Cloud Computing

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					    Cloud Computing – A Boon For Start-ups, Small
    Enterprises, NGO’s & Educational Institutions.
                             ‘It’s better to rent than to buy’

                                                 rapidly growing with promises of substantial
                                                 benefits that will have significant economic
                                                 impacts in the enterprise and business of all
                                                 level and the way people work, companies
                                                 operate and the other end users use
                                                 compute. My paper will give you some light
                                                 on how exactly CC works with promises of
                                                 economical, scalable and flexible approach
                                                 to IT infrastructure. I'll take you inside the
                                                 cloud, its architectural layers of services,
                                                 basic component and cloud architecture. I’ll
                                                 show you how virtualization and software
                                                 deployment work in this environment and its
                                                 impact in easing the work load of various
                                                 industrial sectors. I'll explain the differences
                                                 between public, private and hybrid clouds.
                                                 I'll walk you through a variety of ways to
                                                 take advantage of cloud computing. And I’ll
                                                 also highlight the future of cloud computing
                                                 citing examples of the top tech giants like
                                                 Google,      Microsoft,       Amazon,        Sun
                                                 Microsystems and Yahoo.

                                                 With traditional desktop computing, we run
                                                 copies of software programs on our own
                                                 computer. The documents we create are
                                                 stored on our own pc. Although documents
                                                 can be accessed from other computers on the
This paper is aimed at bringing together         network, they can‟t be accessed by
how a new concept ‘Cloud computing’ is           computers outside the network.
With cloud computing the software
programs one use aren‟t run from one‟s
personal computer, but are rather stored on
servers accessed via internet. Anyone with
right security credentials can not only access
the documents but can also edit and
collaborate on those documents in real time
without the need of any local software and
the user no longer need knowledge of,
expertise in or control over the technology
infrastructure in the cloud.
Moreover, almost all IT resources can be
delivered as a cloud service: application,
compute     power,    storage   capacity,
networking, programming tools, even
communication services and collaboration            Figure 1: Cloud Computing Logical Diagram
Unlike traditional computing, this cloud
computing model isn‟t pc-centric, it‟s           Benefits of Cloud Computing
document centric.
                                                 Accessible/Device          and        location
The term Cloud is used as a metaphor for         independence - Cloud computing enable
the internet, based on the cloud drawing         users to access systems using a web browser
used to depict the internet in computer          regardless of their location or what device
network diagrams.                                they are using (e.g., PC, mobile). Once as a
Summing up, Cloud computing is relatively        user is connected to the cloud, whatever is
new data storage and processing concept.         stored there-documents, messages, images,
Cloud computing enables one to access,           applications are accessed via the Internet as
create and store files apart from accessing      infrastructure is off-site (typically provided
various applications like word processing,
                                                 by a third-party) .
spread sheets etc. online from any computer
with internet access, coupled with the fastest   Cost effective- During this economic time
processing speed available regardless of the
                                                 of recession, there are huge cost-reduction
Operating System.
                                                 pressures and cloud computing allows
                                                 businesses to do just that by tapping into
                                                 cloud computing platforms on a pay as you
                                                 go basis.

                                                 Cloud computing makes it possible for
                                                 companies to convert capital expenditure to
                                                 operating expense through technologies such
                                                 as virtualization.
Cloud computing would reduce the need for         Scalability- Getting the application, data
advanced infrastructure and software on the       and proper process in the cloud is not just
clients side. For instance you won‟t need to      getting the data available in the server and
buy the fastest computer with most memory         could be extracted by request. The
as the infrastructure and software license are    processing power of data center and
typically provided by the third party instead     application should have dynamism that
you could buy an inexpensive computer             should be observed at all times. Dynamism
terminal which would include a monitor            in cloud computing is the ability to
keyboard mouse and just enough processing         redistribute the processing power of the
power to run the middleware necessary to          cloud at will. If there are few users who tries
connect to the cloud system. You won‟t            to use the cloud, the resources of the cloud
even need a large hard drive because you‟d        should be distributed on those number of
store all the information on a remote data        users. At the same time, cloud computing
center.                                           should be redistributed when the number of
                                                  users will increase.
In 2007, the New York Times made
available its archives in PDF from at from        Security- Cloud computing enables its users
1851-1922. They accomplished this by              to get the same security and reliability as big
employing a combination of software,              IT giants without a multi-million dollar IT
programming and Amazon‟s EC2 service to           budget. Most software services and back
process more than 11 million documents in a       applications are very secure as the cloud
few hours time. The total bill for this project   providers encrypt the data stored in their
was 240$(approx. 12K INR).                        servers and password protected.

Collaborations- Cloud computing allows            Technologies that CC replaces..!!
sharing and editing documents in real time
between multiple users.                           •   Cloud computing is replacing large
                                                      Corporate       Data     Centers    and
Disaster recovery- If computer crashes, the           unnecessary, expensive private server
documents one creates are available as                infrastructure.
                                                  •   Web 2.0, SaaS, Enterprise and
they‟re stored on a collection of servers
                                                      government users are adopting cloud
accessed via the internet. Thus cloud                 computing because it eliminates capital
computing provide new options for disaster            investment in hardware and facilities as
recovery solutions.                                   well as reduces operations labor.
                                                  •   It will replace traditional business
Powerful-    Connecting  hundreds   or                applications like those from SAP,
thousands of servers together in cloud                Microsoft, and Oracle which have been
creates a computing power impossible                  always complicated and expensive to
compared to single desktop PC or a                    use.
networked system.
                                                  Basic Components
Successful implementation of cloud                software created by customers to be moved
computing requires proper implementation          off the provider‟s platform.
of certain components. Without any of these       Commercial examples include Google App
components, cloud computing will not be           Engine, which serves applications on
possible.                                         Google‟s infrastructure.
The Client/The End User- Everything ends
with the client. The hardware components,         Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) - IaaS is
the application and everything else               the delivery of computer infrastructure say
developed for cloud computing will be used        basic storage and compute capabilities as
in the client. Without the client, nothing will   standardized services over the network.
be possible.                                      The best-known commercial example is
The client could come in two forms: the           Amazon Web Services, whose EC and S3
hardware component or the combination of
software and hardware components.                 Storage- With cloud storage, data is stored
Although it‟s a common conception that            on multiple third party servers rather than on
cloud computing solely relies on the cloud        the dedicated servers used in traditional
(internet), there are certain systems that        networked data storage. In other words the
requires pre-installed applications to ensure     storage holds pertinent data of the client.
smooth transition. The hardware on the
other hand will be the platform where
everything has to be launched.                    These are the components for cloud
                                                  computing. Even If one of the components
Software as a Service (SaaS) - SAAS
                                                  in cloud computing will not work or at least
features a complete application offered as a
                                                  will execute below par, cloud computing
service in cloud— meaning a single instance
                                                  will             never               work.
of the software runs on the provider‟s
infrastructure and serves multiple client
The most widely known example of SAAS
is, but there are now many
others, including the Google Apps offering
of basic business services such as e-mail.

Platform as a Service (PaaS) - Platform as
a service in the cloud is defined as a set of
software and product development tools
hosted on the provider‟ infrastructure.
Developers create applications on the
provider‟s platform over the Internet. PaaS
services such as these can provide a great
deal of flexibility but may be constrained by
                                                  Figure 2: Components of Cloud Computing.
the capabilities that are available through the

                                                  Cloud Computing Architecture
Developer need to know that currently there
are not standards for interoperability in the
cloud. Some providers will not allow
When talking about cloud computing                Making copies of data as a backup is called
system, it‟s helpful to decide it into two        redundancy.
sections the front end and the back end.
They connect to each other through a
network, usually the Internet. The front end
is the side the computer user, or client sees.
The back end is the “cloud” section of the

The front end includes client‟s computer (or
computer network) and the application
required to access the cloud computing

On the back end of the system are the
carious computers, servers and data storage
systems that create the “cloud” of the
                                                        Figure 3: A typical CC Architecture.
computing services. In the theory, a cloud
computing system could include practically        Public, Private, and Hybrid Cloud
any computer program you can imagine,
from data processing to video games.              Public clouds are run by third parties, and
Usually, each application will have its own       jobs from many different customers may be
dedicated server.                                 mixed together on the servers, storage
                                                  systems, and other infrastructure within the
A central server administers the system,          cloud. End users don‟t know who else‟s job
monitoring traffic and client demands to          may be me running on the same server,
ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows       network, or disk as their own jobs.
a set of rules called protocols and uses a
special kind of software called middleware.       Private clouds are a good option for
Middleware allows networked computers to          companies dealing with data protection and
communicate with each other.                      service-level issues. Private clouds are on-
If a cloud computing company has a lot of         demand infrastructure owned by a single
clients‟, there‟s likely to be a high demand      customer who controls which application
for a lot of storage space. Some companies        run, and where. They own the server,
require hundreds of digital storage devices.      network, and disk and can decide which
Cloud computing systems need at least twice       users are allowed to use the infrastructure.
the number of storage devices it requires to      But even those who feel compelled in the
keep all its clients information stored. That‟s   short term to build a private cloud will likely
because these devices, like all computers         want to run application both in privately
occasionally brake down. A cloud                  owned infrastructure and in the public cloud
computing system must make a copy of all          space. This gives to the concept of hybrid
its clients‟ information and store it on other    cloud.
devices. The copies enable the central server
to access backup machines to retrieve data        Hybrid cloud combines the public and
that otherwise would be unreachable.              private cloud models. You own parts and
                                                  share other parts, though in a controlled
way. Hybrid Clouds offer the promise of on-
demand, externally provisioned scale, but         SAAS: In the software-as-a-service cloud
add the complexity of determining how to          model, the vendor supplies the hardware
distribute applications across these different    infrastructure, the software product and
environments. While enterprises may be            interacts with the user through a front-end
attracted to the promise of a hybrid cloud,       portal. SaaS is a very broad market. Services
this option, at least initially, will likely be   can be anything from Web-based email to
reserved for simple stateless applications        inventory control and database processing.
that require no complex databases or              Because the service provider hosts both the
synchronization.                                  application and the data, the end user is free
                                                  to use the service from anywhere.

                                                  Web Services: Closely related to SaaS,
                                                  Web service providers offer APIs that
                                                  enable developers to exploit functionality
                                                  over the Internet, rather than delivering full-
                                                  blown applications. They range from
                                                  providers offering discrete business services
                                                  -- such as Strike Iron and Xignite -- to the
                                                  full range of APIs offered by Google Maps,
                                                  ADP payroll processing, the U.S. Postal
                                                  Service, Bloomberg, and even conventional
                                                  credit card processing services.
          Figure 4: Visibility of Clouds
                                                  PAAS: Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is
                                                  defined as a set of software and product
Applications                                      development tools hosted on the provider's
The applications of cloud computing are           infrastructure.      Developers        create
practically limitless. With the middleware,       applications on the provider's platform over
cloud computing system would execute all          the Internet. PaaS providers may use APIs,
the programs that a normal computer could         website portals or gateway software
run. Potentially, everything from generic         installed on the customer's computer.
word processing software to customized  ,       (an      outgrowth        of
computer programs designed for a specific and GoogleApps are
company could work on a cloud computing           examples of PaaS.
These applications are broadly divided into       Managed Service Platforms: One of the
the following categories such as                  oldest forms of cloud computing, a managed
                                                  service is basically an application exposed to
      Software as a Service (SAAS)               IT rather than to end-users, such as a virus
      Web Services                               scanning service for e-mail or an application
      Platform as a Service (PAAS)               monitoring service (which Mercury, among
      Managed Service Providers (MSP)            others, provides). Managed security services
      Service Commerce Platforms                 delivered by SecureWorks, IBM, and
      Infrastructure as a Service (IAAS)         Verizon fall into this category, as do such
      Internet Integration.                      cloud-based anti-spam services as Postini,
recently acquired by Google. Other offerings     manpower and even time. There mere fact
include desktop management services, such        that transactions in almost any form could
as those offered by CenterBeam or                be done online has made cloud computing a
Everdream.                                       good answer to different business problems.

Service Commerce Platforms: A hybrid of          Amazon, Google, Sun Microsystems and
SaaS and MSP, this cloud computing service are only some of the highly
offers a service hub that users interact with.   recognized companies has already built the
They're most common in trading                   system of web based programs and
environments, such as expense management         processing power, called elastic compute
systems that allow users to order travel or      cloud which has become a boon to start-ups
secretarial services from a common platform      and are aggressively promoting their
that then coordinates the service delivery       services, spending millions of dollars on
and pricing within the specifications set by     hardware upgrades, human resources and
the user. Think of it as an automated service    even in advertisings. All of them are
bureau. Well-known examples include              jockeying for a position in the cloud war by
Rearden Commerce and Ariba.                      investing in cloud computing research and
IAAS:      Infrastructure-as-a-Service  like
Amazon Web Services provides virtual             The battle for cloud capacity could result in
server instances with unique IP addresses        a dominant position of one company like
and blocks of storage on demand. Customers       the position IBM establish with mainframe
use the provider's application program           computers in the 60‟s and Microsoft
interface (API) to start, stop, access and       established with PC‟s in 90‟s. Market
configure their virtual servers and storage.     domination or monopolization of cloud
In the enterprise, cloud computing allows a      computing could lead to higher service costs
company to pay for only as much capacity         or less variability in services provided due to
as is needed, and bring more online as soon      a lack of competition. It could even result in
as required. Because this pay-for-what-you-      the same kind of governmental antitrust
use model resembles the way electricity,         activity aimed at splitting Microsoft in the
fuel and water are consumed, it's sometimes      „90s. Companies could also create
referred to as utility computing.                technological      lock-in,     making    their
                                                 programs incompatible with other providers‟
Internet Integration: The Integration of         services.
cloud based services is in its early days.
                                                 The other alternative, which seems more
Future of Cloud Computing                        probable, is that multiple firms remain in
                                                 competition with each other. Due to the high
One of the main reasons why cloud                amount of investment by both major and
computing is aggressively being developed        minor players in the tech world (from Apple
is the enterprise or the business setting.       to, the companies with the
Many businesses, large and small, have           most convenient and useful services, as well
come to realize the potential of cloud           as the best marketing strategies, will emerge
computing in terms of easing business            victorious while less successful companies
transactions without having to spend too         die out or move on from cloud computing.
much      on    additional   infrastructure,     With a variety of firms providing such
services, users can expect a lot of product       based services such as Ajax or Ruby on
differentiation; each firm will provide a         Rails, other companies are offering
unique style of cloud computing that may be       proprietary functionalities to cater to the
tuned to individual needs or preferences          need of the business.
(like the way Alienware laptops were
designed specifically for playing games) or       The       differences     in      application
which may offer different services                implementation will increase the difficult of
(example: storing your music in one cloud         the enterprise to be fully flexible of their
while working through your taxes in               options. Data migration alone could be a
another.)                                         nightmare for the enterprise if they opt to
                                                  transfer from one provider that offer
Concerns over CC                                  proprietary functions to platform based
                                                  functions. It will take days or even months
Powerful Internet Connection- Cloud               with considerable resources spent to ensure
computing will only be possible with a            proper migration to a new provider.
strong internet connection. Cloud computing
might not work in areas where connection is       Security and Privacy- The number one
weak. Although there are applications that        concern of any of enterprise or business or
might     work     with     simple    dial-up     end users in dealing with cloud computing
connectivity, the application could easily go     today is security.
down especially when there is too many data       Vital information placed in cyber space
to be processed.                                  faces significantly greater risks that in
                                                  internal data warehouses and software
Interoperability- A major barrier to cloud        system. The cost of protecting that data can
computing is the interoperability of              offset the advantages of the cloud, especially
applications. While it is possible to insert an   if there is a security breach.
Adobe Acrobat file into a Microsoft Word          Hacks on the system will continue to be
document, things get a little bit stickier        there as well. The attack that users
when we talk about web-based applications.        experience today will also evolve to adapt to
                                                  different types of security measures. Since
For instances things are a little stickier when   the “cloud” will always be online, the
it comes to inserting a Buzzword document         possibility of attack will always be there.
into our Google Documents as Google               However security could improve due to
probably doesn't want you to have the ability     centralization of data, increased security-
to insert a competitor's document into their      focused resources, etc., but concerns can
spreadsheet, this creates a ton of data           persist about loss of control over certain
security issues. So not only would we need a      sensitive data, and the lack of security for
standard for web 'documents' to become web        stored kernels. Security is often as good as
'objects' capable of being generically            or better than under traditional systems, in
inserted into any other web document, we'll       part because providers are able to devote
also need a system to maintain a certain          resources to solving security issues that
level of security when it comes to this type      many customers cannot afford.
of data sharing.
                                                  Cloud computing and storage is only really
Standardization of Services- Although             useful if companies like Microsoft can
there are companies who offer platform            reliably store valuable data on their servers.
                                                   a local gadget but this could easily cause
Privacy is another matter. If a client can log     complication.
in from any location to access data and
applications, it's possible the client's privacy   For example, a salesman is on the road
could be compromised. Cloud computing              trying to seal the business deal. But before
companies will need to find ways to protect        everything could be agreed on, the salesman
client privacy. One way is to use                  has to use certain applications. This will not
authentication techniques such as user             be possible if the application will not work
names and passwords. Another is to employ          on the local gadget. But if the salesman uses
an authorization format -- each user can           an online application through cloud
access only the data and applications              computing, not only will they be able to
relevant to his or her job.                        show considerable data but real time
                                                   interaction with upper management.
                                                   Cloud computing has some downside and
From this we conclude that, Cloud                  glitches that need to be worked through.
computing is a simple idea but it has a huge       However with the amount of investment and
impact on the way one uses the computer. It        research being poured into cloud computing
takes computing to next level, that provides       we should expect to see it become the new
tremendous value to companies of any size          paradigm for data storage and processing.
and other end users                                The next step in its development and
                                                   implementation could go in any direction,
Cloud computing simply is a means of               but one thing for certain it will profoundly
delivering IT resources as services. Almost        change the way people work, companies
all IT resources can be delivered as a cloud       operate and the general people use
service: Application, Compute power,               computer.
storage capacity, networking, programming          On a whole cloud computing has its ups and
tools and even communication services.             downs. From the possibility of monopoly to
Thus, there is no hardware acquisition cost,       security problem, businesses and industry
no software license or upgrades to manage,         giants have to be ready for these changes to
no new employees or consultants to hire.           ensure success of cloud computing.
Summing up no capital cost of any kind and
no hidden cost. Just a metered per-use rate        References Cited
or a fixed subscription fee. Use only what
you want and pay only for what you use.  
Most businesses will just resort to local
installation of applications in their gadgets.
Some would resort to simplified data
transfer transactions such as email or online
messaging system (chat). But oftentimes,
these transactions are not enough especially
when you have a business system that
requires extensive interaction with a specific
application. This could be easily installed in

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