilis
               iv. Rhomboid
          d. Action
                 i. Flexor                    vi.    Depressor
                ii. Extensor                 vii.    Supinator
               iii. Abductor                 viii.   Pronator
               iv. Adductor                   ix.    Tensor
                v. Levator                     x.    Rotator
          e. Number of origins
                 i. Biceps
                ii. Triceps
               iii. Quadriceps
          f. Location
          g. Origin & Insertion

Chapter 9 – Muscle Actions at Joints

   10. Gliding Movement
   11. Angular Movements
          a. Flexion                   e. Abduction
          b. Lateral flexion           f. Adduction
          c. Extension                 g. Circumduction
          d. Hyperextension
   12. Rotation
   13. Other Movements
          a. Elevation                 g.   Dorsiflexion
          b. Depression                h.   Plantar flexion
          c. Protraction               i.   Supination
          d. Retraction                j.   Pronation
          e. Inversion                 k.   Opposition
          f. Eversion


Chapter 7 – Skull

   14. Sutures
          a. Coronal
          b. Sagittal
          c. Lambdoid
          d. Squamous
   15. Fontanels
          a. Anterior
          b. Posterior
16. Cranial Bones
       a. Frontal Bone
               i. Frontal squama
              ii. Frontal sinuses
             iii. Supraorbital foramen
       b. Parietal Bones
       c. Temporal Bones
               i. Squamous portion
                     1. Zygomatic process
                     2. Mandibular fossa
              ii. Mastoid portion
                     1. External auditory meatus
                     2. Mastoid process
                     3. Styloid process
             iii. Petrous portion
                     1. Internal auditory meatus
                     2. Carotid foramen/canal
                     3. Jugular foramen/canal
       d. Occipital Bone
               i. Foramen magnum
              ii. Occipital condyles
             iii. External occipital protuberance
       e. Sphenoid Bone
               i. Body
                     1. Sphenoid sinus
                     2. Sella turcica
              ii. Greater & Lesser Wings
                     1. Optic foramen/canal
             iii. Pterygoid processes
             iv. Foramen ovale
              v. Foramen lacerum
             vi. Foramen rotundum
       f. Ethmoid Bone
               i. Cribriform plate
                     1. Olfactory foramina/canal
                     2. Crista galli
                     3. Perpendicular plate
              ii. Lateral Masses
                     1. Ethmoid sinuses
                     2. Nasal conchae (superior, middle)
   17. Facial Bones
          a. Maxilla
                   i. Maxillary sinuses
                  ii. Palatine process
                 iii. Infraorbital foramen
          b. Palatine Bones
          c. Zygomatic Bones
          d. Lacrimal Bones
                   i. Lacrimal fossa
          e. Inferior Nasal Conchae
          f. Vomer
          g. Nasal Bones
          h. Mandible
                   i. Body
                          1. Mental foramen
                  ii. Rami
                          1. Coronoid process
                          2. Condylar process
                          3. Mandibular notch
                          4. Mandibular foramen
   18. Hyoid Bone

Chapter 10 – Muscles of the Head

      NOTE: know action & location of all muscles listed, for * also know origin & insertion

   19. Muscles of Facial Expression
         a. Occipitofrontalis
                  i. Frontalis
                 ii. Occipitalis
         b. Orbicularis Oris
         c. Zygomaticus major *
         d. Zygomaticus minor *
         e. Buccinator
         f. Risorius *
         g. Orbicularis oculi
   20. Muscles of Mastication
         a. Masseter *
         b. Temporalis *
Chapter 7 – Vertebrae, Sternum, Ribs

   21. Vertebrae
          a. Types
                  i. Cervical                                iv. Sacral
                 ii. Thoracic                                 v. Coccyx
                iii. Lumbar
          b. Structure of a Typical Vertebra
                  i. Body
                 ii. Vertebral Arch
                         1. Pedicle
                         2. Lamina
                iii. Vertebral Foramen
                iv. Processes
                         1. Transverse
                         2. Spinous
                         3. Superior Articular facets
                         4. Inferior Articular facets
          c. Cervical Vertebrae
                  i. Transverse foramen
                 ii. Bifid spinous process
                iii. C1 (Atlas)
                         1. Posterior & Anterior arches
                         2. Lateral masses
                         3. Superior articular facets
                                a. Atlanto-occipital joint
                iv. C2 (Axis)
                         1. Dens
          d. Thoracic Vertebrae
                  i. Demifacets
          e. Lumbar Vertebrae
          f. Sacrum
                  i. Transverse lines/ridges
                 ii. Medial & Lateral sacral crests
                iii. Sacral foramina
                iv. Intervertebral foramina
                 v. Sacral hiatus
          g. Coccyx
   22. Bones of the Thorax
          a. Sternum
                  i. Manubrium
                 ii. Body
                iii. Xiphoid process
          b. Ribs
                  i. True ribs
                         1. Costal cartilage
                 ii. False ribs
                iii. Floating ribs
                iv. Structures of ribs – head, neck, body

Chapter 11 – Muscles of the Neck, Back, Chest, and Abdomen

      NOTE: know action & location of all muscles listed, for * also know origin & insertion

   23. Muscles of the Neck
         a. Sternocleidomastoid *
         b. Platysma
   24. Muscles of the Abdomen
         a. Rectus abdominis *
         b. External oblique *
         c. Internal oblique *
         d. Transversus abdominis *
   25. Muscles for Breathing
         a. Diaphragm
         b. Internal Intercostals
         c. External Intercostals
   26. Muscles of the Back
         a. Erector spinae *
                  i. Spinalis
                 ii. Longissimus
                iii. Iliocostalis
         b. Trapezius *
         c. Levator scapulae
         d. Rhomboid major
         e. Rhomboid minor
         f. Latissimus dorsi *
   27. Muscles of the Chest
         a. Pectoralis major *
         b. Pectoralis minor *
         c. Serratus anterior *
Chapter 9 – Joints – Introduction

   28. Structural Classification of Joints
           a. Fibrous
                   i. Sutures
                  ii. Syndesmoses
                 iii. Interosseous Membranes
           b. Cartilaginous
                   i. Synchondroses
                  ii. Symphyses
           c. Synovial
                   i. General Structure
                           1. Synovial Cavity
                           2. Articular capsule
                                  a. Fibrous membrane
                                  b. Synovial membrane
                                  c. Synovial fluid
                           3. Accessory Ligaments
                           4. Meniscus/Articular cartilage
                  ii. Diarthrotic joints
   29. Functional Classification of Joints
           a. Synarthrotic
           b. Amphiarthrotic
           c. Diarthrotic
                   i. Monaxial
                           1. Hinge
                           2. Pivot
                  ii. Biaxial
                           1. Planar/Gliding
                           2. Condyloid/Ellipsoid
                 iii. Triaxial
                           1. Saddle
                           2. Ball & Socket



Chapter 8 – Appendicular Skeleton – Arm

   30. Pectoral Girdle
          a. Clavicle
                  i. Acromial end
                 ii. Sternal end
      b. Scapula
                i. Scapular spine
               ii. Supraspinous fossa
              iii. Infraspinous fossa
             iv. Acromion
               v. Glenoid cavity
             vi. Medial/vertebral border
            vii. Lateral/axillary border
            viii. Superior border
              ix. Coracoids process
               x. Subscapular fossa
31. Upper Limb (Arm)
      a. Humerus
                i. Head
               ii. Greater tubercle
              iii. Lesser tubercle
             iv. Intertubercular groove/sulcus
               v. Body/shaft
             vi. Deltoid tuberosity
            vii. Capitulum
            viii. Trochlea
              ix. Coronoid fossa
               x. Olecranon fossa
              xi. Medial epicondyle
             xii. Lateral epicondyle
      b. Ulna
                i. Olecranon process
               ii. Coronoid process
              iii. Trochlear notch
             iv. Radial notch
               v. Ulnar tuberosity
             vi. Head
            vii. Styloid process
      c. Radius
                i. Head
               ii. Radial tuberosity
              iii. Styloid process
      d. Carpals
      e. Metacarpals: I, II, III, IV, V
      f. Phalanges: I, II, III, IV, V
                i. Proximal, Middle, Distal
Chapter 9 – Joints – Shoulder

   32. Shoulder Joint
          a. Articular capsule
          b. Glenoid cavity
          c. Ligaments
                  i. Coracohumeral
                 ii. Glenohumeral
                iii. Transverse humeral
          d. Bursae
                  i. Subscapular
                 ii. Subdeltoid
                iii. Subacromial
                iv. Subcoracoid

Chapter 11 – Muscles of the Shoulder & Arm

      NOTE: know action & location of all muscles listed, for * also know origin & insertion

   33. Muscles of the Shoulder
         a. Deltoid *
         b. Teres major
         c. Rotator Cuff
                  i. Teres minor
                 ii. Subscapularis
                iii. Supraspinatus
                iv. Infraspinatus
   34. Muscles of the Upper Arm
         d. Biceps brachii *
         e. Brachialis *
         f. Triceps brachii *
         g. Bracioradialis *
         h. Pronator teres
   35. Muscles of the Lower Arm
         i. Flexor carpi radialis
         j. Palmaris longus
         k. Flexor carpi ulnaris
         l. Extensor carpi radialis longus
         m. Extensor digitorum
         n. Extensor carpi ulnaris
Chapter 8 – Appendicular Skeleton – Leg

   36. Pelvic Girdle
          a. Pelvic Bones – Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
                    i. Iliac crest
                   ii. Iliac fossa
                  iii. Anterior superior iliac spine
                 iv. Anterior inferior iliac spine
                   v. Posterior superior iliac spine
                 vi. Posterior inferior iliac spine
                vii. Greater sciatic notch
                viii. Ischial spine
                  ix. Ischial tuberosity
                   x. Ramus of ischium
                  xi. Pubic tubercle
                 xii. Ramus of pubis
                xiii. Pubic symphysis
                xiv. Acetabulum
                xv. Obturator foramen
          b. Sacrum (see axial skeleton – vertebral column)
   37. Lower Limb (Leg)
          a. Femur
                    i. Head
                   ii. Fovea capitis
                  iii. Neck
                 iv. Greater trochanter
                   v. Lesser trochanter
                 vi. Intertrochanteric crest
                vii. Body/Shaft
                viii. Linea aspera
                  ix. Medial epicondyle
                   x. Lateral epicondyle
                  xi. Medial condyle
                 xii. Lateral condyle
                xiii. Intercondylar fossa
          b. Patella
          c. Tibia
                    i. Medial condyle
                   ii. Lateral condyle
                  iii. Intercondylar eminence
                 iv. Tibial tuberosity
                  v. Anterior crest
                  vi. Medial malleolus
          d.   Fibula
                    i. Head
                   ii. Lateral malleolus
          e.   Tarsals
                    i. Calcaneus
                   ii. Talus
          f.   Metatarsals: I, II, III, IV, V
          g.   Phalanges: I, II, III, IV, V
                    i. Proximal, Middle, Distal

Chapter 9 – Joints – Hip & Knee

   38. Hip
          a. Articular capsule
          b. Ligaments
                  i. Iliofemoral
                 ii. Pubofermoral
                iii. Ischiofemoral
   39. Knee
          a. Articular capsule
          b. Tendons
                  i. Medial patellar retinacula
                 ii. Lateral patellar retinacula
          c. Ligaments
                  i. Lateral (fibular) collateral
                 ii. Medial (tibial) collateral
                iii. Anterior cruciate (ACL)
                iv. Posterior cruciate
                 v. Arcuate popliteal
                vi. Oblique popliteal
               vii. Patellar
          d. Menisci (medial, lateral)
          e. Bursae
                  i. Suprapatellar
                 ii. Prepatellar
                iii. Infrapatellar
Chapter 11 – Muscles of the Pelvis & Leg

      NOTE: know action & location of all muscles listed, for * also know origin & insertion

   40. Muscles of the Gluteal Region
         a. Iliopsoas (Iliacus + Psoas major) *
         b. Gluteus maximus *
         c. Gluteus medius *
         d. Tensor fasciae latae *
         e. Adductor Group
                  i. Adductor longus *
                 ii. Adductor brevis *
                iii. Adductor magnus *
   41. Muscles of the Thigh
         a. Gracilis *
         b. Quadriceps Group
                  i. Rectus femoris *
                 ii. Vastus lateralis *
                iii. Vastus medialis *
                iv. Vastus intermedius *
         c. Sartorius *
         d. Hamstrings Group
                  i. Biceps femoris *
                 ii. Semitendinosus *
                iii. Semimembranosus *
   42. Muscles of the Lower Leg
         a. Tibialis anterior *
         b. Extensor digitorum longus
         c. Fibularis longus
         d. Fibularis brevis
         e. Gastrocnemius *
         f. Soleus *
         g. Popliteus
         h. Tibialis posterior
         i. Flexor digitorum longus
UNIT 3

Chapter 3 – Cells Overview

   1. Major Parts of a Cell
         a. Plasma Membrane
         b. Cytoplasm
         c. Nucleus
   2. Cytoplasm
         a. Cytosol
         b. Cytoskeleton
         c. Organelles
                   i. Ribosomes
                  ii. Endoplasmic Reticulum
                         1. Rough
                         2. Smooth
                 iii. Golgi
                iv. Vesicles
                  v. Lysosomes
                vi. Peroxisomes
                vii. Mitochondria
   3. Nucleus
         a. Nuclear envelope
         b. DNA/chromosomes
   4. Gene Expression – definition only, no processes
         a. Transcription
         b. Translation
   5. Cell Division – definition only, no processes
         a. Mitosis
                   i. Control of cell division
                  ii. Cancer
                 iii. Telomeres & Aging
         b. Meiosis

Chapter 2 – Chemistry

   6. Chemistry Terms
         a. Element
         b. Atom
                 i. Proton
                ii. Neutron
               iii. Electron
      c. Ions
               i. Anion
              ii. Cation
      d. Molecules & Compounds
7. Chemical Bonds
      a. Ionic bond
      b. Covlaent bond
               i. Polar covalent
              ii. Nonpolar covalent
      c. Hydrogen bond
8. Chemical Reactions
      a. Reactants & Products
      b. Energy Transfer
               i. Exergonic
              ii. Endergonic
             iii. Activation Energy
            iv. Catalysts/Enzymes
      c. Types of Reactions
               i. Synthesis/Dehydration/Anabolic
              ii. Decomposition/Hydrolysis/Catabolic
             iii. Oxidation-Reduction
9. Inorganic Compounds & Solutions
      a. Water
               i. Solvent
              ii. Properties of water important for life
      b. Solutions
               i. Solvent
              ii. Solute
             iii. Salts
      c. Acids & Bases
               i. pH scale
              ii. Acid (H+)
             iii. Base (Alkaline) (OH-)
            iv. Buffer Systems

10. Organic Compounds
       a. Carbohydrates
               i. Monosaccharides
              ii. Disaccharides
             iii. Polysaccharides
         b. Lipids
                 i. Fatty Acids
                ii. Triglycerides
                        1. Saturated
                        2. Monounsaturated
                        3. Polyunsaturated
               iii. Phopholipids
               iv. Steroids
         c. Proteins
                 i. Amino Acids
                ii. Organization
                        1. Primary structure
                        2. Secondary structure
                        3. Tertiary structure
                        4. Quaternary structure (only in some)
         d. Nucleic Acids
                 i. Nucleotides
                        1. Nitrogenous Base
                        2. Sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
                        3. Phosphate group
                ii. DNA, RNA, ATP

Chapter 3 – Cell Membranes

   11. Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membranes
           a. Lipid Bilayer
                   i. Phospholipids – hydrophilic heads, hydrophobic tails
                  ii. Cholesterol
                 iii. Membrane Proteins (integral, peripheral)
                          1. Ion Channels
                          2. Carriers
                          3. Receptors
                          4. Enzymes
                          5. Linkers
                          6. Identity Markers
           b. Membrane permeability
                   i. Selective permeability
                  ii. Gradients
                          1. Concentration Gradient
                          2. Electrical & Chemical Gradients
12. Membrane Transport
      a. Passive Transport
             i. Diffusion
                    1. Factors that affect speed of diffusion
                           a. Steepness of concentration gradient
                           b. Temperature
                           c. Mass of molecule
                           d. Surface area available for diffusion
                           e. Diffusion distance
                    2. Simple Diffusion – definition, molecules
                    3. Facilitated Diffusion
                           a. Channel-Mediated – definition, molecules
                           b. Carrier-Mediated – definition, molecules
            ii. Osmosis
                    1. Concentration gradient
                           a. Hydrostatic pressure
                           b. Osmotic pressure
                    2. Tonicity
                           a. Isotonic
                           b. Hypotonic
                                   i. Lysis
                           c. Hypertonic
                                   i. Crenation
      b. Active Transport
             i. Primary Active Transport – definition, molecules/examples
                    1. Pumps
                           a. Na+/K+ pump
            ii. Secondary Active Transport – definition, molecules/examples
                    1. Antiporter
                    2. Symporter
           iii. Vesicular Transport
                    1. Endocytosis
                           a. Receptor-Mediated
                           b. Phagocytosis
                           c. Pinocytosis
                    2. Exocytosis
                    3. Transcytosis
Chapter 25 – Metabolism

   13. Metabolism
          a. Catabolism
          b. Anatbolism
          c. Role of ATP
   14. Carbohydrate Metabolism
          a. What cells can do with glucose:
                  i. ATP production
                 ii. Amino Acid synthesis
                iii. Glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis)
                iv. Triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis)
          b. Glucose Catabolism (Cellular Respiration)
                  i. Glycolysis
                        1. Location
                        2. Starting & Ending Molecule
                        3. ATP produced
                        4. Electron Carriers produced
                 ii. Formation of Acetyl-CoA
                        1. Location
                        2. Starting & Ending Molecule
                        3. ATP produced
                        4. Electron Carriers produced
                iii. Krebs Cycle
                        1. Location
                        2. Starting & Ending Molecule
                        3. Waste produced
                        4. ATP produced
                        5. Electron Carriers produced
                iv. Electron Transport Chain
                        1. Location
                        2. Electron Carriers
                        3. Waste produced
                        4. ATP Synthase
                        5. ATP produced
          c. Glucose Anabolism
                  i. Glycogenesis
                 ii. Glycogenolysis
                iii. Gluconeogenesis
15. Lipid Metabolism
        a. Lipid transport – Lipoproteins
                i. Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDLs)
               ii. Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs)
              iii. High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs)
              iv. Lipoproteins & Blood Cholesterol
        b. Triglyceride Storage – Adipose tissue
        c. Lipid Catabolism – Lipolysis
                i. Triglycerides  Fatty Acids  Acetyl CoA (for Krebs Cycle)
               ii. Triglycerides  Glycerol  Glucose (for Glycolysis)
        d. Lipid Anabolism – Lipogenesis
                i. Acetyl CoA  Fatty Acids  Triglycerides
               ii. Amino Acids  Acetyl CoA  Fatty Acids  Triglycerides
              iii. Glucose  Glycerol  Triglycerides
16. Protein Metabolism
        a. Protein Catabolism
                i. Deamination produces ammonia, liver converts to urea, exreted in urine
               ii. Amino Acids  Acetyl CoA or other molecules for the Krebs Cycle
        b. Protein Anabolism
                i. Proteins  Amino Acids
17. Key Metabolic Molecules
        a. Glucose-6-Phospate
                i. Glycogenesis
               ii. Release glucose to blood
              iii. Synthesize nucleic acids
              iv. Glycolysis for ATP synthesis
        b. Pyruvic Acid
                i. Anaerobic respiration, produces lactic acid
               ii. Production of alanine (an amino acid)
              iii. Gluconeogenesis (release glucose to blood)
        c. Acetyl CoA
                i. Use in Krebs Cycle for ATP synthesis
               ii. Lipogenesis
Chapter X – Cell Signaling

   18. Cell Communication Overview
          a. Electrical (nervous)
          b. Intercellular
                  i. Paracrines
                 ii. Neurotransmitters
          c. Hormonal (endocrine)
                  i. Hormones
          d. Possible Responses to Extracellular Signals
                  i. Signal Transduction
                         1. Tyrosine kinase pathway
                         2. G Protein mechanism (second messenger pathway)
                 ii. Open ligand-gated channel proteins
          e. Electrical & Electrochemical Gradients
                  i. Chemical gradients
                 ii. Electrical gradients
                iii. Electrochemical gradients
          f. Excitable Tissues
                  i. Neurons
                 ii. Muscle fibers/cells
          g. Membrane Potentials Overview
                  i. Equilibrium potential
                 ii. Resting potential
                iii. Graded potential
                         1. Localization
                         2. Summation
                iv. Action potential
                         1. Depolarization
                         2. Repolarization
                         3. Hyperpolarization
                         4. Restoration to Resting Potential
                         5. Refractory Period
                 v. Stimuli
                         1. Sub-threshold stimulus
                         2. Threshold stimulus
                         3. Supra-threshold stimulus
                vi. Role of the Na+/K+ pump
          h. Synapses
                  i. Neuronal Synapses
                 ii. Neuromuscular Junction
Chapter 10 – Muscle Physiology

   19. Muscle Fiber Anatomy
           a. Sarcolemma
           b. Myofibril
           c. T-Tubules
           d. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
           e. Terminal Cisterns
   20. Sarcomere
           a. M line, Z disc
           b. A band, I band
           c. H zone
   21. Muscle proteins
           a. Myosin
           b. Actin
           c. Tropomyosin
           d. Troponin
           e. Dystrophin
   22. Sliding Filament Model
           a. Myosin heads attach to actin filaments
           b. Actin filaments pulled toward center of sarcomere
           c. NOTE: filament lengths do NOT change
   23. Contraction Cycle
           a. Ca2+ released from sarcoplasmic reticulum
           b. Ca2+ binds to troponin
           c. Tropomyosin moves away from myosin binding site on actin filaments
           d. ATP hydrolysis
           e. Crossbridges form
           f. Power stroke
           g. Detachment (ATP hydrolysis)
   24. Excitation-Contraction Coupling
           a. Action potential along T-Tubules
           b. Ca2+ channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum open
           c. Ca2+ released from SR
   25. Rigor Mortis
           a. Lack of ATP production after death…
                    i. Ca2+ not pumped back to SR
                   ii. Myosin heads don’t detach from actin filaments
           b. Causes maintained contraction (muscle rigidity) until decomposition begins
26. Neuromuscular Junction
      a. Neurotransmitter: Acetylcholine (ACh)
      b. ACh  ACh receptors on motor end plate  Na+ channels open  action
          potential along sarcolemma & T-tubules  contraction cycle
      c. ACh broken down quickly by Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
27. Muscle Metabolism
      a. ATP Production
               i. Creatine Phosphate
              ii. Aerobic Respiration
             iii. Anaerobic Respiration
      b. Muscle Fatigue
               i. Insufficient oxygen or nutrients, build-up of lactic acid
              ii. Inadequate release of Ca2+ from SR
             iii. Inadequate release of ACh from motor neuron
28. Muscle Tension
      a. Muscle Contraction Terms
               i. Motor Unit
              ii. Twitch Contraction
                      1. Latent Period
                      2. Contraction Period
                      3. Relaxation Period
      b. Frequency of Stimulation
               i. Wave Summation
              ii. Unfused/Incomplete Tetanus
             iii. Fused/Complete Tetanus
      c. Motor Unit Recruitment
      d. Muscle Tone
               i. Flaccid
              ii. Hypotonia
             iii. Hypertonia
29. Muscle Fiber Types
      a. Slow Oxidative (red, high myoglobin)
      b. Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic (intermediate)
      c. Fast Glycolytic (white, low myoglobin)
UNIT 4

Chapter 12 – Nervous Signaling

   1. Organization of the Nervous System
         a. Central Nervous System (brain, spinal cord)
         b. Peripheral Nervous System (cranial & spinal nerves)
                 i. Somatic Nervous System
                        1. Sensory neurons from body
                        2. Motor neurons to skeletal muscles
                ii. Autonomic Nervous System
                        1. Sensory neurons from visceral organs
                        2. Motor neurons to visceral organs
                        3. Sympathetic Division
                        4. Parasympathetic Division
   2. Functions of the Nervous System
         a. Sensory
         b. Integrative
         c. Motor
   3. Neuron
         a. Cell body
         b. Dendrites
         c. Axon
                 i. Axon hillock
                ii. Axon terminals
                        1. Synaptic end bulbs
                        2. Synaptic vesicles
                        3. Neurotransmitters
         d. Classification of Neurons
                 i. Structural Classification
                        1. Multipolar
                        2. Bipolar
                        3. Unipolar
                ii. Functional Classification
                        1. Sensory/Afferent
                        2. Interneuron/Association
                        3. Motor/Efferent
   4. Neuroglia
         a. CNS
                 i. Astrocytes                                    iii. Microglia
                ii. Oligodendrocytes                              iv. Ependymal Cells
         b. PNS
                  i. Schwann Cells
                 ii. Satellite Cells
5.   Other nervous system terms
         a. Myelinated axons of PNS
                  i. Schwann Cells
                 ii. Nodes of Ranvier
         b. Unmyelinated axons
         c. Ganglion vs. Nucleus
         d. Nerve vs. Tract
         e. White matter vs. Gray matter
6.   Electrical Signals in Neurons – Overview
         a. Stimulus
         b. Graded Potential
         c. Action Potential
         d. Neurotransmitters/Synapse
7.   Ion Chanels
         a. Leakage
         b. Ligand-Gated
         c. Mechanically-Gated
         d. Voltage-Gated
8.   Resting Membrane Potential
         a. Negative inside, Positive outside
         b. Typical value is -70 mV
         c. Factors
                  i. ECF has more Na+ & Cl-, ICF has more K+ & PO4-
                 ii. Negatively charged ions and proteins can’t leave cell
                iii. Na+/K+ pumps keep more Na+ out and K+ in
9.   Graded Potentials
         a. Small deviation from resting potential
                  i. Hyperpolarizing – usually inhibitory
                 ii. Depolarizing – usually excitatory
         b. Strength of stimulus  # ion channels that open  amount of change in potential
         c. Ion channels responsible
                  i. Ligand-gated
                 ii. Mechanically-gated
         d. Localization – spread only a short distance, then die out
         e. Summation – multiple graded potentials “add”
                  i. De + De  stronger depolarizing (can lead to action potential)
                 ii. De + Hyper  signal neutralized (no effect)
                iii. Hyper + Hyper  stronger hyperpolarizing (can lead to inhibition)
10. Action Potentials
       a. Threshold – level that needs to be reached to start action potential (-55 mV)
       b. “All or Nothing”
       c. Phases of an Action Potential
               i. Depolarization
                      1. Threshold stimulus reached
                      2. Voltage-gated Na+ channels open, Na+ rushes in
                      3. As more Na+ enters, more Na+ channels are triggered to open
                      4. Potential continues up to +3- mV
              ii. Repolarization
                      1. Na+ channels close quickly
                      2. Voltage-gated K+ channels open, K+ leaves cell
                      3. Negative charge is restored inside cell
             iii. Hyperpolarization
                      1. K+ channels remain open longer, more K+ leaves cell
                      2. Membrane potential drops below resting potential (to -90 mV)
                      3. K+ channels close
             iv. Restoration to Resting Potential
                      1. Na+/K+ pump move Na+ and K+ back to original side of
                         membrane
              v. Refractory Period
                      1. Absolute – another action potential CAN’T be generated even with
                         a supra-threshold stimulus
                      2. Relative – another action potential CAN be stimulated but only by a
                         supra-threshold stimulus (can occur once the Na+ channels are reset
                         but the K+ channels are still open)
11. Action Potential Propagation
       a. Continuous Conduction – unmyelinated axons
       b. Saltatory Conduction – myelated axons
               i. Faster
              ii. More energy efficient
       c. Factors affecting Speed
               i. Myelination
              ii. Axon diameter
             iii. Temperature
       d. Nerve Fiber Types
               i. A – large myelinated, fast, touch/motor
              ii. B – medium myelinated, medium, ANS
             iii. C – small unmyelinated, slow, pain/temp/pupils/etc.
12. Synapses
       a. Electrical
       b. Chemical
                i. Action potential reaches end of axon terminal
               ii. Depolarization opens Ca2+ channels, Ca2+ moves into terminals
              iii. Increased Ca2+ triggers exocytosis of synaptic vesicles
              iv. Neurotransmitters released into synaptic cleft
               v. Neurotransmitters bind to receptors on post-synaptic cell membrane which
                   opens ligand-gated ion channels causing a graded potential
              vi. Neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft
                       1. Diffusion
                       2. Enzymatic degradation
                       3. Uptake by cells
13. Excitatory & Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials (EPSP/IPSP)
       a. EPSP – graded potential is depolarizing (excitatory)
       b. IPSP – graded potential is hyperpolarizing (inhibitory)
       c. Summation – spatial and temporal
14. Neurotransmitters
       a. Small-molecule Neurotransmitters
                i. Acetylcholine (ACh)
                       1. Mostly PNS, some CNS
                       2. Excitatory at neuromuscular junction
                       3. Inhibitory at other locations
               ii. Amino Acids
                       1. CNS
                       2. Glutamate & Aspartate – excitatory
                       3. GABA & Glycine – inhibitory
              iii. Biogenic Amines
                       1. CNS
                       2. Excitatory or inhibitory depending on receptor
                              a. Norepinephrine (NE) – arousal, dreaming, mood
                              b. Epinephrine (EPI) – enhances sympathetic response
                              c. Dopamine (DA) – emotions, addiction, pleasure, muscle tone
                              d. Serotonin – senses, temperature, mood, appetite, sleep
              iv. ATP/Purines
                       1. CNS & PNS
                       2. Excitatory
               v. Nitric Oxide
                       1. CNS & PNS
                       2. Muscle relaxation (blood vessels)
          b. Neuropeptides
                 i. Substance P – PNS & CNS, pain receptors
                ii. Endorphins – CNS & PNS, block receptors for Substance P (inhibit pain
                    perception)
               iii. Enkephalins – CNS & PNS, inhibit release of Substance P (inhibit pain
                    impulses)
               iv. Angiotensin II – CNS, stimulates thirst, vasoconstriction, release of
                    aldosterone (all for blood pressure regulation)

Chapter 14 – Brain

   15. Meninges
          a. Dura mater
                  i. Falx cerebri
                 ii. Falx cerebelli
                iii. Tentorium cerebelli
          b. Arachnoid mater
          c. Pia mater
   16. Blood-Brain Barrier
   17. Cerebrospinal Fluid
          a. Functions
                  i. Mechanical protection
                 ii. Homeostasis (pH)
                iii. Circulation (nutrients, wastes)
          b. Circulation
                  i. Choroid plexus
                 ii. Ventricles
                         1. Lateral (left & right)
                         2. Third
                         3. Fourth
                         4. Cerebral aqueduct
   18. Brain Stem
          a. Medulla Oblongata
                  i. Structures
                         1. Pyramids & Decussation of the Pyramids
                 ii. Functions
                         1. Cardiovascular Center
                         2. Respiratory Center
                         3. Vomiting Center
                         4. Deglutition Center
       b. Pons
               i. Functions
                      1. Pneumotaxic & Apneustic Centers
       c. Midbrain
               i. Structures
                      1. Cerebral Aqueduct
              ii. Functions
19. Cerebellum
       a. Structures
               i. Transverse fissure
              ii. Arbor vitae
             iii. Cerebellar peduncles
       b. Functions
20. Diencephalon
       a. Thalamus
               i. Functions
       b. Hypothalamus
               i. Functions
              ii. Pituitary gland
       c. Epithalamus
               i. Function
              ii. Pineal Gland
21. Cerebrum
       a. Cerebral Cortex
               i. Sulci & Gyri
                      1. Central sulcus
                      2. Lateral sulcus
                      3. Precentral gyrus
                      4. Postcentral gyrus
              ii. Lobes & Fissures
                      1. Frontal lobe
                      2. Parietal lobe
                      3. Temporal lobe
                      4. Occipital lobe
                      5. Longitudinal fissure
                      6. Temporal fissure
       b. Cerebral White matter
               i. Association tracts
              ii. Commissural tracts
                      1. Corpus callosum
             iii. Projection tracts
          c. Basal Nuclei
          d. Limbic System
                  i. Hippocampus
                 ii. Amygdala
                iii. Fornix
   22. Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex
          a. Sensory Areas
                  i. Primary somatosensory
                 ii. Primary visual
                iii. Primary auditory
                iv. Primary gustatory
                 v. Primary olfactory
          b. Motor Areas
                  i. Primary motor
                 ii. Broca’s speech area
          c. Association Areas
                  i. Somatosensory association
                 ii. Visual association
                iii. Facial recognition
                iv. Auditory association
                 v. Orbitofrontal cortex
                vi. Wernicke’s language area
               vii. Common integrative
               viii. Prefrontal cortex/Frontal association
                ix. Premotor area
                 x. Frontal eye field
   23. Hemispheric Lateralization
   24. Brain Waves
          a. Alpha
          b. Beta
          c. Theta
          d. Delta



Chapter 13 – Spinal Cord

   25. Meninges
         a. Dura mater
         b. Arachnoid mater
         c. Pia mater
26. External Anatomy
        a. Cervical enlargement
        b. Lumbar enlargement
        c. Conus medullaris
        d. Filum terminale
        e. Cauda equina
        f. Posterior/Doral root
        g. Posterior/Dorsal root ganglion
        h. Anterior/Ventral root
27. Internal Anatomy
        a. Anterior median fissure
        b. Posterior median sulcus
        c. Gray commissure
        d. Central Canal
        e. Anterior/Ventral white commissure
        f. Gray Horns
                i. Posterior/Dorsal
               ii. Anterior/Ventral
              iii. Lateral
        g. White Columns
                i. Posterior/Dorsal
               ii. Anterior/Ventral
              iii. Lateral
        h. Sensory/Ascending tracts
        i. Motor/Descending tracts
28. Information Processing in Spinal Cord
        a. Receptor
        b. Sensory neuron (SNS or ANS)
        c. Posterior root ganglion & Posterior root
        d. Posterior gray horn
        e. Interneuron (through lateral gray horn)
        f. Anterior gray horn
        g. Motor neuron
        h. Anterior root
        i. Effector
Chapter 13 & 14 – Nerves

   29. Cranial Nerves
          a. I Olfactory
                  i. Sensory
          b. II Optic
                  i. Sesory
          c. III Oculomotor
                  i. Motor
          d. IV Trochlear
                  i. Motor
          e. V Trigeminal
                  i. Sensory
                 ii. Motor
          f. VI Abducens
                  i. Motor
          g. VII Facial
                  i. Sensory
                 ii. Motor
          h. VIII Vestibulocochlear
                  i. Sensory
          i. IX Glossoharyngeal
                  i. Sensory
                 ii. Motor
          j. X Vagus
                  i. Sensory
                 ii. Motor
          k. XI Accessory
                  i. Motor
          l. XII Hypoglossal
                  i. Motor

   30. Spinal Nerves
          a. Structure
                  i. Epineurium
                 ii. Perineurium
                iii. Fascicle
                iv. Endoneurium
                 v. Myelin sheath
                vi. Axon
       b. Branches of spinal nerves
               i. Posterior/Dorsal ramus
              ii. Anterior/Ventral ramus
             iii. Meningeal Branch
       c. Plexuses & Selected nerves
               i. Cervical Plexus (C1-C5)
                      1. Phrenic nerve
              ii. Brachial Plexus (C5-T1)
                      1. Musculocutaneous nerve
                      2. Axillary nerve
                      3. Median nerve
                      4. Radial nerve
                      5. Ulnar nerve
             iii. Intercostal nerves (T2-T12)
             iv. Lumbar Plexus (L1-L4)
                      1. Femoral nerve
                      2. Obturator nerve
              v. Sacral Plexus (L4-S4)
                      1. Sciatic nerve
                             a. Tibial nerve
                             b. Common Fibular nerve
31. Reflexes
       a. Types
               i. Spinal
              ii. Cranial
             iii. Somatic
             iv. Autonomic
       b. Reflex Arc
               i. Sensory Receptor
              ii. Sensory Neuron
             iii. Integration
             iv. Motor Neuron
              v. Effector
       c. Spinal Somatic Reflexes
               i. Stretch Reflex
              ii. Tendon Reflex
             iii. Flexor & Crossed-Extensor Reflexes
UNIT 5

Chapter 15 – ANS

   32. ANS anatomy
         a. Autonomic sensory neurons from Interoceptors
         b. Integration in spinal cord or various parts of brain
         c. Autonomic motor neurons
                 i. Preganglionic neurons
                       1. Thoracolumbar division – sympathetic
                       2. Craniosacral division - parasympathetic
                ii. Autonomic ganglia
                       1. Sympathetic
                              a. Sympathetic trunk ganglia (paravertebral)
                                       i. Superior cervical
                                      ii. Middle cervical
                                     iii. Inferior cervical
                              b. Prevertebral
                                       i. Celiac
                                      ii. Superior mesenteric
                                     iii. Inferior mesenteric
                                    iv. Aorticorenal
                                      v. Renal
                       2. Parasympathetic
                              a. Terminal
                                       i. Ciliary
                                      ii. Pterygopalatine
                                     iii. Submandibular
                                    iv. Otic
               iii. Postganglionic neurons
               iv. Autonomic Plexuses – sympathetic & parasympathetic
                       1. Cardiac
                       2. Pulmonary
                       3. Celiac
                       4. Superior mesenteric
                       5. Inferior mesenteric
                       6. Hypogastric
                       7. Renal
33. ANS Neurotransmitters & Receptors
      a. Cholinergic neurons
              i. All S & P preganglionic neurons, S postganglionic to sweat glands, and All P
                 postganglionic neurons
             ii. Neurotransmitter – Acetylcholine (ACh)
            iii. Receptors (on postganglionic neurons)
                     1. Nicotinic – adrenal medulla, skeletal muscle
                            a. ACh is always excitatory
                            b. Nicotine can mimic effects of ACh
                     2. Muscarinic – sweat glands, blood vessels, all effectors with
                        parasympathetic innervations
                            a. ACh can be excitatory or inhibitory
                            b. Muscarin (a mushroom poison) can mimic effects of ACh
      b. Adrenergic neurons
              i. Most S postganglionic neurons
             ii. Neurotransmitter – Norepinephrine (NE)
                     1. Can be excitatory or inhibitory
                     2. NE is also released as hormone from adrenal medulla
            iii. Receptors
                     1. a1 – smooth muscle – blood vessels, iris, sphincters of stomach &
                        bladder, salivary glands, sweat glands of palms/soles (all increase in
                        activity)
                     2. a2 – smooth muscle – blood vessels, pancreatic islets (insulin) (all
                        decrease in activity)
                     3. B1 – cardiac muscle, juxtaglomerular cells of kidney, posterior
                        pituitary (all increase in activity)
                     4. B2 – smooth muscle – airways, coronary vessels, blood vessels,
                        bladder (all decrease in activity)
                     5. B3 – brown adipose tissue (for thermoregulation)

34. Sympathetic Response
       a. Fight or Flight – exercise, emergency, excitement, embarrassment
       b. Effects
               i. Pupils dilate
              ii. Airways dilate
             iii. Heart rate & blood pressure increase
             iv. Blood vessels to skeletal & cardiac muscle dilate
              v. Blood vessels to kidneys & GI tract constrict
             vi. Glycogenolysis – glucose release by liver cells
   35. Parasympathetic Response
           a. Resting & Digesting
           b. Effects
                   i. Salivation                                     iv. Digestion
                  ii. Lacrimation                                     v. Defecation
                 iii. Urination
   36. Integration & Control of ANS Responses
           a. Autonomic Reflexes
                   i. Receptors: Interoceptors in internal organs
                  ii. Integration: hypothalamus, brain stem, or spinal cord
                 iii. Motor neurons
                          1. Preganglionic neuron – from spinal cord to autonomic ganglion
                          2. Postganglionic neuron – from ganglion to effector
                 iv. Effectors: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
           b. Examples
                   i. Blood pressure
                  ii. Digestion
                 iii. Defecation & Urination

Chapter 16 – Sensation

   37. Process of Sensation
          a. Stimulation of sensory receptor
          b. Transduction of stimulus
          c. Generation of nerve impulses
          d. Integration of sensory input
   38. Sensory Receptors
          a. Structure
                   i. Free nerve endings
                  ii. Encapsulated nerve endings
                 iii. Separate cells
          b. Location
                   i. Exteroreceptors
                  ii. Interoreceptors
                 iii. Proprioceptors
          c. Stimulus Detected
                   i. Mechanoreceptors                             iv. Photoreceptors
                  ii. Thermoreceptors                               v. Chemoreceptors
                 iii. Nociceptors                                  vi. Osmoreceptors
          d. Adaptation
39. Somatic Sensations
       a. Tactile
               i. Touch
                      1. Meissner corpuscles
                      2. Hair root plexuses
                      3. Merkel discs
              ii. Pressure
                      1. Pacinian/Lamellated corpuscles
             iii. Vibration
             iv. Itch
              v. Tickle
       b. Thermal
               i. Cold receptors
              ii. Warm receptors
       c. Pain
               i. Nociceptors
              ii. Fast & slow pain sensations
             iii. Referred pain
       d. Proprioceptive sensation
               i. Muscle spindles
              ii. Tendon organs
             iii. Joint kinesthetic receptors
40. Somatic Sensory pathways
       a. First order neurons
       b. Second order neurons
       c. Third order neurons
41. Somatic Motor pathways
       a. Role of basal nuclei
       b. Role of cerebellum
42. Wakefulness & Sleep
       a. NREM (Stages 1-4)
       b. REM
43. Learning & Memory
       c. Learning
       d. Memory
               i. Plasticity
              ii. Immediate
             iii. Short-term
             iv. Long-term
Chapter 17 – Special Senses

   44. Olfaction
          a. Anatomy
                   i. Olfactory epithelium
                          1. Olfactory receptors with olfactory hairs
                          2. Basal cells
                          3. Supporting cells
                  ii. Cribriform plate
                 iii. Olfactory nerve
                 iv. Olfactory bulbs & tracts
          b. Olfactory transduction
                   i. Odorant attaches to olfactory receptor membrane protein
                  ii. G-Protein activated
                 iii. G-Protein activates Adenylate cyclase
                 iv. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP
                  v. cAMP opens Na+ channels, Na+ enters and depolarizes membrane
                 vi. Action potential along olfactory nerve neurons
          c. Odor Threshold & Adaptation
                   i. Threshold – only a few molecules need to be present to smell them
                  ii. Adaptation – decreasing sensitivity to a particular odorant, by 50% in first
                      second, then slowly
   45. Gustation
          a. Anatomy
                   i. Taste bud
                          1. Gustatory receptors with gustatory hairs
                          2. Basal cells
                          3. Supporting cells
                          4. Taste pore
                  ii. Types of Taste buds
                          1. Vallate                                           3. Foliate
                          2. Fungiform                                         4. Filiform
          b. Physiology of Taste
                   i. Tastant dissolved in saliva contacts gustatory hairs on gustatory receptor
                      cells in taste buds
                  ii. Each tastant type is slightly different:
                          1. Salty – Na+ causes depolarization directly
                          2. Sour – H+ causes depolarization directly
                          3. Others – attach to receptors and G-Protein mechanism begins
                              (similar to Olfactory Transduction)
             iii. All the different tastes result from various combinations of receptors being
                  activated
        c. Taste Threshold & Adaptation
               i. Threshold – lowest for bitter taste (evolutionary defense mechanism)
              ii. Adaptation – takes 1-5 minutes of continuous stimulation
46. Vision
        a. Accessory structures of the Eye
               i. Palpebrae & Palpebral fissure
              ii. Lateral commissure
             iii. Medial commissure
             iv. Lacrimal caruncle
              v. Conjunctiva
             vi. Lacrimal Apparatus
                      1. Lacrimal glands
                      2. Lacrimal ducts
                      3. Lacrimal puncta
                      4. Lacrimal canals
                      5. Lacrimal sac
                      6. Nasolacrimal duct
        b. Anatomy of the Eyeball
               i. Fibrous tunic
                      1. Sclera
                      2. Cornea
              ii. Vascular tunic
                      1. Choroid
                      2. Ciliary body
                      3. Ciliary muscles
                      4. Iris
                      5. Pupil
             iii. Retina
                      1. Optic disc
                      2. Macula lutea
                      3. Fovea centralis
                      4. Pigmented layer
                      5. Neural/Sensory layer
             iv. Interior of Eyeball
                      1. Anterior cavity – aqueous humor
                              a. Anterior chamber
                              b. Posterior chamber
                      2. Posterior cavity – vitreous humor
c. Image Formation
       i. Light
              1. Wavelengths of radiation from 400-700 nm are visible
              2. Short, higher energy (violet); long, lower energy (red)
      ii. Image Formation
              1. Refraction of Light Rays
                    a. Light bent by cornea and lens brings a small focus spot on the
                        fovea centralis of the retina
              2. Accommodation
                    a. Increased curvature of lens by contraction of ciliary muscles
                        (pulls ciliary body toward lens to relieve tension)
                    b. Allows focus on close objects
                    c. “Near Point” is closest you can see an object clearly without
                        squinting
              3. Constriction of Pupil
                    a. Narrower diameter keeps light going through center of lens
                        and blocks excess light rays
     iii. Convergence
              1. Two eyes come together to be sure the light rays from an object hit
                 both retinas at about the same place – makes one image in brain
              2. The closer the object, the more your eyes must converge
     iv. Review Retina Anatomy
              1. Pigmented Layer – deepest, absorbs excess light rays
              2. Rods & Cones – photoreceptors stimulated by light
                    a. Rods – low light, no color
                    b. Cones – bright light, color & sharp focus
              3. Bipolar Cells – receive signals from photoreceptors and send them
                 on to ganglion cells
              4. Horizontal Cells – collect signals from multiple rods in bipolar layer
              5. Ganglion Cells – receive signals from bipolar and horizontal cells and
                 axons become optic nerve
      v. Physiology of Vision
              1. Photoreceptors & Pigments
                    a. Rods – end stuck in pigmented layer contains photoreceptor
                        discs formed by the cell body at a rate of 1-3 per hour to
                        replace worn out ones
                    b. Cones – end stuck in pigmented layer contains folds instead
                        of discs; three types (blue, green, red)
                    c. Pigment – rhodopsin (retinal + opsin)
                             i. Retinal – light-absorbing part, derived from Vitamin A
                            ii. Opsin – different for each receptor type
                   2. Light/Dark Adaptation
                          a. Light – takes seconds to adapt to light from dark
                          b. Dark – takes many minutes to adapt to dark from light
                                   i. Only rods are functioning, even colored light appears
                                      as gray/white
                   3. Neurotransmitters & Signal Transduction
                          a. Darkness
                                   i. Neurotransmitter Glutamate released from cones &
                                      rods
                                  ii. Glutamate INHIBITS bipolar cells, no signal is sent to
                                      ganglion cells/optic nerve
                          b. Light
                                   i. Na+ channels close, no Glutamate is released from
                                      cones & rods
                                  ii. Bipolar cells are NOT inhibited by Glutamate, so they
                                      send a signal to the ganglion cells
                                 iii. Action potential in ganglion cells along Optic nerve
                                 iv. Different cones are stimulated depending on color of
                                      light
            vi. The Visual Pathway
                   1. Processing in Retina
                          a. 126 million photoreceptors converge into 1 million ganglion
                              cells (rods at ratio of 6-600 rods per ganglion cell, cones at
                              ratio of 1 to 1 for sharper focus and detail)
                          b. Horizontal cells combine information and can inhibit bipolar
                              cells next to excited cones, enhancing contrast and sharpness
                   2. Processing in Brain
                          a. Optic nerve  Optic chiasma (cross-over)  Optic tract
                          b. Binocular vision – signals from both eyes mix at chiasma and
                              go to both sides of brain (overlapping part of image)
                                   i. Far right peripheral vision to left brain only
                                  ii. Far left peripheral vision to right brain only
                          c. Likely that shape, color, and position/movement are all
                              processed separately in the brain
47. Hearing
      a. Ear Structures
             i. Outer ear
                    1. Auricle
                    2. Pinna
                          a. Helix
                          b. Lobule
              3. External auditory canal
              4. Tympanic membrane/eardrum
              5. Ceruminous glands
      ii. Middle ear
              1. Auditory ossicles
                     a. Malleus
                     b. Incus
                     c. Stapes
              2. Oval window
              3. Round window
                     a. Secondary tympanic membrane
              4. Auditory (eustachian) tube
     iii. Internal ear
              1. Bony labyrinth
                     a. Semicircular canals
                             i. Anterior, Posterior, Lateral
                     b. Vestibule
                     c. Cochlea
                             i. Scala vestibuli
                            ii. Scala tympani
                     d. Perilymph
              2. Membranous labyrinth
                     a. Semicircular ducts
                     b. Utricle & Saccule
                     c. Cochlear duct
                             i. Basilar membrane
                            ii. Vestibular membrane
                           iii. Organ of Corti (spiral organ)
                                    1. Tectorial membrane
                                    2. Inner hair cells
                                    3. Outer hair cells
                                    4. Supporting cells
                     d. Endolymph
b. Physiology of Hearing
       i. Sound
              1. Pressure waves moving through a medium (air, water, solid, etc.)
              2. Frequency determines pitch (higher – higher), 20-20,000 audible
              3. Amplitude determines volume (higher – louder) 60 talking normally,
                 greater than 140 painful, over 90 consistently leads to hearing loss
               ii. Physiology of Hearing
                       1. Sound directed into auditory canal
                       2. Tympanic membrane vibrates at same frequency and amplitude
                       3. Vibrations transferred to ossicles
                       4. Stapes vibrates the membrane over the oval window
                       5. Perilymph in scala vestibule acts as medium for sound waves
                       6. Waves move through cochlea inward through scala vestibule, then
                           back outward through scala tympani and out the round window
                       7. As the waves move through, the vestibular membrane vibrates, and
                           the endolymph in the cochlear duct becomes the medium for sound
                           waves
                       8. Waves in the endolymph cause the basilar membrane to vibrate,
                           moving hair cells whose hairs are stuck in the tectorial membrane –
                           this causes hair cells to generate a nerve impulse to the Cochlear
                           branch of the Vestibulocochlear nerve
              iii. Auditory Pathway
                       1. Cochlear branch  vestibulocochlear nerve  medulla  pons
                           (some cross-over here)  primary auditory area
48. Equilibrium
       a. Static & Dynamic
                i. Static – maintains body position in response to gravity
               ii. Dynamic – maintains body position in response to movement
       b. Otolithic Organs
                i. Saccule & Utricle of vestibule
               ii. Macula – thickened part of the wall have hair cells with hair bundles stuck
                   in otolithic membrane (gelatinous)
              iii. Otolithic membrane moves as your head moves (tilt, up/down)
              iv. Movement causes hair cells to generate action potential along Vestibular
                   branch of Vestibulocochlear nerve
       c. Semicircular Ducts
                i. Anterior, Posterior & Lateral
               ii. Ampulla – crista with hair cells and supporting cells, hair bundles stuck in
                   cupula (gelatinous)
              iii. Cupula moves as endolymph flows through semicircular ducts as your head
                   moves (rotation)
              iv. Movement causes hair cells to generate action potential along Vestibular
                   branch of Vestibulocochlear nerve
       d. Equilibrium Pathways
                i. Vestibulocochlear nerve sends signals to vestibular area of cerebral cortex
                   and the motor nerve nuclei in pons and medulla so corrective movements
                   can be stimulated
Chapter 5 – Integumentary System

   49. Layers of Skin
          a. Epidermis
                   i. Cells
                          1. Keratinocytes
                          2. Melanocytes
                          3. Langerhans cells
                          4. Merkel cells
                  ii. Layers
                          1. Stratum basale
                          2. Stratum spinosum
                          3. Stratum granulosum
                          4. Stratum lucidum
                          5. Stratum corneum
                 iii. Keratinization
          b. Dermis
                   i. Papillary region
                          1. collagen & elastin fibers
                          2. Meissner corpuscles
                          3. Free nerve endings
                  ii. Reticular region
                          1. Collagen fibers
                          2. Blood vessels
                          3. Sweat glands
                          4. Hair follicles
                          5. Sebaceous glands
          c. Hypodermis/Subcutaneous
                   i. Adipose
   50. Accessory Structures of Skin
          a. Hair
                   i. Structures
                          1. Shaft
                          2. Root
                          3. Hair follicle
                          4. Root sheath
                          5. Bulb
                          6. Papilla
                          7. Arrector pili muscle
                          8. Hair root plexus
              ii. Types of hairs
                      1. Terminal
                      2. Vellus
       b. Glands
               i. Sebaceous
              ii. Sudoriferous
                      1. Eccrine sweat glands
                      2. Apocrine sweat glands
             iii. Ceruminous
       c. Nails
               i. Body/plate
              ii. Root
             iii. Lunula
             iv. Hyponychium
              v. Eponychium
51. Types of Skin
       a. Thin
       b. Thick
52. Functions of Skin
       a. Thermoregulation
       b. Blood reservoir
       c. Protection
       d. Cutaneous sensation
       e. Excretion & Absorption
       f. Synthesis of Vitamin D
53. Wound Healing
       a. Inflammatory phase
       b. Migratory phase
       c. Proliferative phase
       d. Maturation phase

				
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