Cloud Computing – A Boon For Start-ups, Small
Enterprises, NGO’s & Educational Institutions.
‘It’s better to rent than to buy’
rapidly growing with promises of substantial
benefits that will have significant economic
impacts in the enterprise and business of all
level and the way people work, companies
operate and the other end users use
compute. My paper will give you some light
on how exactly CC works with promises of
economical, scalable and flexible approach
to IT infrastructure. I'll take you inside the
cloud, its architectural layers of services,
basic component and cloud architecture. I’ll
show you how virtualization and software
deployment work in this environment and its
impact in easing the work load of various
industrial sectors. I'll explain the differences
between public, private and hybrid clouds.
I'll walk you through a variety of ways to
take advantage of cloud computing. And I’ll
also highlight the future of cloud computing
citing examples of the top tech giants like
Google, Microsoft, Amazon, Sun
Microsystems and Yahoo.
With traditional desktop computing, we run
copies of software programs on our own
computer. The documents we create are
stored on our own pc. Although documents
can be accessed from other computers on the
This paper is aimed at bringing together network, they can‟t be accessed by
how a new concept ‘Cloud computing’ is computers outside the network.
With cloud computing the software
programs one use aren‟t run from one‟s
personal computer, but are rather stored on
servers accessed via internet. Anyone with
right security credentials can not only access
the documents but can also edit and
collaborate on those documents in real time
without the need of any local software and
the user no longer need knowledge of,
expertise in or control over the technology
infrastructure in the cloud.
Moreover, almost all IT resources can be
delivered as a cloud service: application,
compute power, storage capacity,
networking, programming tools, even
communication services and collaboration Figure 1: Cloud Computing Logical Diagram
Unlike traditional computing, this cloud
computing model isn‟t pc-centric, it‟s Benefits of Cloud Computing
Accessible/Device and location
The term Cloud is used as a metaphor for independence - Cloud computing enable
the internet, based on the cloud drawing users to access systems using a web browser
used to depict the internet in computer regardless of their location or what device
network diagrams. they are using (e.g., PC, mobile). Once as a
Summing up, Cloud computing is relatively user is connected to the cloud, whatever is
new data storage and processing concept. stored there-documents, messages, images,
Cloud computing enables one to access, applications are accessed via the Internet as
create and store files apart from accessing infrastructure is off-site (typically provided
various applications like word processing,
by a third-party) .
spread sheets etc. online from any computer
with internet access, coupled with the fastest Cost effective- During this economic time
processing speed available regardless of the
of recession, there are huge cost-reduction
pressures and cloud computing allows
businesses to do just that by tapping into
cloud computing platforms on a pay as you
Cloud computing makes it possible for
companies to convert capital expenditure to
operating expense through technologies such
Cloud computing would reduce the need for Scalability- Getting the application, data
advanced infrastructure and software on the and proper process in the cloud is not just
clients side. For instance you won‟t need to getting the data available in the server and
buy the fastest computer with most memory could be extracted by request. The
as the infrastructure and software license are processing power of data center and
typically provided by the third party instead application should have dynamism that
you could buy an inexpensive computer should be observed at all times. Dynamism
terminal which would include a monitor in cloud computing is the ability to
keyboard mouse and just enough processing redistribute the processing power of the
power to run the middleware necessary to cloud at will. If there are few users who tries
connect to the cloud system. You won‟t to use the cloud, the resources of the cloud
even need a large hard drive because you‟d should be distributed on those number of
store all the information on a remote data users. At the same time, cloud computing
center. should be redistributed when the number of
users will increase.
In 2007, the New York Times made
available its archives in PDF from at from Security- Cloud computing enables its users
1851-1922. They accomplished this by to get the same security and reliability as big
employing a combination of software, IT giants without a multi-million dollar IT
programming and Amazon‟s EC2 service to budget. Most software services and back
process more than 11 million documents in a applications are very secure as the cloud
few hours time. The total bill for this project providers encrypt the data stored in their
was 240$(approx. 12K INR). servers and password protected.
Collaborations- Cloud computing allows Technologies that CC replaces..!!
sharing and editing documents in real time
between multiple users. • Cloud computing is replacing large
Corporate Data Centers and
Disaster recovery- If computer crashes, the unnecessary, expensive private server
documents one creates are available as infrastructure.
• Web 2.0, SaaS, Enterprise and
they‟re stored on a collection of servers
government users are adopting cloud
accessed via the internet. Thus cloud computing because it eliminates capital
computing provide new options for disaster investment in hardware and facilities as
recovery solutions. well as reduces operations labor.
• It will replace traditional business
Powerful- Connecting hundreds or applications like those from SAP,
thousands of servers together in cloud Microsoft, and Oracle which have been
creates a computing power impossible always complicated and expensive to
compared to single desktop PC or a use.
Successful implementation of cloud software created by customers to be moved
computing requires proper implementation off the provider‟s platform.
of certain components. Without any of these Commercial examples include Google App
components, cloud computing will not be Engine, which serves applications on
possible. Google‟s infrastructure.
The Client/The End User- Everything ends
with the client. The hardware components, Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) - IaaS is
the application and everything else the delivery of computer infrastructure say
developed for cloud computing will be used basic storage and compute capabilities as
in the client. Without the client, nothing will standardized services over the network.
be possible. The best-known commercial example is
The client could come in two forms: the Amazon Web Services, whose EC and S3
hardware component or the combination of
software and hardware components. Storage- With cloud storage, data is stored
Although it‟s a common conception that on multiple third party servers rather than on
cloud computing solely relies on the cloud the dedicated servers used in traditional
(internet), there are certain systems that networked data storage. In other words the
requires pre-installed applications to ensure storage holds pertinent data of the client.
smooth transition. The hardware on the
other hand will be the platform where
everything has to be launched. These are the components for cloud
computing. Even If one of the components
Software as a Service (SaaS) - SAAS
in cloud computing will not work or at least
features a complete application offered as a
will execute below par, cloud computing
service in cloud— meaning a single instance
will never work.
of the software runs on the provider‟s
infrastructure and serves multiple client
The most widely known example of SAAS
is Salesforce.com, but there are now many
others, including the Google Apps offering
of basic business services such as e-mail.
Platform as a Service (PaaS) - Platform as
a service in the cloud is defined as a set of
software and product development tools
hosted on the provider‟ infrastructure.
Developers create applications on the
provider‟s platform over the Internet. PaaS
services such as these can provide a great
deal of flexibility but may be constrained by
Figure 2: Components of Cloud Computing.
the capabilities that are available through the
Cloud Computing Architecture
Developer need to know that currently there
are not standards for interoperability in the
cloud. Some providers will not allow
When talking about cloud computing Making copies of data as a backup is called
system, it‟s helpful to decide it into two redundancy.
sections the front end and the back end.
They connect to each other through a
network, usually the Internet. The front end
is the side the computer user, or client sees.
The back end is the “cloud” section of the
The front end includes client‟s computer (or
computer network) and the application
required to access the cloud computing
On the back end of the system are the
carious computers, servers and data storage
systems that create the “cloud” of the
Figure 3: A typical CC Architecture.
computing services. In the theory, a cloud
computing system could include practically Public, Private, and Hybrid Cloud
any computer program you can imagine,
from data processing to video games. Public clouds are run by third parties, and
Usually, each application will have its own jobs from many different customers may be
dedicated server. mixed together on the servers, storage
systems, and other infrastructure within the
A central server administers the system, cloud. End users don‟t know who else‟s job
monitoring traffic and client demands to may be me running on the same server,
ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows network, or disk as their own jobs.
a set of rules called protocols and uses a
special kind of software called middleware. Private clouds are a good option for
Middleware allows networked computers to companies dealing with data protection and
communicate with each other. service-level issues. Private clouds are on-
If a cloud computing company has a lot of demand infrastructure owned by a single
clients‟, there‟s likely to be a high demand customer who controls which application
for a lot of storage space. Some companies run, and where. They own the server,
require hundreds of digital storage devices. network, and disk and can decide which
Cloud computing systems need at least twice users are allowed to use the infrastructure.
the number of storage devices it requires to But even those who feel compelled in the
keep all its clients information stored. That‟s short term to build a private cloud will likely
because these devices, like all computers want to run application both in privately
occasionally brake down. A cloud owned infrastructure and in the public cloud
computing system must make a copy of all space. This gives to the concept of hybrid
its clients‟ information and store it on other cloud.
devices. The copies enable the central server
to access backup machines to retrieve data Hybrid cloud combines the public and
that otherwise would be unreachable. private cloud models. You own parts and
share other parts, though in a controlled
way. Hybrid Clouds offer the promise of on-
demand, externally provisioned scale, but SAAS: In the software-as-a-service cloud
add the complexity of determining how to model, the vendor supplies the hardware
distribute applications across these different infrastructure, the software product and
environments. While enterprises may be interacts with the user through a front-end
attracted to the promise of a hybrid cloud, portal. SaaS is a very broad market. Services
this option, at least initially, will likely be can be anything from Web-based email to
reserved for simple stateless applications inventory control and database processing.
that require no complex databases or Because the service provider hosts both the
synchronization. application and the data, the end user is free
to use the service from anywhere.
Web Services: Closely related to SaaS,
Web service providers offer APIs that
enable developers to exploit functionality
over the Internet, rather than delivering full-
blown applications. They range from
providers offering discrete business services
-- such as Strike Iron and Xignite -- to the
full range of APIs offered by Google Maps,
ADP payroll processing, the U.S. Postal
Service, Bloomberg, and even conventional
credit card processing services.
Figure 4: Visibility of Clouds
PAAS: Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is
defined as a set of software and product
Applications development tools hosted on the provider's
The applications of cloud computing are infrastructure. Developers create
practically limitless. With the middleware, applications on the provider's platform over
cloud computing system would execute all the Internet. PaaS providers may use APIs,
the programs that a normal computer could website portals or gateway software
run. Potentially, everything from generic installed on the customer's computer.
word processing software to customized Force.com, (an outgrowth of
computer programs designed for a specific Salesforce.com) and GoogleApps are
company could work on a cloud computing examples of PaaS.
These applications are broadly divided into Managed Service Platforms: One of the
the following categories such as oldest forms of cloud computing, a managed
service is basically an application exposed to
Software as a Service (SAAS) IT rather than to end-users, such as a virus
Web Services scanning service for e-mail or an application
Platform as a Service (PAAS) monitoring service (which Mercury, among
Managed Service Providers (MSP) others, provides). Managed security services
Service Commerce Platforms delivered by SecureWorks, IBM, and
Infrastructure as a Service (IAAS) Verizon fall into this category, as do such
Internet Integration. cloud-based anti-spam services as Postini,
recently acquired by Google. Other offerings manpower and even time. There mere fact
include desktop management services, such that transactions in almost any form could
as those offered by CenterBeam or be done online has made cloud computing a
Everdream. good answer to different business problems.
Service Commerce Platforms: A hybrid of Amazon, Google, Sun Microsystems and
SaaS and MSP, this cloud computing service SalesForce.com are only some of the highly
offers a service hub that users interact with. recognized companies has already built the
They're most common in trading system of web based programs and
environments, such as expense management processing power, called elastic compute
systems that allow users to order travel or cloud which has become a boon to start-ups
secretarial services from a common platform and are aggressively promoting their
that then coordinates the service delivery services, spending millions of dollars on
and pricing within the specifications set by hardware upgrades, human resources and
the user. Think of it as an automated service even in advertisings. All of them are
bureau. Well-known examples include jockeying for a position in the cloud war by
Rearden Commerce and Ariba. investing in cloud computing research and
IAAS: Infrastructure-as-a-Service like
Amazon Web Services provides virtual The battle for cloud capacity could result in
server instances with unique IP addresses a dominant position of one company like
and blocks of storage on demand. Customers the position IBM establish with mainframe
use the provider's application program computers in the 60‟s and Microsoft
interface (API) to start, stop, access and established with PC‟s in 90‟s. Market
configure their virtual servers and storage. domination or monopolization of cloud
In the enterprise, cloud computing allows a computing could lead to higher service costs
company to pay for only as much capacity or less variability in services provided due to
as is needed, and bring more online as soon a lack of competition. It could even result in
as required. Because this pay-for-what-you- the same kind of governmental antitrust
use model resembles the way electricity, activity aimed at splitting Microsoft in the
fuel and water are consumed, it's sometimes „90s. Companies could also create
referred to as utility computing. technological lock-in, making their
programs incompatible with other providers‟
Internet Integration: The Integration of services.
cloud based services is in its early days.
The other alternative, which seems more
Future of Cloud Computing probable, is that multiple firms remain in
competition with each other. Due to the high
One of the main reasons why cloud amount of investment by both major and
computing is aggressively being developed minor players in the tech world (from Apple
is the enterprise or the business setting. to Salesforce.com), the companies with the
Many businesses, large and small, have most convenient and useful services, as well
come to realize the potential of cloud as the best marketing strategies, will emerge
computing in terms of easing business victorious while less successful companies
transactions without having to spend too die out or move on from cloud computing.
much on additional infrastructure, With a variety of firms providing such
services, users can expect a lot of product based services such as Ajax or Ruby on
differentiation; each firm will provide a Rails, other companies are offering
unique style of cloud computing that may be proprietary functionalities to cater to the
tuned to individual needs or preferences need of the business.
(like the way Alienware laptops were
designed specifically for playing games) or The differences in application
which may offer different services implementation will increase the difficult of
(example: storing your music in one cloud the enterprise to be fully flexible of their
while working through your taxes in options. Data migration alone could be a
another.) nightmare for the enterprise if they opt to
transfer from one provider that offer
Concerns over CC proprietary functions to platform based
functions. It will take days or even months
Powerful Internet Connection- Cloud with considerable resources spent to ensure
computing will only be possible with a proper migration to a new provider.
strong internet connection. Cloud computing
might not work in areas where connection is Security and Privacy- The number one
weak. Although there are applications that concern of any of enterprise or business or
might work with simple dial-up end users in dealing with cloud computing
connectivity, the application could easily go today is security.
down especially when there is too many data Vital information placed in cyber space
to be processed. faces significantly greater risks that in
internal data warehouses and software
Interoperability- A major barrier to cloud system. The cost of protecting that data can
computing is the interoperability of offset the advantages of the cloud, especially
applications. While it is possible to insert an if there is a security breach.
Adobe Acrobat file into a Microsoft Word Hacks on the system will continue to be
document, things get a little bit stickier there as well. The attack that users
when we talk about web-based applications. experience today will also evolve to adapt to
different types of security measures. Since
For instances things are a little stickier when the “cloud” will always be online, the
it comes to inserting a Buzzword document possibility of attack will always be there.
into our Google Documents as Google However security could improve due to
probably doesn't want you to have the ability centralization of data, increased security-
to insert a competitor's document into their focused resources, etc., but concerns can
spreadsheet, this creates a ton of data persist about loss of control over certain
security issues. So not only would we need a sensitive data, and the lack of security for
standard for web 'documents' to become web stored kernels. Security is often as good as
'objects' capable of being generically or better than under traditional systems, in
inserted into any other web document, we'll part because providers are able to devote
also need a system to maintain a certain resources to solving security issues that
level of security when it comes to this type many customers cannot afford.
of data sharing.
Cloud computing and storage is only really
Standardization of Services- Although useful if companies like Microsoft can
there are companies who offer platform reliably store valuable data on their servers.
a local gadget but this could easily cause
Privacy is another matter. If a client can log complication.
in from any location to access data and
applications, it's possible the client's privacy For example, a salesman is on the road
could be compromised. Cloud computing trying to seal the business deal. But before
companies will need to find ways to protect everything could be agreed on, the salesman
client privacy. One way is to use has to use certain applications. This will not
authentication techniques such as user be possible if the application will not work
names and passwords. Another is to employ on the local gadget. But if the salesman uses
an authorization format -- each user can an online application through cloud
access only the data and applications computing, not only will they be able to
relevant to his or her job. show considerable data but real time
interaction with upper management.
Cloud computing has some downside and
From this we conclude that, Cloud glitches that need to be worked through.
computing is a simple idea but it has a huge However with the amount of investment and
impact on the way one uses the computer. It research being poured into cloud computing
takes computing to next level, that provides we should expect to see it become the new
tremendous value to companies of any size paradigm for data storage and processing.
and other end users The next step in its development and
implementation could go in any direction,
Cloud computing simply is a means of but one thing for certain it will profoundly
delivering IT resources as services. Almost change the way people work, companies
all IT resources can be delivered as a cloud operate and the general people use
service: Application, Compute power, computer.
storage capacity, networking, programming On a whole cloud computing has its ups and
tools and even communication services. downs. From the possibility of monopoly to
Thus, there is no hardware acquisition cost, security problem, businesses and industry
no software license or upgrades to manage, giants have to be ready for these changes to
no new employees or consultants to hire. ensure success of cloud computing.
Summing up no capital cost of any kind and
no hidden cost. Just a metered per-use rate References Cited
or a fixed subscription fee. Use only what www.wikipedia.com
you want and pay only for what you use. www.saleforce.com
Most businesses will just resort to local www.sun.com
installation of applications in their gadgets.
Some would resort to simplified data
transfer transactions such as email or online
messaging system (chat). But oftentimes,
these transactions are not enough especially
when you have a business system that
requires extensive interaction with a specific
application. This could be easily installed in