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					CHAPTER – 1                    COST - SHEET

Q.No.1) The following extract of costing information relate to commodity A for the
year 31.3.02007
Purchase of Raw Material                            Rs.48,000
Direct Wages                                        Rs.48,000

Stock on 1-4-2006
Of Raw Material                                     Rs.8,000
Of finished Goods 1,600 quintals                    Rs.6,400

Stock on 31-3-2007
Of Raw Material                                     Rs.6,800
Of finished Goods 3,200 quintals
Work on cost ( factory overhead )                   Rs.16,800

Work – in – progress
1 st April 2006                                     Rs.1,920
31 st March 2007                                    Rs.6,400
Office and administrative Overheads                 Rs.3,200
Sales (Finished Product )                           Rs.1,20,000

Advertising, Discount allowed and selling cost is Re.0.40 per quintal. During the year
25,600 Quintals of commodity were produced. Prepare cost sheet.

Q.2     Prepare a cost sheet showing the cost per tonne of paper manufactured by
Bhadrachalam Paper mills in January, 2007 under the different element cost.
Paper mills in January, 2007 under the different element cost.
Direct Materials :
(i ) Paper Pulps                                     1,000 tons at Rs.80 per ton
(ii)Other Miscellaneous materials                    200 tons at Rs.50 per ton
Direct Labour :
220 skilled men for 25 days                          at Rs.6 per day
110 unskilled men for 25 days                        at Rs.4 per day
Direct Expenses:
Special Equipment hire charges                       Rs.10000
Specials Dyes
Works Overheads:
Variable                                             at 100 per cent on wages
Fixed                                                at 50 per cent on wages
Administrative Overheads                             at 10 per cent on works cost
Selling and Distribution Overheads                     at 20 per cent on works cost
Finished Paper Manufactured                            1000 tons
Sales of Waste                                         Rs.2,000
Sales                                                  Rs.400 per ton

Q.3. A factory can produce 60,000 units per annum at its optimum (100%) capacity.
  The estimated cost of production is as under:
   Direct Materials        :         Rs.3 per unit
   Direct Labour              :      Rs.2 per unit
   Indirect Expenses:
   Fixed                   : Rs.1,50,000 per annum
   Variable                : Rs.5 per unit
   Semi – variable         : Rs.50,000 per annum up to 50% capacity and an
                           Extra expense of Rs.10,000 for every 25% increase in
                           capacity or part thereof.

   The factory produces only against orders and not for own stock. If the
   production program of the factory is as indicated below, and the management
   desires to ensure a profit of Rs.1,00,000 for the year, work out the average
   selling price at which each unit should be quoted.
        First 3 months of the year : 50% of capacity.
        Remaining 9 months           : 80% of capacity
    Ignore selling, distribution and administration overheads.

Q.4. A factory manufactures a uniform type of article and has a capacity of 4,000
units per week. The following information shows the different elements of cost for
three consecutive weeks when the output per week was as below:

Units               Direct              Direct      labour    Factory overheads
produced            materials (Rs)      (Rs)                  (Partly     variable    &
                                                              partly fixed )

            2,000              12,000                 6,000                       12,500
            2,800              16,800                 8,400                       16,500
            3,700              22,200               11,100                        21,000

The factory has received an order for 5,000 units and is desires a profit of 16-23%
on selling price. Find out the price at which each unit should be sold.

Q.5) M/S bata shoe Co. manufactures two types of shoes A and B production costs
or the year ended 31st March, 2009 was:
Direct Materials             : Rs.15,00,000
Direct Wages                 : Rs.8,40,000
Production Overheads         : Rs.3,60,000
There was no work-in-progress at the beginning or at the end of the year.
It is ascertained that:
Direct Material in type A shoes consists twice as much as that in type B shoes.
The direct wages for type B shoes were 60 % of those for type a shoed.

Production Overheads was the same per pair of A and B type.
Administrative overheads for each type were 150 % of Direct wages.
Production during the year were :
Type A 40,000 pairs of which 36,000 were sold.
Type B 1,20,000 pairs of which 1,00,000 were sold.
Selling cost was Rs.1.50 per pair.
Selling price was Rs.44 for type A and Rs.28 per pair for type B.
Prepare a statement Showing cost and profit.

Q.6 The cost structure of an article, the selling price of which is Rs.45,000 is as
             Direct Materials                        50%
             Direct Labour                           20%
             Overheads                               30%

An increase of 15% in the cost materials and of 25% in the cost of labour is
anticipated These increased costs in relation to the present selling price would cause
a 25% decrease in the amount of present profit per article

You are required:
1.) To prepare a statement of profit per article at present, and
2.) The revised selling price to produce the same percentage of profit to sales as

 Chapter -2:                        ACTIVITY BASED COSTING

Q.1. A company products three products A, B and C for which the standard costs
     And quantities per unit are as follows:

               Products                        A           B              C
    Quantity produced                     10,000        20,000          30,000
    Direct materials / p.u. (Rs.)                  50       40                30
    Direct labour / p.u. (Rs.)                     30       40                50
    Labour hours / p.u.                             3          4               5
    Machine hours / p.u.                            4          4               7
    No. of purchase requisitions              1,200      1,800           2,000
    No. of set ups                             240         260             300
      Production overheads split by departments:
      Department 1 = Rs. 10, 40,000
      Department 2 = Rs. 15,84,000
      Department 1 is labour intensive and Department 2 is machine intensive.
      Production overhead split by activity:
      Production scheduling / machine set up            Rs.12, 24,000
      Receiving / inspecting                            Rs. 14,00,000
                                                        Rs. 26,24,000
      Number of batches received / inspected = 5,000
      Number of batches for scheduling and set –up = 800
      You are required to:
      (i) Prepare product cost statement under traditional Absorption Costing and
     activity Based costing method.
      (ii) Compare the results under two methods.

 Q.2. A company produces four products viz, P, Q, R and S. the data relating to
 production activities are as under:
Product    Quantity of      Material        Direct       Machine               Direct Labour
           Production       Cost        /   labour       Hours / unit          Cost / unit Rs.
                            unit            Hours/unit
  P           1,000               10            1                0.50                     6
  Q          10,000               10            1                0.50                     6
  R           1,200               32            4                2.00                    24
  S          14,000               34            3                3.00                    18

 Production overheads are as under:
 (i) Overheads applicable to machine oriented activity: Rs. 1,49,700
 (ii) Overheads relating to ordering materials: Rs.7,680
 (iii) Set up costs: Rs.17,400
 (iv) Administrative overheads for spare parts: Rs.34,380
 (v) Materials handling costs: Rs.30,294
 The following further information has been compiled:
Product    Number of             Number of           Number             of   Number           of
           Set ups               Materials           times                   spare
                                 orders              Materials                  Parts
  P               3                     3                    6                       6
  Q              18                    12                30                     15
  R               5                     3                    9                       3
  S              24                    12                36                     12
 (i) Select a suitable cost diver for each item of overheads expense and calculate the
 cost per unit of cost driver.
 (ii) Using the concept of activity based costing, computer the factory cost per unit of
 each product.

  Q.3. Your Company decides to implement activity based costing (ABC) to the four
  products currently made and sold by them. Details of the four products and relevant
  information are given below for one period:
       Products                         A              B          C                   D
Output in units                          120           100            80             120
Cost per unit :
Direct Materials                      Rs. 40         Rs. 50     Rs. 30             Rs. 60
Direct Labor                          Rs. 28         Rs. 21     Rs. 14             Rs. 21
Machine hours (per unit )                   4              3           3                  3
  The four products are similar and are usually produced in production runs of 20
  units and sold in batches of 10 units.
  The production overheads are currently absorbed by using a machine hour rate, and
  the total of the production overhead for the period has been analyzed as follows:
   Machine department                                                  10,430
   (rent, business, rates, depreciation and supervision )
   Set-up costs                                                            5,250
   Stores receiving                                                        3,600
   Inspection / Quality control                                            2,100
   Materials handling and dispatch                                         4,620
  You have ascertained that the “cost drivers” to be used are as listed below for the
  overhead costs shown;
                   Cost                                        Cost Driver
                   Set- up costs                               Number of production runs
                   Stores receiving                            Requisitions raised
                   Inspection /Quality control                 Number of production runs
                   Materials handling and dispatch             Orders executed
  The Number of requisitions raised on the stores was 20 for each product and the
  number of orders executed was 42, each order being for a batch of 10 of a product.
  You are required to calculate the factory cost per unit of each product under Activity
  Based costing.

  Q. 6.    Family store wants information about the profitability of individual product
  Soft drinks, Fresh produce and packaged food. Family store provides the following
  data for the year 2005-06 for each product line:
                                           Soft drinks         Fresh             Packaged
                                                               produce           food

  Revenues                                    Rs.7,93,500        Rs.21,00,600        Rs.12,09,900
  Cost of goods sold                          Rs.6,00,000        Rs.15,00,000         Rs.9,00,000
  Cost of bottles returned                        Rs.12,000               Rs.0                 Rs.0
  Number of purchase orders placed                     360                840                  360
  Number of deliveries received                        300               2,190                 660
  Hours of shelf-Stocking time                         540               5,400               2,700
  Items sold                                       1,26,000        11,04,000               3,06,000
  Family store also provides the following information for the year 2005-2006
Activity       Description of Activity             Total cost     Cost-allocation Base
Bottles        Returning of empty bottles to       Rs.12,000      Direct tracing to soft-drink
returns        store                                              line
Ordering       Placing of orders for purchases     Rs.1,56,000    1,560 purchase orders
Delivery       Physical delivery and receipt of    Rs.2,52,000    3,150 deliveries
Shelf          Stocking of goods on store          Rs.1,72,800    8,640      hours    of     shelf
stocking       shelves       and      on-going                    stocking
               restocking                                         time
Customer       Assistance provided
Support        To customers including              Rs.3,07,200    15,36,000
               Check -out                                         Items sold
(i) Family store currently allocates support (all costs other than cost of goods sold) to
   product lines on the basis of cost of goods sold of each product line. Calculate the
  operating income and operating income as a % of revenues for each product line.

(ii) If family store allocates support costs (all costs other than cost of goods sold to
 product line using an activity- based costing system; calculate the operating income
 and operating income as a % of revenues for each product line.
(iii) Comment on your answers in requirements (i) and (ii)

  Chapter - 3                   Overheads

Q.1. You are supplied with the following information and required to work out the
  production hour rate of recovery of overheads in departments A,B & C.
Particular           Total        A          B           C               P            Q
                        Rs.       Rs.       Rs.          Rs.            Rs.           Rs.
Rent                12,000       2,400       4,800       2,000          2,000             800
Electricity             4,000         800    2,000           500          400             300
Indirect Labour         6,000    1,200       2,000       1,000            800        1,000
Depreciation            5,000    2,500       1,600           200          500             200
Sundries                4,500         910    2,143           847          300             300
                    31,500       7,810      12,543       4,547          4,000        2,600

Estimated working hours
Expenses of service departments P and Q are apportioned as under :
                    A             B                 C              P            Q
        P         30%            40%              20%                           10%
        Q         10%            20%              50%              20%

Q.2. PH Ltd, is a manufacturing company having three production departments, A, B
  and C and two service departments X and Y. The following is the budget for
  December 2005:
                     Total            A       B          C               X            Y
                        Rs.       Rs.         Rs.        Rs.            Rs.           Rs.
Direct material                  1,000      2,000       4,000          2,000        1,000
Direct wages                     5,000      2,000       8,000          1,000        2,000
Factory rent            4,000
Power                   2,500
Depreciation            1,000
Other overheads         9,000
 Additional information :

Area (sq. ft.)                               500        250              500     250            500
Capital value ( Rs. Lacs) of assets           20          40               20       10            10
Machine hours                              1,000       2,000            4,000   1,000          1,000
Horse power of machines                       50          40               20         15          25
A technical assessment of the apportionment of expenses of service department is as
                                  A%         B%                C%          X%         Y%
  Service dept. X                 45          15           30                          10
  Service dept. Y                 60          35                            5
         (i) A statement showing distribution of overheads to various departments.
         (ii) A statement showing re-distribution of service department expenses to
            production Department.
         (iii) Machine hours rates of the production department A, B, and C.

Q.3. Norma Ltd. Is a retail organization which operates three sales departments and
  an administration department in a large supermarket complex. Each sales
  department has a manager and its own prescribed gross margin related to selling
  price. Exceptionally, the general manager permits the department managers to
  reduce the selling price of a product by giving a quantity discount, a special price for
  a large order or for an item of out-dated stock.
  The following data are given:
                                   Audio           &    Electrical        Furniture
                                  video                Appliances
                                  (Rupees)             (Rupees)          (Rupees)
  Stock at November 1
  At cost                                 1,20,000             80,000               2,00,000
  At full sales value                     2,00,000        1,10,000                  2,80,000
  Transactions           during

 Purchases                               1,50,000           40,000              1,60,000
 Net sales                               2,15,000           63,000              2,24,000
 Price reductions approved                   5,000           3,000                  7,000
Expenditure incurred during November was:
 Items               of     Amount       Basis of apportionment To sales
 expenses                   Rupees       & administration department
 Rates                       4,000       Area Occupied
 Light and heat              2,000       Area Occupied
 Advertising                35,250       Sales value for the month before any reduction
 Transport                  25,850       Sales value for the month before any reduction
 Insurance                   3,525       Sales value for the month before any reduction
 Miscellaneous               1,175       Sales value for the month before any reduction
 Canteen                     4,125       Numbers of Employees
 Salaries and Wages         24,910       See detailed information given below
 Depreciation                3,750       See detailed information given below
 Administration              2,500       Direct
 Other detailed information for November Was:
                          Salaries      &    Depreciation     No . of        Ares
                          Wages               (Rupees)        Employees      Occupied
                          (Rupees)                                              (sq. m )
Audio       &     video           11,900               500              27           600
Electrical appliances                2,000             750               4           200
Furniture                            6,000           1,000              15           500
Administration                       5,010           1,500               9           300
Total                       24,910                   3,750              55        1,600
Each month, the total costs of the administration department are apportioned to the
three sales Departments on the basis of the sales values for the month before any
reduction. Using the data given, prepare a tabulated profit and loss statement for
each sales department For November.

  Q.4. As a cost accountant of Oberon Ltd., you have prepared budget for sales
  quantity, production, Materials, labour utilization and variable overheads for the year
  ended 31st December 1999.
  Information from the labour utilization budget is shown below:
  Department                Work force              Labour hours             Hourly rate
   North                       20                        35,000              Rs. 2.80
   East                        25                        45,000              Rs. 2.60
   West                        30                        55,000              Rs. 2.50
  You have produced various estimates for the year‟s fixed costs, some of which can
  be easily allocated direct to the three department and some which need to be
  apportioned between the three department. The work so far is shown below:
Fixed cost items                         (Rs.)      Allocation or proposed basis
                                                    Of apportionment
                                                   North              East              West
Plant Depreciation                       40,000    20,000             15,000             5,000
Departmental office staff                59,000    15,000             18,000            26,000
Selling & Administration             1,45,000      50,000             40,000            55,000
Factory     rent,   rates    and         70,000    Floor area
Works Canteen                            22,500    Number of employees
Warehousing costs                        21,000    Materials consumed
Light & heat                             10,500    Floor area
Repairs & maintenance                    20,000    Net book value of assets weighted
                                                   According to average age.
You apportionment of fixed costs will be based on the following information
               Floor area          Net           book     Average age of       Materials
               (m2 )               value           of     Assets (Years )      Consumed
                                   assets                                      (Rupees)
North                1,200           1,00,000                     3               2,60,000

  East                 1,000          50,000                 2          1,20,000
  West                  600           20,000                 5            40,000
 (a) Calculate hourly fixed overhead absorption rates for the three departments.
 (b) Produce a standard cost card showing how the selling price of a Weber PM2 is
 arrived at if the following variable costs are incurred.
 Materials: Rs.28.50
 Labour: Department                North               2 hours
                                    East               4 hours
                                    West               3 hours
 Variable Overheads
 Oberon Ltd. Aims for a profit of 35% on sales.

 CHAPTER - 5                         PROCESS COSTING

Q.1 Product X is obtained after it passes through three distinct processes. You are
required to prepare process accounts from the following information:
                            Total          I         II            III
Material                    15,084       5,200      3,960         5,924
Wages                       18,000       4,000      6,000         8,000
Production Overheads        18,000
1,000 Units at Rs. 6/- unit were introduce in process – 1.
Production overheads are to be distributed at 100% of direct wages.
                   Actual output     Normal loss          Value of scrap per
Process – I                                               unit
Process - II         950 Units             5%                    Rs.     4
Process - III        840 Units           10%                     Rs.     8
                     750 Units           15%                     Rs. 10

Also prepare abnormal loss/gain accounts, as well as normal loss account for each

Q.2 Product P passes through three processes. Following are the relevant details:
        a. Elements of cost:
                           Total         No. 1        No. 2            No. 3
                             Rs.          Rs.          Rs.               Rs.

Direct Materials            8,482        2,000       3,020             3,462
Direct Labour              12,000        3,000       4,000             5,000
Direct Expenses                726         500         226               -
Production Overheads        6,000           _             _                  _

  1,000 units at Rs. 5 each were issued to process No.1

b. Output from each process was:
                        Process No.1                                       920 units
                        Process No.2                                       870 units
                        Process No.3                                       800 units
c. Normal loss was estimated as :
                        Process No.1                      10% of units introduced
                        Process No.2                       5% of units introduced
                        Process No.3                      10% of units introduced
d. The loss in each process represented scrap which could be sold to a merchant at a
    value as follows:
                        Process No.1                               Rs. 3 per unit
                        Process No.2                               Rs. 3 per unit
                        Process No.3                               Rs. 6 per unit
f. There was no stock of materials of work in progress in any department at the
    beginning or end of the period. The output of each process passes direct to the next
    process and finally to finished stock. Production overheads are allocated to each
    process on the basis of 50% of the cost of direct labour.
    Prepare process Accounts, Normal Loss A/c and Abnormal Loss & Abnormal Gain

    Q.3   Product A Passes through three processes before it is transferred to finished
    stock. The following information is obtained for the month of July:
Particulars                            Process -     Process -     Process -       Finished
                                       I             II            III             Stock
                                            Rs.           Rs.            Rs.           Rs.

Opening stock                                5,800         8,000          10,000        20,000
Direct materials                           40,000         12,000          15,000              _
Direct wages                               35,000         40,000          35,000              _
Manufacturing overheads                    20,000         24,000          20,000              _
Closing stock                              10,000          4,000          15,000        30,000
Profit % on transfer price to next                         20%             10%                _

process                                       25%
Inter process profit for opening                    _       1,395         2,690       6,534
     Stock in process was valued at prime cost and finished stock has been valued at the
     price at which it is received from Process III. Sales during the period were
     Rs.4,00,000. Prepare and compute.
1.         Process cost accounts showing profit elements at each stage.
2.         Actual realized profit, and
3.         Stock valuation for balance sheet purpose.

     Q.4 From the following information, prepare process account:
     1. Opening work-in-progress                             Stage of completion
           (200 Units/ Rs. 800/-)                            100% Materials
                                                             40% Labour
                                                             40% Overheads.
     2.   Units introduced: 1050 units
     3.    Transfer to next process: 1100 units

     4.   Closing Stock: 150 units                Stage of completion
                                              100% Materials
                                              70% Labour
                                              70% Overheads
     5.    Cost incurred during the period:
              Material                             Rs.    1,050
              Labour                               Rs.    2,250
              Production Overheads                 Rs.    1,125

                                                  Rs.    4,425

 a. The following data relate to process Q :
 i. Opening work-in-process 4,000 units
     Degree of completion: Materials (100%)                    Rs.24,000
                             Labour (60%)                      Rs.14,400
                             Overheads (60%)                   Rs.7,200
ii. Received during the month of April 2005, from Process - P : 40,000 units
iii. Expenses incurred in Process Q during the month: Rs.1,71,000
            Materials: Rs.79,000
            Labour: Rs.1,38,230
            Overheads: Rs.69,120
iv. Closing work-in-process: 3,000 units
 Degree of completion:
 Materials: 100%, Labour & Overheads: 50%
v. Units scrapped: 4,000 units
 Degree of completion :
 Materials: 100%, Labour & Overheads: 80%.
vi. Normal loss: 5% of current input.
vii. Spoiled goods realized Rs. 1.50 each on sale.
viii. Completed units are transferred to warehouse

      Required to prepare:
1.    Equivalent units statement
2.    Statement of cost per equivalent unit and total costs.
3.    Process Q Account
4.    Any other account necessary.

 Q.5 The following data are available in respect of process I for February 2006.
 1. Opening stock of work-in-process : 800 units at a total cost of Rs.4,000
 2. Degree of completion of opening work-in-process:
                    Materials                        100%
                    Labour                           60%

                 Overheads                           60%
3. Input of materials at a total cost of Rs.36,800 for 9,200 units.
4. Direct wages incurred Rs.16,740
5. Production overheads Rs.8,370
6. Units scrapped 1,200 units. The stage of completion of these units was :
              Materials                    100%
              Labour                           80%
             Overheads                         80%
7. Closing work-in-process: 900 units. The stage of completion of these units was
             Materials                     100%
             Labour                         70%
             Overheads                         70%
8. 7,900 units were completed and transferred to the next process
9. Normal loss is 8% of the total input (Opening stock plus units put in).
10. Scrap value is Rs.4 per unit.
You are required to show the process & other accounts for February 2007.

        Chapter-9                            Material Cost Control

Q.1   XYZ ltd. manufactures three products P1, P2 and P3.                These are made in three
      production departments from four materials M1, M2, M3 & M4.
               The following information is supplied: Pre-determined product cost details:
       Materials         Used        in   Cost per material        Products
                         Department       (Rs.)                    P1            P2        P3
                                                                   (Unit per product)
       M1                D1               0.50                     ---           1         2
       M2                D2               0.20                     1             ---       2
       M3                D2               0.25                     2             1         ---
       M4                D3               0.15                     2             2         1

      Budgeted details :                                Rs.               Rs.          Rs.
      Sales for the year (Rs.000)                       260               580          450
      Sales price each                                  5                 10           6

      Stocks : Finished Products                        (in thousands of products)
      At the beginning of the year 1st Jan              5                 10           15
      At the close of the year – 31st Dec.              10                15           30
      Stocks : Raw materials : (‘000              M1          M2            M3         M4
      At the beginning of the year 1st Jan        30          40            10         60
      At the close of the year – 31st Dec.        40          30            20         60
      Required to prepare:
      1. The production budget.
      2. The purchasing budget.
Q.2   X Ltd. requires 2,500 units of Y per month. The cost per order placed is Rs.150/-
      and each unit costs Rs.200. The cost of capital is 18% per annum.
      You are required to calculate:
      1. EOQ
      2. Minimum total inventory cost including purchase cost.

      3. Number of orders per annum.
      4. Inventory cycle.
Q.3   EXE Ltd. has received an offer of quantity discounts on its order of materials as

                Price per Tonne                     Tonnes
                1,200                               Less than 500
                1,180                               500 and less than 1000
                1,160                               1,000 and less than 2000
                1,140                               2,000 and less than 3000
                1,120                               3,000 and above.
      The annual requirement for the materials is 5,000 tonnes. The ordering cost per
      order is Rs.1,200 and the stock holding cost is estimated at 20% of the materials
      cost per annum. You are required to compute the most economical purchase level.
Q.4   From the following information you are required to calculate, for each product: (1)
      re-order level (2) maximum stock (3) minimum stock (4) average stock.
                                                        Product X       Product Y
                Average Consumption per week            50              50
                Minimum requirement per week            25              25
                Maximum usage per week                  75              75
                EOQ                                     300             500
                Replacement time                        4 to 6 weeks    2 to 4 weeks
                Buffer stock                            200             150
Q.5   You are required from the data given below, to calculate for component 697:
      a.       Re-order level
      b.       Re-order quantity
      c.       Minimum level
      d.       Average stock held
      Data: Components 697 is one of thousands of item kept in the stores of a
      The maximum stock level has been set at 17,000 units
      Expected consumption per month

                    Maximum: 3,000 units
                    Minimum: 1,600 units
Estimated delivery period
                    Maximum – 4 months
                    Minimum – 2 months

    Chapter-10                    Operating Costing

Q.1. A cement manufacturing company is facing the problem of transportation from its
    quarry. The quarry is situated 25 Kms away and the only means of transport
    available is the roadways. The company has received quoatations from some of the
    local transporters at Rs.22 Rs.22.50 and Rs.23 per tonne of limestone transported,
    with an escalation clause in respect of diesel oil costs.
    The quantity of limestone to be transported per month is 24,000 tonnes.
    While studying the feasibility of department transport, the following facts came to be
    a. Two types of trucks are available in the market, namely, 10 tonners and 8
    b. Details of operating costs for the trucks :
                                                            10 Tonner      8 Tonnre
    Purchase price                                       Rs.2.5 Lakh     Rs.2.0 Lakh
    Estimated useful life                                5 year          5 year
    Residual value                                       Rs.40,000       Rs.20,000
    Km. per litre of diesel                              3Km             4 Km
    Estimated repair and maintenance cost per            Rs.1,000 P.m    Rs.1,600 P.m
    Vehicle and road tax per quarter                     Rs.600          Rs.600
    c. cost of diesel per litre
    d. cost of finance for purchase of trucks 12% p.a
    e. Each vehicle can run 5 trips (up and down) each day, and can run on a an
    average for 24 days in a month.
    f. Drivers will have to be recruited according to the number of trucks to be
    purchased. In addition, one extra driver for every 5 vehicles will be required for the
    entire fleet. A driver will cost Rs.400 per month.
    g. An additional transport supervisor would be required at a cost of Rs.1,000 per
    h. Yet another possibility is to hire sufficient number of trucks (8 tonnes only) from a
    transport company at the rate of Rs.6,000 per month pe truck. The transport

    company will undertake to pay repairs an maintenance costs as well as vehicle and
    road tax. The cement company has to bear the cost of driver, supervisor and other
    operational costs.
    You are required to advise the board on a appropriate choice among the above
    alternatives considering also the option of entrusting the job to the transport
Q.2. Remix p.i.c makes ready-mixed cement and operates a small fleet of vehicles which
    delivers the product to customers within its delivery area.
    General data:
    Maintenance records for the previous five year reveal:-
                    year           Mileage of vehicles        Maintenance cost (Rs)
                     1                   1,70,000                       13,500
                     2                   1,80,000                       14,000
                     3                   1,65,000                       13,250
                     4                   1,60,000                       13,000
                     5                   1,75,000                       13,750
    Transport statistics reveal:
                 Number of journey          Average      tonnage       Average        distance   to
     Vehicles    Each day (Trips)           Carried               to   customers
                                            customers (Tones)          (miles)
          1                  6                           4                       10
          2                  4                           4                       20
          3                  2                           5                       40
          4                  2                           6                       30
          5                  1                           8                       60
    There are five vehicles operating a five day week, for 50 weeks a year.
    Inflation can be ignored.
    Standard cost data include:-
    Driver‟s wages are Rs.150/- each per week.
    Supervisor/relief driver‟s wages is Rs.200 per week.
    Depreciation, on a straight line basis with no residual value:

                                                 Cost                        Life
      Loading equipment                     Rs.1,00,000                      5 Year
      Vehicles (each)                        Rs.30,000                       5 Year
      Petrol cost 30 P. per mile.
      Repair cost 7 ½ P. per mile
      Vehicle licences cost Rs.400 p.a. for each vehicle
      Insurance cost Rs.600 p.a. in total
      Tyres costs Rs.3,000 p.a. in total
      Miscellaneous costs,Rs.2,250 p.a. in total.
       you are required to calculate a standard rate per tonne/mile of operating vehicles.
Q.3   Taj group of Hotels runs a chain of hotels throughout the world. It has its head
      office in Bombay. The management has been preparing its budget for the next year
      and first hotel has selected in Hotel Taj, Bombay. The hotel does not remain fully
      occupied always .However much depends on seasons. For this purpose, the year is
      divided in three parts, summer, winter and monsoon each season of 4 months.
      There are three types of rooms – ordinary, deluxe and aristocrat.

      The management has made the estimate for the coming year.

                        Depreciation                             15,000
                        Salaries                                 25,00,000
                        Transportation                           1,50,000
                        Laundry Charges                          4,00,000
                        Bed Sheet etc;                           2,50,000
                        Municipal Taxes ,rates                   6,00,000

      The charges mentioned above are fixed irrespective        of    capacity        utilization,
      whereas charges mentioned below depend solely on the capacity utilization.

a.    Lighting

      (i)    Rs. 20 per day in each season for ordinary room

      (ii)   Rs. 25 per day in each season for Deluxe room

      (iii) Rs. 30 per day in each season for aristocrat room

b.   Salary of room attendant

     (i)    Rs. 40 per day ordinary room in summer

     (ii)   Rs. 50 per day deluxe room in summer

     (iii) Rs. 60 per day aristocrat room in summer

     (iv) Rs.30,40&50 respectively for ordinary room, deluxe room and aristocrat room
     respectively in winter and monsoon.

c.   Light refreshment

     (i)    Rs.35 per day –for summer

     (ii)   Rs.45 per day –for winter

     (iii) Rs.60 per day-for monsoon

d.   Other expenses – Rs.20 per day room

     The capacity utilization, as such, is very uncertain. However based on past
     experience, following could be the best possible estimates:

     In summer, the utilization is maximum and all 150 ordinary rooms remain occupied.
     in the case of deluxe room and aristocrat rooms ,the utilization is 90 and 60 i.e.
     90% and 80% respectively.

     In winter, utilization is 80% and 60% and 40% respectively for ordinary, deluxe and
     aristocrat rooms. In monsoon utilization is only 60%, 40% and 20% respectively.

     In addition, each hotel has to bear the change of head office expenses,
     proportionately. It is estimated that head office expenses would be Rs. 20,00,000/-
     and that the Bombay branch will bear 10% of total head office expenses.

     It is the management‟s policy to add 25% to the cost and further that aristocrat
     room charges should be 3 tomes the ordinary room charge and deluxe room should
     be twice the ordinary room change.

You required to work out various rates for the next year .Also work out thee rates if
deluxe room charge should be triple of ordinary room in charge in all season but in
aristocrat room case, charge should be 3.5 times in summer, 5 times in winter and 8
times in summer as compared to ordinary room charge.( Assume 360 days for
computation purpose)

Chapter-12                 Budgetary control

Q.1 A manufacturing company submits the following figures for the first quarter to

             Particulars              Product-X       Product-Y       Product-Z
Sales in (unit)
Jan-2005                                      25,00        30,00         1,00,000
Feb-2005                                          0               0      1,00,000
Mar-2005                                      20,00        25,00         1,00,000
Selling price per unit                            0               0        Rs.40
                                              30,00        35,00
                                                  0               0
                                              Rs.10        Rs.20

Target for 1st quarter-2006
        sales quantity increase               20%           10%             10%
        sales price increase                    Nil         10%             25%
stock position 1st Jan2006
        percent of Jan 2006 sales             50%           50%             50%
stock     position       31stmarch
2006                                      20,000          25,000          50,000
stock position Jan & Feb
percentage        of     subsequent           50%           50%             50%
months sales
You are required to prepare the sales and production budget for the 1st quarter of
2006. Show working clearly.

Q.2 You are required, from the data given below, to prepare next years budget for
           a. Production
           b. Purchases
Standard cost data are as follows:
                                                  Products       Product
                                                  Aye            Bee
                                                  Rs.            Rs.
Direct Materials
X     24 kilos at Rs. 2                           48
          30 kilos at Rs. 2                                      60
Y     10 kilos at Rs. 5                           50
          8 kilos at Rs. 5                                       40
Z         5 kilos at Rs. 6                        30
      10 kilos at Rs. 6                                          60

Direct wages
Unskilled         10 hours at Rs. 3 per hour      30
                      5 hours at Rs. 3 per hour                  15
Skilled               6 hours at Rs. 5 per hour   30
                      5 hours at Rs. 5 per hour                  25

Production overheads are absorbed on the basis of direct labour hours while other
overhead is recovered on the basis of 20% of production cost. Profit is calculated at
20% of sales price.
Budgeted data for the year:
                                   X                   Y           Z
                                   Rupees              Rupees      Rupees

    Stock at standard price:
    1st January                        60,000              1,25,000           72,000
    31st December                      70,000              1,35,000           75,000
    Production overheads: Rs.9,00,000
    Labour hours: 75,000
                                           Products              Product
                                           Aye (Rs.)             Bee (Rs.)
    Finished goods at production cost
    Opening stock                                    1,52,000                     2,56,000
    Closing stock                                    1,90,000                     3,52,000
    Sales at standard sales price                 13,68,000                      15,36,000

Q.3 ACE Ltd. manufactures three products A, C and E in two production departments F
    and G, in each of which are employed two grades of labour. The cost accountant is
    preparing the annual budgets for the next year and he has asked you to prepare,
    using the data given below, the labour cost budget.

                                                     Product      –   Product     –    Product – C
                                                     A                B                (Rs.000)
                                                     (Rs.000)         (Rs.000)
    Finished stocks:
    Budgeted stocks
    1st January next year                            720              540              1,800
    31st December next year                          600              570              1,000
    All stocks are valued at standard costs per      24               15               20
    Standard profit calculated as percentage         20%              25%              16.2/3%
    selling price

                               Total        Product– A          Product – B           Product – C

                        (Rs.,000)    (Rs.000)               (Rs.000)          (Rs.000)
Budgeted sales are
South                   6,600        1,200            1,800             3,600
West                    5,100        1,500            1,200             2,400
North                   6,380        1,500            800               4,080
                        18,080       4,200            3,800             10,080
Normal rejection of production                10%               20%             5%
Standard labour times per unit rate and standard rates per hour:
                              Rate       Hours per Unit
                                         Product - A      Product - B   Product - C
Department – F
Grade – 1                     1.80       2.0              3.0           1.0
Grade - 2                     1.60       1.5              2.0           1.5
Department – G
Grade – 1                     2.00       3.0              1.0           1.0
Grade - 2                     1.80       2.0              1.5           2.5

Q.4 The expenses budgeted for production of 10,000 units in a factory are furnished
                                               Per unit
Materials                                      70
Labour                                         25
Variable overheads                             20
Fixed overheads (Rs. 1,00,000)                 10
Variable overheads (Direct)                    5
Selling expenses (10% Fixed)                   13
Distribution Expenses (20% Fixed)              7
Administrative Expenses (50,000)               5

Total cost of sale per unit (to make and       155

   Prepare a budget for production of:
           a. 8,000 units
           b. 6,000 units
   Also, calculate the budgetary allowance for 7,000 units.

   Chapter-13                      STANDARD COSTING

   Q. 1 Stick-well Ltd. is operating a standard costing technique. Standards for one
   batch revealed the following:
                       Materials      Quantity           Price         Total Cost
                          A            30                  4           120
                          B            25                  2.4           60
                          C            45                  4           180
                          Input        100
                          Loss         10
                          Output       90                              360

   In a particular period, when five batches were produced, records revealed the
   following data:
                      Materials      Quantity        Price       Total Cost
                      A              180             4.5         810
                      B              160             3           480
                      C              260             3           780
                      Input          600
                      Loss           150
                      Output         450                         2,070
   You are required to compute the materials cost variances:

Q.2 From the following details, compute the labour cost variances.

   Standard Data (500 units)                  Actual data (600 units)
   Type         Hours   Rate      Total       Type        Hours        Rate        Total
   Skilled      300     3         900         Skilled     248          4           992.00
   Men                                        Men
   Skilled      120     2         240         Skilled     93           1.5         139.50
   Women                                      Women
   Unskilled    180     1         180         Unskilled   279          1           279.00
                600               1320                    620                      1410.50

Q.3 X Ltd. manufactures product X which requires 2 hours of skilled men, 3 hours of
   semi-skilled men and 5 hours of unskilled men per unit at Rs.5, 3 & 2 per hour
   respectively. During January 2003, the production department reported output of
   5000 units of product X. The labour cost incurred was as detailed below:
   Type                        Hours paid for              Rate per hour
   Skilled                     9,000                       Rs.7
   Semi-skilled                17,000                      Rs.2.75
   Unskilled                   30,000                      Rs.1.50
   The total hours paid for included 1000 idle hours due to machine break down etc.
   out of which 500 hours pertained to skilled men, 400 hours pertained to semi-skilled
   men and balance to unskilled men.
   1. Calculate labor cost variances.
   2. Recalculate the labor cost variances, given that the break up of 1000 idle hours is
   not given.

   Q.4 From the following information about sales calculate necessary sales variances.
   Product                     Standard                            Actual
                No.     Rate      in    Total        No         Rate         in   Total
                        Rs.     Per     Rs.                     Rs.        Per    Rs.
                        unit                                    unit

   A            5,000      5           25,000        6,000     6         36,000
   B            4,000      6           24,000        5,000     5         25,000
   C            3,000      7           21,000        4,000     8         32,000
                12,000                 70,000        15,000              93,000
   The company‟s budgeted market share was 20% and the actual market size was
   90,000 units.
Q.6 Vinak Ltd. has furnished you the following information for the month of August
                                       Budget           Actual
              Output (units)              30,000              32,500
              Hours                       30,000              33,000
              Fixed overheads             45,000              50,000
              Working days                      25                 26
   Calculate the fixed overheads cost variances.

Q.7 A company produces a single product from a single material, It operates a standard
   cost system and furnishes you the following information.
           Particulars                          Standard        Actual
           Production                           8,000           6,000
           Total Quantity – kg                  16,000          13,000
           Total Amount                         32,000          27,000
           Total hours                          2,400           2,000
           Total amount                         3,000           3,000
           Variable overheads expenses:
           Total Amount                         2,400           2,200
   You are required to compute the necessary variances.

Q.8 Modern Toys Ltd. had budgeted the following for a month:
                         Toy A   900 units at Rs.50 per unit

                      Toy B     600 units at Rs.100 per unit
                      Toy C    1500 units at Rs.75 per unit
   As against this the actual sales were:
                  Toy A        1000 units at Rs.55 per unit
                  Toy B          700 units at Rs.95 per unit
                  Toy C        1100 units at Rs.78 per unit
   The standard costs per unit of A, B, C were Rs.45/- Rs.85/- and Rs.65/- respectively
   whereas actual costs per unit were Rs.50/-, Rs.80/- and Rs.70/- respectively.
   Compute necessary sales and profit variances.

Q.9 The standard profit per unit of Y is Rs.3/-, ascertained as follows:
               Standard costs per unit
               Materials (4 kg at Rs.1.50)                                  6.00
               Labor (5 hours at Rs.0.80)                                   4.00
               Overheads – variable at Rs.0.30 per hour                     1.50
                              Fixed at Rs.0.50 per hour                     2.50
                              Total cost per unit                          14.00
                              Profit per unit                               3.00
                              Selling price                                17.00
   The standard cost statement has been drawn up on the basis of production and
   sales of 4000 units per month as against the available capacity of 5000 units. For
   the month of March, 2003, the following profit and loss emerged:-
                                                       Rs.            Rs.
               Sales (3,500 units)                                    66,000
               Less: Cost of goods produced:
                      Materials at Rs.1.40 per kg      21,000
                      Labor at Rs.0.85 per hour        15,640
                      Variable overheads                  5,200
                      Fixed overheads                  10,500         52,340
                      Actual profit                                   13,660
   Other information:

   1. The number of days worked in the March were 23 as against the normal 25 days
   per month.
   2. Failure of power led to idleness of 1,000 hours.
   You are required to reconcile the actual and standard profits on the basis of
   variances. Also calculate all possible ratios.

Q.10 X Ltd. manufactures product X, the standard production cost of which is as given
            Direct material         5 kg            at Rs.2/- per kg
            Direct labor            2 hours          at Rs.3/- per hour
            Variable overheads 2 hours              at Rs.0.50/- per hour
            Fixed overheads         2 hours         at Rs.1/- per hour
   The budget for current year was based on production and sale of 5000 units to be
   sold at Rs.30 per unit. As against this, the company sold 6000 units at Rs.28 per
   unit. During the year the company manufactured 8000 units and further, it had 2002
   incomplete units which are estimated to be80%, 60% complete as regards material,
   labor and overheads respectively. The company had opening stock of 500 units.
   During the year, the company incurred expenses as detailed below:
   Direct material               50,000 kg purchased at Rs.1.8 per kg
   Direct labor                  9,000 hours at Rs.3.5 per hour
   Variable overheads            Rs.4000/-
   Fixed overheads               Rs.12,000/-
   You are required to calculate sales and profit variances.

Q. 11 X Ltd. operates standard costing system. The following variances were reported
   for the Month of May, 2003.
                  Materials price variances                       300 (A)
                  Materials mix variances                         200 (F)
                  Usage variances                                 500 (A)
                  Labor rate variances                            300 (F)
                  Idle time variances                             150 (A)

                Labor mix variances                         250 (A)
                Standard material cost                    Rs.10,200
                Actual labor cost                          Rs.8,700
                Overheads efficiency variances              400 (A)
You are required to calculate:
   a. Labor time variances
   b. Material yield variances
   c. Actual material cost
   d. Standard labor cost
   It is known that standard rate of pay (average) is 50% of fixed overheads rate.

   Chapter – 14                 Marginal Costing

Q.1 From the following information, you are asked to compute:
   1. Break-even point in value and volume
   2. P/V ratio.
   3. Margin of safety
   4. Margin of safety ratio
           Sales value                                     20,00,000
           Material cost                                    4,00,000
           Labour cost                                      5,00,000
           Variable manufacturing expenses                  1,00,000
           Variable selling and distribution expenses       2,00,000

           SALARY :
           Factory supervisor                     12,000
           Office manager                         18,000
           Other office employees                 60,000

          Repairs and maintenance                                  Rs.90,000
          Depreciation, rate and taxes                             Rs.30,000
          General and administrative expenses                      Rs.90,000
          Salesman‟s Commission                                 5% of sales

           (not included in selling and distribution expenses)
           Selling price per unit                                          Rs.100/-
           Fixed selling and distribution overheads                   Rs.1,90,000

Q.2 The budgeted sales of the products of the company are as follows:
                                          X           Y          Z
   Budgeted sales in unit                 10,000      15,000     20,000
   Budgeted sales price per unit                  4          4        4
   Budgeted variable costs per unit             2.5          3       3.5
   Budgeted fixed expenses                12,000       9,000      7,500
   From the above information, you are required to compute the following for each
   a. The budgeted profit
   b. The budgeted break even sales
   c. The budgeted margin of safety in terms of sales value.

Q.3 The Asian Industries specialize in the manufacture of small capacity motors. The
   cost structure of the motor is as under:
                 Material                     Rs.50
                 Labor                        Rs.80
                 Variable overhead      75% of labor cost
   Fixed overheads of the company amounted to Rs.2.30 lakhs per annum. The sale
   price of the motor is Rs.230 each.
   a. Determine the number of motors that have to be manufactured and sold in a year
   in order to break-even.
   b. How many motors have to be made and sold to make a profit of Rs.1 lakh per

   c. If the sales price is reduced by Rs.15 each, how many motors have to be sold to

Q.4 X Ltd. manufactures a standard product, the marginal costs (Per unit) of which are
   as follows:

   Direct materials                                   Rs.160.00
   Direct wages                                       Rs.120.00
   Variable overheads                                 Rs.20.00
   Total                                              Rs.300.00
   Its annual budget includes the following:
   Output: 40,000 units
   Fixed overheads:
   Production                                         Rs.80,00,000
   Administrative                                     Rs.48,00,000
   Marketing                                          Rs.40,00,000
   Total                                              Rs.2,00,00,000
   Recently, the top management of the organization has started thinking in terms of
   revising its budget and some alternatives in the form of proposals (Stated below)
   where discussed in its last board meeting.
   Proposal – І
   The organization expects a profit of Rs.48,00,000/- and want to know the selling
   price to be quoted for that purpose. It is estimated that (a) an increase in
   advertising expenditure of Rs.9,44,000/- would result in a 10% increase in sales
   quantity and (b) fixed production overheads and marketing overheads would
   increase by Rs.2,00,000 and Rs.1,36,000/- respectively.
   Proposal – ІІ
   The organization expects that, with an additional advertise expenditure; sales
   quantity would go up by 20% and a profit margin of 15% would be obtained. Under
   the circumstances, fixed production overheads and marketing overheads are

   expected to increase by Rs.2,00,000 respectively. The organization wants to know
   the additional expenditure on advertisement required with a view to achieving the
   You are required to prepare forecast statements for each of these alternatives and
   determine the selling price per unit to be quoted (Proposal – І) and the additional
   expenditure on advertisement required (Proposal – ІІ)

Q.5 Ever Forward Ltd. is manufacturing and selling two products:- Splash and Flash at
   selling price of Rs.3 and Rs.4 respectively. The following sales strategy has been
   outlined for the year 2004.
   (1) Sales planned for year will be Rs.7.20 lakhs in the case of Splash and Rs.3.50 in
       the case of Flash.
   (2) To meet the competition, the selling price of Splash will be reduced by 20% and
       that of Flash by 12.5%.
   (3) Break-even is planned at 60% of the total sales of each product.
   (4) Profit for the year to be achieved is planned as Rs.69,120 in the case of Splash
   and Rs.17,500 in the case of Flash. This would be possible by launching a cost
   reduction programme and reducing the present annual fixed expenses of
   Rs.1,35,000 allocated as Rs.108,000 to Splash and Rs.27,000 to Flash.
   You are required to present the proposal in financial terms giving clearly the
   following information:-
   (a) Number of units to be sold of Splash and Flash to break even as well as the total
       number, of units of Splash and Flash to be sold during the year.
   (b) Reduction in fixed expenses product-wise that is envisaged by the Cost
        Reduction Programme.
Q.6 The particulars two plants producing an identical product with the same selling
   price are as under:
                                       Plant - A        Plant - B
                Capacity utilization         70%           60%
                                       (Rs. In lakhs)   (Rs. In Lakhs)
                Sales                       150              90
                Variable costs              105              75

                   Fixed costs                30            20
   It has been decide to merge Plant B with Plant A; the additional fixed expenses
   involved in the merger will amount to Rs.2 Lakhs p.a.
   a. Find the break-even point of plant A and plant B before the merger and the
   break-even point of merged plant.
   b. Find the capacity utilization of the integrated plant required to earn a profit of
   Rs.18 lakhs

Q.7 Kalyan University conducts a special course of „Computer Applications‟ for a month
   during summer. For this purpose, it invites applications from graduates. An entrance
   Test is given to the candidates and based on same, a final selection of a hundred
   candidates is made. An entrance test consists of four objective types of
   examinations and is spread over four days, one examination per day. Each
   candidate is charged a fee of Rs.50/- for taking up the entrance test. The following
   data was gathered for the past two years.
                                   KALYAN UNIVERSITY
   Statement of Net revenue from the Entrance Test for the course on “Computer
                                                                 2002        2003
   Gross Revenue (Fees collected)                                 1,00,000   1,50,000
   Valuation                                                        40,000     60,000
   Question booklets                                                20,000     30,000
   Hall rent at Rs.2,000 per day                                     8,000       8,000
   Honorarium to chief administrator                                 6,000       6,000
   Supervision charges (One supervisor for every 100
   candidates at the rate of Rs.50 per day)                          4,000       6,000
   General administrative expenses                                   6,000       6,000
   TOTAL COST                                                       84,000   1,16,000
   Net Revenue                                                    16,000      34,000
   You are required to compute:

   a. The budgeted net revenue if 4,000 candidates take up the entrance test in 2004.
   b. The break-even number of candidates.
   c. The number of candidates to be enrolled if the net income desired is Rs.20,000/-

Q.8 X company has been so far producing and selling following three products.
   Information about selling price and the cost is given below:
                                                     X                Y              Z
           Selling price                            Rs.14.00        Rs.16.00       Rs.13.00
                 Materials                           Rs.5.00        Rs.10.00        Rs.2.00
                 Labor                               Rs.2.00         Rs.1.00        Rs.3.00
                 Variable overheads                  Rs.1.00         Rs.0.50        Rs.1.50
                 Fixed overheads                     Rs.5.00         Rs.2.50        Rs.7.50
           Net profit (loss)                         Rs.1.00         Rs.2.00     Rs.(1.00)
   The company at present has been producing 5000 units of X, 8000 units of Y and
   1000 units of Z. As product Z has been consistently fetching sizeable amount of loss
   only, the company virtually is putting no worth noting effort to augment the sales of
   the same. In fact it is seriously thinking of dropping this product. The fixed
   overheads in all amount to Rs. 50,500/- p.a. and they are apportioned to the three
   products on the basis of labor cost.
   You are required to state profit implications of dropping product Z.

Q.9 A multi-product company has the following costs and output data for the last year:-
                                          X                 Y              Z
   Sales mix (in value)                   40%               35%            25%
   Selling price                          Rs.20             Rs.25          Rs.30
   Variable cost per unit                 Rs.10             Rs.15          Rs.18
   Total fixed costs                          Rs.1,50,000
   Total sales                                Rs.5,00,000

   The company processes to replace product Z with product S.
   Estimated cost and output data are:
                                                   X              Y               S
   Sales mix (in value)                                50%            30%             20%
   Selling price                                       Rs.20       Rs.25              Rs.28
   Variable cost per unit                              Rs.10       Rs.15              Rs.14
   Total fixed costs                          Rs.1,60,000
   Total sales                                Rs.4,50,000
   Analyze the proposed change and suggest what decision the company should take.
   Also state the break-even point for the company as a whole in the two situations.

Q.10 Tours Ltd. produces three products A, B and C from the same manufacturing
   facilities. The cost and the other details of the three products are as follows:
                                                   A              B           C
   Selling price/unit (Rs.)                             200           160         100
   Variable cost/unit (Rs.)                             120           120             40
   Maximum production per month (unit)                 5000 or     8000 or      6000 or
   Maximum demand per month (units)                    2000        4000         2400
   Processing hours can not be increase beyond 200 hours per month. Fixed cost is
   Rs.2,76,000/- p.m.
   You are required to:
   a. Compute the most profitable product mix.
   b. Compute the overall break-even sales of the company for the month based on the
   mix calculated in (a) above.

Q.11 A firm can produce three different products from the same raw material using the
   same production facilities. The requisite labor is available in plenty at Rs.8 per hour
   for all products. The supply of raw materials, which is imported at Rs.8 per Kg. is
   limited to 10,400 Kgs. for the budget period. The variable overheads are Rs.5.60 per
   hour. The fixed overheads are Rs.50,000. The selling commission is 10% on sales.

  a. From the following information, you are required to suggest the most suitable
  sales mix, which will maximize the firm‟s profits. Also determine the profit that will
  be earned at that level:
  Product    Market              Selling     price   Labor hours      Raw          material
             demand              per unit Rs.        required         required         per
             (units)                                 per Unit         Unit
  X            8,000                   30                     1              0.7
  Y            6,000                   40                     2              0.4
  Z            5,000                   50                   1.5              1.5
  b. Assume, in above situation, if additional 4,500 kgs of raw materials is made for
  production, should the firm go in for further production, if it will result in additional
  fixed overheads of Rs.20,000 and 25% increase in the rates per hour for labor and
  variable overheads?
Q.12 The Management of M/s. Rama Ltd. Has prepared the following estimates of
  working results for the year ending 31st December,2003, for the purpose of
  preparing the budget for the year ending 31st December 2004.
            Direct materials             per unit                  8.00
            Direct wages                 per unit                 20.00
            Variable overheads          per unit                   6.00
            Selling price               per unit                  62.50
            Fixed overheads          per annum            Rs. 3,37,500
            Sales                     per annum        Rs. 12,50,000
  It is expected that during the year 2004, the material prices and the variable
  overheads will go up by 10% and 5% respectively. As a result of reorganization of
  production methods, the overall direct labor efficiency will increase by 12% but the
  wage rate will go up by 5%. The fixed overheads are expected to increase by
  Rs.62,500/-. The marketing manager states that market will not absorb any increase
  in the selling price. However, he is of the view that if advertisement expenditure is
  increased, the sales quantity will increase as under;
   Advertisement expenses                  40,000    97,000       1,60,000   2,30,000

 Additional Units of sales             2,000         4,000          6,000       8,000
You are required to;
a. Present an income statement for the year 2003.
b. Evaluate the four alternative proposals put forth by the marketing manager,
  determine the best output and sales level to be budgeted and prepare an overall
  income statement for 2004 at that level of output and sales:
Q.No.6)        An agriculturists has 480 hectares of land on which he grows potatoes,
tomatoes peas and carrots. Out of the total area of land, 340 hectares of land
suitable for all the 4 vegetables but the remaining 140 hectares is suitable only for
growing peas and carrots. Labor for all kinds of farm work is available in plenty.
The market requirement is that all the 4 types of vegetables must be produced with
a minimum of 5,000 boxes of any one variety. The farmer has decided the area
devoted to any crop should be in term of complete hectares and not in fractions.
The only other limitation is that not more than 1,13,750 boxes any one vegetable
can be sold.
The relevant data concerning the production, market prices and costs are as below:
                                             Potatoes Peas           Carrot     Tomatoes
Annual Yield : Boxes per hectare             350         100         70         180
Costs: Direct Material per hectare (Rs.)     952         432         384        624
Direct Labour: (Rs.)
   -   Growing per hectare                      1,792    1,216       744        1056
   -   Harvesting and packing per box            7.20        6.56    8.80       10.40
   -   Transport per box                        10.40    10.40       8          19.20
Market Price per Box (rs.)                   30.76       31.74       36.80      44.55
Fixed expenses per annum:
Growing Rs.1,24,000                Harvesting Rs.75,000                   Transport
General administration Rs.1,50,000.
It is possible to make the land presently suitable for peas and carrot, viable for
growing potatoes and tomatoes is certain development work in undertaken. This
work will involve capital expenditure of Rs.6,000 per hectare which bank is prepared
to finance at 15% interest per annum. If such improvement is undertaken, the

harvesting cost of entire crop of tomatoes will decrease on an average by Rs.2.60
per box.
   1. Calculate, with in the given constraints, the area to be cultivated in respect of
      each crop to achieve the maximum total profit and the amount of such profit
      before the land development work in undertaken.
   2. Assuming that the other constraints continue, advice whether the land
      development scheme should be undertaken and if so the maximum total
      profit that would be achieved after the said development scheme is


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