RD_Highlights_2009-12 by zhangyun


									FS-942          United States               Forest
November 2009   Department of Agriculture   Service
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Welcome From the Deputy Chief  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 2

Highlights by Strategic Program Area  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 4

      Wildland Fire and Fuels  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 4

      Invasive Species  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 9

      Outdoor Recreation  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 12

      Resource Management and Use  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 17

      Water Air and Soil  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 23

      Wildlife and Fish  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 28

      Inventory and Monitoring  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 31

Research and Development Contacts  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 35
       Welcome From the Deputy Chief
                      Research has been part of the        rangelands. The Forest Service is adding a new
                      Forest Service, U.S. Department      network of Urban Long-Term Research Areas
                      of Agriculture (USDA), since its     (ULTRAs).
                      inception. A Forestry Division,
                                                           We’d like to offer you a few snapshots of For-
                      established within USDA in
                                                           est Service R&D work across the United States
                      1878 to track trends in the
                                                           and internationally in this 2008–2009 “High-
                      Nation’s forests, was the precur-
                                                           lights” edition. It is organized around seven
                      sor of the Forest Service. This
                                                           Strategic Program Areas (SPAs): Wildland Fire
                      division was renamed and reor-
                                                           and Fuels; Invasive Species; Outdoor Recre-
                      ganized in 1905 when a system
                                                           ation; Resource Management and Use; Water,
       of forest reserves was transferred to its care.
                                                           Air, and Soil; Wildlife and Fish; and Inventory
       The reserves were established by Congress in
                                                           and Monitoring. The advances you will read
       response to national concerns over excessive
                                                           about here are part of an ongoing stream of
       logging and grazing and resultant denuding
                                                           decades of research and are built on efforts of
       of vegetation, soil loss, and flooding. The first
                                                           hundreds of scientists answering fundamental
       Forest Service Chief Forester sent his rangers
                                                           questions and solving real-world problems.
       out to map, protect, and manage thousands
       of acres of forest and rangeland. With the          The SPAs sum up a national program of work
       new real estate came new needs for research         that is built on a solid science base and con-
       to understand the plants, hydrology, and oth-       tinues to strengthen that base for a turbulent
       er ongoing natural processes to aid land            but exciting future. Over the past few years we
       management.                                         have used these areas to organize for exter-
                                                           nal peer review of our research work, to report
       Forest Service Research and Development
                                                           accomplishments, to plan research invest-
       (R&D) continues to provide scientific knowl-
                                                           ments, to improve our accountability, and to
       edge and new technologies to support
                                                           offer our researchers a “community of practice”
       sustainable management of the Nation’s
                                                           for interaction along broader, interdisciplin-
       forests and rangelands. This knowledge is
                                                           ary topics. The strategic approach allows us to
       now based on more than 100 years of study-
                                                           maintain our long-term national research pro-
       ing environmental processes that operate
                                                           gram and provide a means to respond quickly
       on the land. Research is conducted through
                                                           to address regional and local problems and
       five research stations, the Forest Products
                                                           emerging issues, such as climate change, that
       Laboratory, and the International Institute of
                                                           cut across the strategic programs.
       Tropical Forestry in Puerto Rico. The Forest
       Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program, man-          Each year our researchers publish hundreds of
       aged by R&D in cooperation with State and           articles and report volumes of findings to ad-
       Private Forestry and National Forest System,        vance the sciences of forestry and range. This
       provides status and trend information need-         small selection presents some of the bigger
       ed to evaluate long-term effects of current         and more recent stories—often involving sev-
       forest management practices and policies.           eral partners, disciplines, and research units
       The R&D organization also maintains a net-          and benefiting many customers.
       work of long-term experimental forests and

And who are the customers of Forest Service                       fiting from better understanding of how forest
R&D? Historically, they are land managers with                    and rangeland natural systems function.
Federal and State natural resource agencies,
                                                                  We are proud of the work represented here, of
and increasingly, urban foresters and planners
                                                                  the partners who have worked beside us, and
who care for increasingly important urban for-
                                                                  the healthier, more diverse and more produc-
ests and open spaces. Also, nongovernmental
                                                                  tive ecosystems that this knowledge helps
organizations and landowners use our infor-
                                                                  produce. If you want to learn more, you can
mation for land-use decisions. And to some
                                                                  visit us at http://www.fs.fed.us/research.
extent, they include all who benefit from clean
water, healthy land systems, wildlife popula-
tions, recreation opportunities, and other ben-
efits of good land stewardship. This includes                     Ann Bartuska, Deputy Chief of Research and Development
the new generations who will be managing,
using, and enjoying the national forests, bene-

                                          USDA FOREST SERVICE RESEARCH FACILITIES


                      Pacific Northwest
                      Research Station

                                                                           Forest Products

                                                                                                                Research Station
                 Pacific Southwest
                 Research Station              Rocky Mountain
                                               Research Station

                                                                                             Research Station


                                                                                                                                   International Institute
                                                                                                                                    of Tropical Forestry

                                                                                                                              PUERTO RICO

                                            (U.S. PACIFIC ISLAND TERRITORIES NOT PICTURED)

                                                                                     WELCOME	FROM	THE	DEPUTY	CHIEF                                           	
WILDLAND FIRE AND FUELS      Highlights by Strategic Program Area

                                Wildland Fire and Fuels SPA provides the knowledge and tools needed to help
                                reduce the negative impacts, and enhance the beneficial effects, of wildland fire on
                                society and the environment . It focuses on understanding and modeling fundamen-
                                tal fire processes, interactions of fire with ecosystems and the environment, social
                                and economic aspects of fire, evaluation of integrated management strategies and
                                disturbance interactions, and applying fire research to management problems .

                             Researchers Examine                             choices on how they
                                                                             will respond to threat
                             Australian Alternatives to
                                                                             of wildfire, including
                             Mass Evacuations During                         planning for evacu-
                             Wildfire                                        ation or defense,
                             Wildfire races through the crackling euca-      making their prop-
                             lyptus towards a residential neighborhood.      erty more fire-safe,
                             The alert is sounded. Residents prepare to      and acquiring proper
                             defend their homes. The Australian alterna-     clothing and equip-
                             tive—Prepare, Stay and Defend or Leave          ment. The researchers
                             Early (PSDLE)—has evoked interest in            concluded that this
                             the United States, prompted by a greater        could be a viable option in some locali-
                             incidence of large wildfires, more people       ties if agencies partner with homeowners,
                             living in fire-prone areas, difficulties with   educating them on the risks, choices, and
                             mass evacuations, and homeowners who            actions involved, and if homeowners accept
                                         choose not to evacuate. A Forest    responsibility for their own safety. The Forest
                                         Service scientist and an Aus-       Service scientist is a liaison to the 2009 Vic-
                                         tralian fire researcher assessed    torian Bushfires Royal Commission, which is
                                         whether PSDLE could work in         assessing bushfires that caused 173 deaths
                                         the United States. PSDLE is based   in Victoria, Australia, and implications for the
                                         on Australian research indicating   PSDLE approach.
                                         that civilian deaths most often     Lead: Northern Research Station
                                         occur while people are trying to
                                         flee at the last minute and that    Key Points
                                         most houses ignite from embers      • Australian alternative to mass evacuations.
                                         that homeowners could defend        • Safer than last-minute retreat.
                                         against. Educational outreach       • Homeowner choice and responsibility.
                                         helps residents make informed       • Education on risks and actions.

             4     	      RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
Symposium Encourages Fire

                                                                                                                             WILDLAND FIRE AND FUELS
                                                                 Key Points
Management Research in
                                                                 • Symposium sponsored by Forest Service is
Neotropics                                                         first attempt to document and coordinate
                                                                   wildfire management and research in the
Research and monitoring of Neotropi-
cal fires have not been as central to land
                                                             • Fire research and monitoring has been
management as in temperate and boreal
                                                                underplayed in these regions due to
regions because of the misconception of                         misperception of fewer fires in this humid
a predominantly humid environment and                           environment.
the smaller extent of fires. The Neotropi-                   • Moist and wet tropical forests may see
cal region encompasses South America,                           more fire because of climate change, ex-
the Antilles, and tropical North America.                       tended drought, and human influences.
Climate change, extended drought, and
human-induced landscape fragmenta-
tion have the potential to greatly expand                results. There is no coordinated documenta-
fire-prone areas to moist and wet tropical               tion, research, and management of wildfire
forests and grasslands that have been tra-               among the nations of the Neotropics. The
ditionally fire free. Fire-prone grasslands,             symposium and journal issue provided a
shrublands, and dry forests are abundant,                starting place, presenting useful informa-
and the cumulative effect of small fires                 tion for land management that should
has not been documented. Logging, road                   stimulate interest and further research.
building, and forest fragmentation in-                   Lead: International Institute of Tropical
crease the likelihood of fire. The fact that             Forestry
most wildfires in the Carib-
bean result from human
ignition was noted by re-
searchers at the Caribbean
Fire Ecology and Manage-
ment Symposium convened
in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and
sponsored by the Forest Ser-
vice’s International Institute
of Tropical Forestry. A special
issue of the journal “Ambio”          Unregulated wildfire in the lowland hills surrounding the El Yunque National Forest,
                                      Puerto Rico. (Photo by W. Gould)
on fire ecology and man-
agement in the Neotropics
presented symposium

                                                                    HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA                      5     	
                                   Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                                    Scientists Model How Dense

                                    Chaparral Slows but Heats
                                    Up Fire
                                      Every year, chaparral—a dense growth of
                                      small-leaved evergreen shrubs that burn
                                      intensely hot with high flame lengths—
                                      provides the fuel for dramatic, life-threat-
                                      ening fires along the southern California
                                      foothills. Fire in chaparral is considered a    A chaparral fire burns in the wild.

                                      crown fire because it spreads
                                                                                                                            The green light
                                      through the shrub canopy                                                              is the laser that
                                      (top of the plant). To reduce                                                         is part of the
                                                                                                                            particle imaging
                                      fire hazard, managers seek                                                            velocimetry sys-
                                                                                                                            tem being used
                                      methods to reduce this fuel                                                           to describe flame
                                      in key areas. Prescribed fire—
                                      burning these shrubs under
                                      controlled conditions—is less
                                      costly and labor-intensive than
                                      attempting to thin or remove
                                      this dense material with chain-
                                      saws and heavy machinery. To use pre-           As the thickness of the shrub canopy in-
                                      scribed fire in chaparral, managers need to     creases, movement through the canopy of
                                      know how to cause a fire to spread under        hot gases from a surface fire slows, causing
                                      controlled conditions, and they need to         additional heating and possible ignition
                                                               know what initi-       of the canopy. Model results illustrate the
                          Key Points                           ates a crown fire in   importance of convective heating.
                          • Managers seek to reduce fire       chaparral. A study     Lead: Pacific Southwest Research Station
                            hazards by removing fuels in       involving laborato-
                            key areas.                         ry experiments and
                          • Burning shrubs under con-          computer modeling
                            trolled conditions is a good       has demonstrated
                                                               how the thickness
                          • Scientists have found that         of shrub canopy
                            thickness of shrub canopy is
                                                               is key to ignition
                            key to fire ignition.
                                                               (lighting a fire).

             6     	          RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
High-Resolution Surface

                                                                                                                   WILDLAND FIRE AND FUELS
Wind Simulations                                                     Key Points
                                                                     • Wind is a dominant influence on fire
Wind is often the dominant variable influ-                            behavior.
encing wildland fire behavior. Mountains,                           • Terrain features affect wind direction
valleys, ridges, and other terrain features                           and speed, but predictions are difficult.
can influence both speed and direction of                           • New models predict wind speed and
wind flows. A major source of uncertainty                             direction during fires.
in fire behavior predictions is the lack of                         • Models help fire managers know
site-specific information about variation                             where and how fast the fire is going.
in wind speed and direction in the vicinity
of a fire. Researchers at the Fire Sciences
Laboratory in Mis-                                                              the lee side of ridges because
soula, Montana, have                                                            of the additional physics
developed two wind                                                              included but takes much
models being tested                                                             longer to compute a solution
by fire behavior                                                                than WindNinja. WindNinja
analysts for predict-                                                           is very fast computationally
ing wind speed and                                                              but lacks sufficient physics to
direction at scales                                                             accurately simulate flows in
down to 100 me-                                                                 very diverse terrain. The wind
ters. The first, called                                                         models provide outputs, such
                          A close-up image of a fire in northwest Mon-
WindWizard, uses          tana. Note the highly variable wind direction
                                                                                as visual displays of wind flow
                          and speed in this area. These variations play a
computer flow mod- primary role in fire spread and intensity. Vector            over terrain, to aid in tactical
eling technology          color represents wind speed in miles per hour.
                                                                                decisions and safety analysis
originally developed                                                            on fires. Wind model outputs
for the aerospace                                                               can be incorporated into fire
industry. The second                                                            behavior models to increase
model, called Wind-                                                             predictive accuracy. Several
Ninja, uses a similar                                                           case studies showed a signifi-
modeling approach                                                               cant increase in fire behavior
but incorporates                                                                predictive accuracy when the
less physics. Each                                                              modeled winds were used.
model has unique
strengths. For ex-                                                              Lead: Rocky Mountain
ample, WindWizard                                                               Research Station
                          Wind vectors can be plotted in Google Earth™,
is more accurate on       allowing a three-dimensional view of wind
                            flow displayed over high-resolution aerial

                                                                         HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA       7     	
                                 Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                                Fragmentation Impacts on
                                                                                                    ture regimes, structure, and size along a
                                                                                                    climatic gradient of boreal, temperate, and
                                Fuels in Boreal, Temperate,
                                                                                                    tropical forests. Coarse woody debris, fine
                                and Tropical Forests                                                woody debris, and standing dead and live
                                Forests are broken up, or fragmented, by                            tree biomass (biological material) were not
                                human uses such as agriculture and log-                             reliably predicted with mean annual me-
                                ging. This fragmentation affects the way                            dian temperature alone. Temperate sites
                                fuels for wildfire (tree limbs, needles, leaves,                    had the greatest amount of this material.
                                and other woody parts) are accumulated                              Forest floor fuels (duff and litter) changed
                                because it creates more complex patterns                            according to temperature differences, and
                                and more edges or clearings. Understand-                            biomass was greatest in boreal sites. Tem-
                                ing how fragmentation affects the way                               perature, moisture, and age/structure ap-
                                fuels occur within a given climate range                            peared to affect the amounts of forest floor
                                and along different temperature regimens                            fuels, downed woody debris, and live tree
                                will aid in fuel management and fire behav-                         biomass. Fragment size affected forest floor
                                ior prediction. Forest fuel characteristics                         fuels and live tree biomass. Distance from
                                were assessed in stands of various mois-                            forest edge had little effect except on a few
                                                                                                                        subgroups. Little differ-
                                                                                                                        ence in fuels was found
                                                                                                                        between interiors and

                                                                                                                         Lead: International
                                                                                                                         Institute of Tropical

                          Linear and quadratic relationships of forest floor fuels (litter and duff ), coarse woody
                          debris (open circles), fine woody debris (filled squares), snags, and live tree biomass with
                          mean annual median temperatures. Forest floor fuels increase along a line of temperature
                          (and latitude), whereas dead woody debris and live biomass peak in temperate sites.

             8     	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                                                 INVASIVE SPECIES
  Invasive Species SPA provides the scientific information, methods, and technol-
  ogy to reduce, minimize, or eliminate the introduction, establishment, spread, and
  impact of invasive species and to restore ecosystems affected by invasives . This re-
  search focuses on plants, animals, fish, insects, diseases, invertebrates, and other
  species that are not native to the ecosystem under consideration and whose intro-
  duction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm .

Prescribed Fire Effects on
Roadside Exotic Plant Species
Recent Forest Service studies indicate that
land managers may be able to use low-
intensity fires to control roadside vegeta-
tion in some western areas without stimu-
lating the growth of exotic plants. Land
management practices of road construc-
tion, use, and maintenance influence the
numbers and types of invasive species
along roads. Forest Service scientists in         Researchers studied the effects of prescribed fire on exotic
                                                  plant species abundance.
                            Flagstaff, Arizona,
                            published an          habitats and in nearby ponderosa pine for-
  Key Points
                            article in “Range-    est habitats. Amounts of most exotic plant
  • Road building
    and maintenance
                            land Ecology and      species did not change after prescribed fire
    influence type and      Management”           at sites in three northern Arizona national
    number of roadside      (61: 284-293,         forests. A comparison of roadside and forest
    invasive species.       May 2008) that        habitats before the prescribed fires showed
  • Low-intensity           analyzes effects      that roadsides do have more exotic plant
    fires can be used       of prescribed         species, but only some species are more
    in some areas to
                            fire—fire started     abundant along roadsides, while others are
    remove roadside
    vegetation without      under controlled      equally abundant in both habitats.
    stimulating growth      conditions—on
    of exotic plants.       the number and        Lead: Rocky Mountain Research Station
                            abundance of ex-
                            otic plant species
                            along roadside

                                                         HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA                    9   	
                      Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                      Researchers Decipher                               Predicting Success of

                      Emerald Ash Borer Travel                           Biocontrol for Invasive Weeds
                      Preferences                                        Classical weed biological control using
                       Emerald ash borer (EAB) travel patterns are       imported natural enemies can be an en-
                       helping researchers predict where the de-         vironmentally sensitive, sustainable, and
                       structive pest may strike next. The EAB has       target-specific approach to managing in-
                       killed or damaged more than 25 million ash        vasive weeds at landscape scales. However,
                       trees in North America since its detection in     short- and long-term fluctuations in envi-
                       2002. One problem in stopping the invasive        ronmental influences can impede delivery
                       Asian insect is that by the time it is detected    of effective and safe weed enemies. Forest
                       in an area, it’s often too late to save the        Service scientists are developing science-
                       trees. Forest Service researchers are tak-                                    based tools to better
                       ing some of the guesswork out of predict-                                     predict what and
                       ing beetle attacks. They have developed a                                     how well biologi-
                       method of using past beetle travel patterns                                   cal control agents
                       to calculate the risk of colonization at new                                  will work under the
                       locations. The resulting maps can help land                                   influence of climate
                       managers better target monitoring efforts.                                    change and other
                       Once a monitoring site is selected, the                                       variations in environ-
                       method can help researchers identify which                                    mental conditions.
                       trees are the most likely targets. Scientists                                 Invasive weeds can
                       discovered that the EAB prefers green ash                                     hybridize or cross-
                                                                         Biological controls are be-
                                              over blue ash, while       ing studied for the control breed with other
                                              avoiding species other     of the invasive Dalmation   varieties, making
                     Key Points                                          toadflax.
                                              than ash altogether. As                                them more immune
                     • Where will the
                                              scientists gain a better   to their natural enemies. Hybridization has
                        emerald ash
                        borer strike          understanding of the       allowed noxious targets such as Tamarisk,
                        next?                 EAB’s preferences and      Lantana, and Melaleuca to evade control
                     • Scientists             movements, they can        efforts. Collaborative studies with agency
                        decipher pest’s       fine-tune monitoring       and university partners are evaluating how
                        travel prefer-        strategies and             biological control agents interact with
                        ences, predict
                                              defenses.                  recently confirmed, naturally occurring
                       next target
                                                                         hybridization. New quarantine experiments
                                           Lead: Northern Research
                                                                         with two new agents thought to control
                                                                         toadflax aim to identify how crossbreeding

       10      	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
may limit their effectiveness. Partnerships

                                                                                                             INVASIVE SPECIES
with Forest Service’s Forest Health Protec-         Key Points
tion staff and various Federal, State, and          • Scientists create new weapons for
                                                      large-scale war against insect threats
private land management agencies provide
                                                      to trees.
many technology transfer opportunities.
                                                    • Methods use pheromones—
Field tours on established insectaries and
                                                      natural chemical signals—against
hands-on workshops promote use of basic               mountain pine beetles and Douglas-
and applied research results.                         fir beetles.

Lead: Rocky Mountain Research Station               • Pheromone-releasing flakes can be
                                                      used to treat large areas in the back-
Development of Pheromone
Products for Area-Wide                        developed pheromone-releasing flakes for
Control of Damaging                           area-wide treatments targeted at mountain
Insect Pests                                  pine and Douglas-fir beetles. These products
                                              can be applied from helicopter and fixed-
Forest Service scientists are providing       wing aircraft, or from broadcast spreaders
new methods that can be used for large-       at ground level. Product efficacies were
scale backcountry battles against two of      validated in a number of large-scale studies,
the most damaging insect pests affecting      which demonstrated that treatment could
conifers in the northern United States:       reduce attack levels from 60 to 100 percent.
the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus        Both products are now registered by the U.S.
ponderosae) attacking lodgepole and           Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for
whitebark pines and the Douglas-fir beetle    use in forest stands.
(Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) attacking
Douglas-fir. Although these two beetles are   Lead: Pacific Southwest Research Station
native to North America, they are invading
new ecosystems and causing substantial
damage. Pheromones—chemical signals
that repel or attract members of a spe-
cies—are often effective in insect control.
These methods have not been used widely
to control beetles because older products
required hand application or ground-level
treatments that are not feasible for use
in remote areas. Working with the phero-
                                              Helicopter departing from Lucerne Guard Station, Washing-
mone industry, Forest Service scientists      ton, to distribute pheromone-releasing flakes targeting bark

                                                     HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA                    11    	
OUTDOOR RECREATION         Highlights by Strategic Program Area

                               Outdoor Recreation SPA is directed at understanding and managing outdoor environments,
                               activities, and experiences that connect people with the natural world . Research within this Strate-
                               gic Program Area develops the knowledge and tools to support informed recreation and wilderness
                               management decisions that improve outdoor recreation opportunities for current and future gen-
                               erations while sustaining healthy ecosystems .

                           Monitoring Wilderness                                                                     Scientists have
                                                                                                                     helped develop
                           Character                                                                                 new methods
                                                                                                                     for monitoring
                                                                                                                     trends in
                              The 1964 Wilderness Act and all 115 sub-                                               wilderness
                                                                                                                     character. (Big
                              sequent Federal wilderness acts direct                                                 Creek Lake,
                              the four Federal agencies (Bureau of Land                                              Selway–
                              Management, Forest Service, U.S. Fish and                                              Wilderness,
                              Wildlife Service, and National Park Service)
                              that administer wilderness to preserve wil-
                              derness character. These agencies do not
                              have a universal approach for monitoring
                              whether wilderness character is degrading,
                              stable, or improving across the 107.4 mil-            Preservation System” defines a core set of
                              lion acres of the National Wilderness Pres-           four qualities and 13 indicators of wilder-
                              ervation System. Forest Service scientists in         ness character that each agency should use
                                                     Missoula, Montana,             to report trends on each wilderness. It also
                                                     led an interagency             identifies a wide range of measures and
                 Key Points
                                                     team that devel-               data sources agencies can use to assess and
                 • Scientists develop methods
                   for Federal agencies to moni-     oped new, practical            track trends. The strategy will improve ac-
                   tor wilderness character.         methods to monitor             countability by linking performance mea-
                 • Managers can assess how           trends in wilderness           sures and management outcomes directly
                   specific projects affect          character for all four         to the mandates of wilderness legislation
                   aspects of wilderness             Federal agencies.              and agency policy. It can improve decision-
                   character.                        “Keeping it Wild: an           making by assessing how projects will affect
                 • Strategy could help               Interagency Strategy           specific aspects of wilderness character. It
                   improve public trust in           to Monitor Trends in
                   agencies’ wilderness
                                                                                    will create legacy information on wilderness
                                                     Wilderness Character           character and could build public trust in
                                                     across the National            agency wilderness stewardship.
                                                                                    Lead: Rocky Mountain Research Station

        12       	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
Recreation Managers Value                                    The online survey mostly queried recreation

                                                                                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION
Sustainable Recreation and                                   managers and staff officers at the district or
                                                             forest level. The managers perceived that
                                                             national forest lands are a resource that
Forest Service recreation managers believe                   increases value of the tourism experience
that providing for “sustainable” recreation                  and quality of life for surrounding residents.
and tourism on national forests is their                     Sustainable recreation benefits communities
professional responsibility—and should be                    economically, in giving them an informa-
a higher Forest Service priority. This was                   tion role and in encouraging visitors to learn
indicated by a recent online survey of                       about local cultures. For most respondents,
433 employees conducted by a Forest                          sustainability was a personal concern and
Service scientist and university colleagues.                 warranted future investment, but they felt
Sustainable recreation and tourism aims to                   Forest Service resources were not adequate
meet needs of visitors, tourists, and the lo-                to cover the need and demand. Future stud-
cal community, while protecting resources                    ies will focus on perspectives of recreation-
and enhancing future opportunities. Ideal-                   ists and outfitters and guides on providing
ly, people’s economic, social, and aesthetic                 sustainable recreation.
needs will be fulfilled while cultural integ-
                                                             Lead: Pacific Southwest Research Station
rity, ecological processes, biological diversi-
ty, and life support systems are maintained.

                                                    Results: Importance of Sustainability

                Is a FS priority

          Warrants additional

       Personally important in
            management area

    Professional responsibility
        to practice sustainable

             Personal concern

                                   0      10        20       30        40      50      60      70          80

                                   Strongly agree    Agree        Neither   Disagree   Strongly disagree

                                                                       HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA     13        	
                             Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                             Understanding and

                             Managing Backcountry
                             Recreation Impacts on
                               People love to see wildlife in the backcoun-
                               try, but the feeling may not be mutual.
                               Increased outdoor recreation activity over
                               the past 50 years is thought to seriously
                               threaten North American wildlife popula-
                               tions. Impacts of recreation on wildlife
                               include increased energy demands during
                               critical periods of the year, reduced habitat
                               when wildlife avoid areas of human activ-
                               ity, exposure to predators while avoid-
                               ing humans, and loss of habitat through          of management tools available for mini-
                               vegetation changes caused by recreation          mizing impacts. This annotated reading
                               activities. Managing recreation impacts on       list (volume 5 of the “Linking Wilderness
                               wildlife in wilderness is complicated by the     Research and Management” series,
                               potentially conflicting provisions of The        http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_
                               Wilderness Act of 1964 (Public Law 88-577),      gtr079_5.html) crosses disciplinary
                               which mandates preservation of natural           boundaries and includes literature on
                                                   conditions in wilderness     wildlife impacts and on recreation
                                                   while requiring managers     management techniques.
                     Key Points
                                                   to provide opportunities
                     • Increased human                                          Lead: Rocky Mountain Research Station
                       activity in the
                                                   for primitive recreation.
                       backcountry may             Forest Service research-
                       threaten wildlife           ers have compiled an
                       populations.                annotated list of refer-
                     • Guide offered for           ences that helps wildlife,
                       managing and mini-          recreation, and wilder-
                       mizing recreation
                                                   ness managers better
                       impacts to wildlife.
                                                   understand backcountry
                                                   recreation impacts to
                                                   wildlife and the variety

        14       	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
Team Leaders on Recreation

                                                                                                       OUTDOOR RECREATION
                                                          Key Points
Travel Projects Define                                    • The Forest Service involves the public
“Success” as NEPA                                           through NEPA assessments.
Compliance                                                • Team leaders on road and travel
                                                            projects thought their NEPA process
The National Environmental Policy Act                       was successful if procedures were
(NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess                followed.
the impact of major actions or decisions on               • Public satisfaction with process and
people and the environment. NEPA assess-                    best use of science were less impor-
ments have become the key way the Forest                    tant success factors.
Service makes major decisions and involves
the public. Yet few studies have been per-
formed about whether NEPA projects are                science. Compliance included full public
successful. To test success, Forest Service           disclosure, well-documented rationale,
researchers and university partners sought            transparent decisionmaking process, and
perceptions of NEPA success from Forest               correct procedures. Components of success
Service team leaders for 106 recreation-              for these projects included (a) a final
related road and travel projects completed            decision that reflected agency mission,
across the country between 2004 and 2008.             (b) compromise among interested parties,
The team leaders thought the NEPA process             and (c) harmony among interdisciplinary
was successful when there was procedural              team members. Perhaps the team members
compliance—a more important factor for                were more technically than socially in-
“success” than public satisfaction with the           clined—respondents reported a diversity of
process or outcome, or than best use of               subject matter experts on project teams but
                                                      often a lack of social scientists, economists,
                                                      recreation specialists, and writers. Research-
                                                      ers are planning a followup set of 8 to
                                                      10 case studies.

                                                      Lead: Pacific Northwest Research Station

   Off-road vehicle recreationist on the Dixie Na-
   tional Forest in Utah. Managing off-road vehicle
   use of the backcountry is a key part of Forest
   Service travel management.

                                                            HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA       15        	
                        Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                        What Do Kids Do Outdoors?                                 telephone survey. Trained interviewers use

                        No. 1, Just Be There                                      a computer-assisted telephone interview-
                                                                                  ing system that automatically enters data
                        Do kids spend too much time indoors? The                  and codes responses from a random cross-
                        National Kids Survey indicates that most                  section sample of U.S. residents at least
                        spend 2 or more hours per day outside on                  16 years of age. For the kids’ survey ques-
                        weekdays, and even more kids are outside                  tions, teens ages 16 to 19 are interviewed
                        for that long on weekends. And when they                  directly; a proxy household member at least
                        are outside, 83 percent are there “just to                20 years of age is interviewed to speak for
                        play or hang out” and usually are close                   kids 6 to 15. Collaborators are Forest Ser-
                        to home. Almost 79 percent favor active                   vice’s Southern Research Station, University
                        fare such as jogging, cycling, walking, and               of Georgia (Athens), and University of Ten-
                        skateboarding. About half the kids were                   nessee (Knoxville).
                        involved in outdoor team sports. The sur-
                        vey of more than                                              Lead: Southern Research Station
                        1,200 respondents
                                                 Percentage of youth participating in an outdoor activity during the past week
                        nationwide reports
                                                 Outdoor activity                                                  Male Female   Total
                        that 61 percent of
                                                 Just playing outdoors or hanging out                              87.5  78.4    83.0
                        kids ages 6 to
                                                 Biking, jogging, walking, skateboarding, etc.                     77.7  80.1    78.8
                        19 spent at least        Listening to music, watching movies, or using electronic device 51.3    59.5    55.4
                        2 hours outdoors         Playing or practicing team sports                                 60.5  40.3    50.8
                        on weekdays; more        Reading/studying while sitting outdoors                           38.5  51.1    44.5
                        than three-fourths       Playing other sports, e.g., tennis, golf                          37.5  35.5    36.6
                        spend 2 or more          Attending camps, field trips, outdoor classes                     30.8  39.1    34.8
                                                 Bird watching, viewing wildlife, etc.                             28.2  33.1    30.5
                        hours outdoors
                                                 Swimming, diving, snorkeling, etc.                                29.3  28.8    28.9
                        on weekends. The
                                                 Hiking, camping, fishing, etc.                                    29.0  26.7    27.8
                        National Kids Sur-
                                                 Riding motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, other off-road vehicles 24.4  15.8    20.2
                        vey is a compan-         Snow skiing, snowboarding, cross-country skiing                    9.4   8.4     8.9
                        ion survey to the        Boating, jet skiing, water skiing, etc.                            7.9   7.2     7.5
                        National Survey          Rowing, kayaking, canoeing, surfing, etc.                          8.5   6.3     7.4
                        on Recreation and        Doing other outdoor activities                                    10.3  11.6    10.9
                        Environment (NSRE),
                        a general popula-
                        tion, random-digit-
                        dialed household

        16       	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                                   RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND USE
   Resource Management and Use SPA provides a scientific and technological base
   to sustainably manage and use forest resources and forest fiber-based products . Re-
   search areas include plant science, soil science, social science, silviculture, productivity,
   forest and range ecology and management, forest harvesting and operations, forest
   and biomass products and utilization, economics, urban forestry, and climate change .

Software Suite Helping                              and Chicago are based on urban ecosystem
                                                    services, including carbon. Some 4,300 sites
Cities Demonstrate the
                                                    worldwide have requested the software. In
Value of Trees                                      November 2008, the i-Tree team received
Urban foresters across the United States            the Forest Service Chief’s Honor Award for
are using a software suite developed by             Engaging Urban America.
two Forest Service research stations and
                                                    Leads: Northern Research Station and
private sector collaborators to quantify and
                                                    Pacific Southwest Research Station
better understand their forest resources.
Called i-Tree, this set of free, simple soft-
ware programs and protocols aids urban                    Key Points
forest planning, management, and bud-                     • Forest Service computer pro-
geting and helps compare urban forest                       gram helps calculate value of
resources among cities. Used separately or                  urban trees.
together, i-Tree tools and programs meet                  • Used to evaluate environmental
different needs. The UFORE (Urban Forest                    services from tree planting
Effects) model uses field data to estimate                  projects.

economic and ecosystem service impacts                    • Used by more than 4,300 sites
of trees in a neighborhood, city, county, or                worldwide.

State. STRATUM (Street Tree Management
Tool for Urban Forest Managers) focuses on
street trees and tree management issues.
A tool for collecting user feedback assists
software developers in creating improved
future versions. The State of Maryland and
others have customized i-Tree and promote
it as their own product in their region.
Urban greening projects in New York City

                                                          HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA     17           	
                                      Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                                      Forest Service Unveils                              or liquid fuel output varies depending on

                                                                                          tree species and section of the tree burned.
                                      Cutting-Edge, Wood-to-                              This type of renewable energy technology
                                      Electricity Generator                               can help meet the Nation’s energy needs,
                                      As energy costs rise and demand for al-             reduce Government costs, and provide a
                                      ternative energy sources continues to               multitude of environmental benefits.
                                      grow, the Forest Service has developed a            Lead: Southern Research Station
                                      state-of-the-art bioenergy generator that
                                      converts wood into electricity for an office.
                                      The Kisatchie National Forest, Southern Re-
                                                                                          Bringing Back a Mighty
                                      search Station (SRS), and State and Private         Giant: American Chestnut
                                      Forestry offices purchased and installed the        Restoration
                                      gasification unit at the Winn Ranger District       The American chestnut was a keystone spe-
                                      office in Louisiana. The generator provides         cies in eastern hardwood forest for thou-
                                      enough electricity (15 kilowatts) to power          sands of years until chestnut blight was in-
                                      the 4,000-square-foot district office and re-       troduced into the United States in the early
                                      turn about 10 kilowatts of surplus electricity      1900s. Loss of the American chestnut result-
                                      to the power grid. A special module may             ed in large-scale shifts in the composition
                                      be added to convert gas produced by the             of southeastern forests and likely altered
                                      unit into synthetic diesel for use in district      forest ecosystem processes. The American
                                      vehicles. Understory removals, crucial for          Chestnut Foundation (TACF) is producing
                                      wildfire fuels reduction and red-cockaded           blight-resistant trees through a breeding
                                      woodpecker habitat restoration, will supply         program. The project uses the more resis-
                                      wood chips. The SRS uses the unit to con-           tant Chinese chestnut and crosses it with
                                      duct research, analyzing whether electrical         the desired form and other characteristics
                                                                                          of the American chestnut. TACF is realizing
                                                                                          20 years of restoration efforts in 2009 as
                                                                                          the blight-resistant seedlings are planted in
                                                                                          three national forests in the South. Forest
                                                                                          Service scientists are working closely with
                                                                                          TACF, the National Forest System (NFS), and
                                                                                          the University of Tennessee to implement
                                                                                          these first test plantings. In 2008, partners
                              This bioenergy unit installed at the Winn Ranger District   finalized preparations for the plantings.
                              enables the Forest Service to reduce its environmental
                              footprint, promote forest health, and conduct research      The plantings will test for blight resistance
                              that promotes “green” forms of energy in the United         and the ability of the seedlings to survive

           18            	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
                                                               establishes eligibility rules, methods to

                                                                                                                    RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND USE
                                                               calculate GHG reductions, performance-
                                                               monitoring instructions, and procedures for
                                                               reporting project information. It applies to
                                                               tree planting projects on urban managed
                                                               landscapes within municipalities, educa-
                                                               tional campuses, and utility service areas
                                                               anywhere in the United States. It is the only
                                                               protocol to address programs for planting
                                                               trees in urban settings, and it also is the first
Southern Research Station Geneticist Tom Kubisiak              protocol to provide local governments with
stands next to a gene sequencer he uses to map the ge-
nomes of chestnut blight and other organisms. Kubisiak         the financial benefits of offset credits for
worked with TACF on its breeding program.
                                                               their sustainable activities. The protocol sets
                                                               the stage for substantial investment in large-
and compete in “real world” forested con-                      scale urban tree planting projects.
ditions. Research findings will be directly
applicable to NFS, which has first-rights of                   Lead: Pacific Southwest Research Station
chestnut material produced by TACF and
needs recommendations on prescriptions
for planting blight-resistant seedlings.                                                     Key Points
                                                                                             • Urban Forest
Lead: Southern Research Station                                                                Greenhouse
                                                                                               Gas Reporting
Urban Forest Greenhouse                                                                        Protocol used
                                                                                               to assess values
Gas Reporting Protocol                                                                         of urban tree
Forest Service researchers led a
                                                                                             • Protocol adopted
multistakeholder team that de-
                                                                                               for California GHG
veloped the Urban Forest Green-                                                                reduction efforts.
house Gas Reporting Protocol
for accounting and reporting the
effects of urban forests on green-
house gases (GHGs). The protocol
has been adopted by the Califor-                     How tree planting projects in urban
                                                     areas can offset GHGs has been ad-
nia Air Resources Board, charged                     dressed for the first time in the new
with implementing California’s                       Urban Forest Greenhouse Gas
                                                     Reporting Protocol.
efforts to reduce GHG to 1990
levels by 2020. The protocol

                                                                       HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA         19           	
                                Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                                Using Nanotechnology To                         faculty, demonstrated that nanoprepara-

                                                                                tions of copper and zinc resisted leaching
                                Reduce Environmental                            and inhibited biodegrading organisms.
                                Impact of Preservative-                         Preservatives containing nanoparticles with
                                Treated Wood                                    high resistance to leaching might be used
                                Forest Service scientists are engineering       in lesser amounts, effectively protecting
                                new ways to reduce environmental impacts        wood from degradation while reducing
                                of preservative-treated wood. Preservative      the environmental impact of preservative-
                                treatments must not leach out, make their       treated wood.
                                way into watersheds, and adversely affect       Lead: Forest Products Laboratory
                                water quality. Forest Service scientists are
                                using nanotechnology to develop wood            High-Yield Biofuels From
                                preservatives that can be effective in much
                                smaller amounts—thus posing less harm to
                                                                                Woody Biomass
                                the environment. Nanotechnology is used         Forest Service scientists are partners in de-
                                to engineer new attributes through control-     veloping new methods to develop higher
                                ling features at a very small scale (a nano-    yield transportation fuel from wood as a
                                meter is about 1/80,000 the width of a hu-      way to both reduce a fuel source for wild-
                                man hair). Nanometals often exhibit novel       land fires and reduce dependence on fossil
                                properties that can potentially improve         fuels. An estimated 8.4 billion dry tons of
                                durability of treated wood products. Cop-       biomass (tree limbs, tops, needles, leaves,
                                per and zinc can be used in wood preserva-      and other woody parts from forests) from
                                tives that extend the service life of wood      the national for-
                                products against biodegrading organisms.        ests is available
                                                                                                       Key Points
                                Forest Products Laboratory researchers, in      for production
                                                                                                       • Scientists developing
                                collaboration with the University of Istanbul   of bioenergy.
                                                                                                         method for higher
                                                                                Scientists from          yield production of
                                                                                the Forest Ser-          synthetic fuel from
                                                                                vice and Univer-         woody products
                                                                                sity of Wisconsin        (biomass).

                                                                                are developing         • This new fuel source
                                                                                an innovative            potentially can reduce
                                                                                                         both fuels for wildland
                                                                                technique to
                                                                                                         fires and dependence
                                                                                create a large           on fossil fuels.
                                                                                amount of
                                                                                syngas (a

           20            	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
                                               is carbon dioxide (CO2), which enters the

                                                                                                   RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND USE
                                               atmosphere through the burning of fossil
                                               fuels and other products and from chemical
                                               reactions in manufacturing. Trees—just like
                                               other plants—absorb or “sequester” CO2 as
                                               part of the biological carbon cycle, whereas
                                               harvesting, transporting, and manufacturing
                                               wood into products uses fuels and chemi-
                                               cal processes that emit GHGs. A process
                                               called life-cycle inventory (LCI) evaluates a
                                               product’s total impact on GHG emissions.
                                               This project developed an LCI for hardwood
synthetic fuel) from biomass with reduced      lumber production in the United States,
solid residue or char. The technique is a      including harvest, transport to mills, and out-
flash pyrolysis—heating a substance to a       put from mills. Scientists found that for each
high temperature without air—that uses         cubic meter of hardwood lumber manufac-
high-temperature liquid metal to gasify bio-   tured, a total of 567 kilograms (kg) of CO2
mass. This offers potential for cleaner and    was produced (from both biomass and fossil
efficient conversion of wood to syngas.        sources); and each cubic meter of hardwood
                                               lumber stores a quantity of carbon equiva-
Lead: Forest Products Laboratory               lent to 1,070 kg of CO2. This indicates that as
                                               long as carbon remains stored in hardwood
Scientists Analyze                             lumber products, either in use or in landfills,
Environmental Impacts                          or even if the wood is eventually burned to
of Hardwood Lumber                             produce energy (and thereby offset fos-
                                               sil emissions), then the amount of carbon
Manufacturing Process
                                               stored will likely offset the amount of carbon
From Harvest to Mill to                        emitted in the process of making the prod-
Storage in Products                            uct. This project was part of a larger initiative
Responding to climate change concerns,         of the Consortium for Research on Renew-
Forest Service scientists have analyzed the    able Industrial Materials (CORRIM) (http://
manufacturing process for hardwood build-      www.corrim.org), which involves 15 research
ing materials to understand its environmen-    institutions focusing on the effects of pro-
tal impacts. Climate change is accelerating    ducing and using renewable materials.
partly due to greenhouse gases (GHGs) that     Lead: Forest Products Laboratory
trap heat in the atmosphere. One such gas

                                                      HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA         21           	
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND USE     Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                                Going to Bat for Major                                 authenticators collected every bat broken
                                League Baseball                                        during games—more than 1,700 bats.
                                                                                       The committee compiled relevant infor-
                                                  Breaking baseball bats               mation for each broken bat, including
                                                  during play has become a             manufacturer, model, dimensions, game
                                                  safety concern for Major             situation when it broke, area in which the
                                                 League Baseball (MLB),                bat fragments landed, and video foot-
                                                 and Forest Service scien-             age of each incident. The Forest Products
                                                 tists, along with univer-             Laboratory began working with a private
                                                 sity and private sector               certification and testing agency to assess
                                                 partners, are helping to              and categorize the bat failures as a first
                                                 improve the situation.                step toward reducing future catastrophic
                                                 Researchers have been                 incidents. Scientists also recommended
                                                 giving technical advice to            steps to reduce the number of bats
                                MLB officials on the mechanical proper-                broken during play.
                                ties of various species of wood commonly
                                used to make baseball bats,                            Lead: Forest Products Laboratory
                                and the Forest Products
                                Laboratory and MLB signed
                                a contract to continue the
                                partnership. Between July 2
                                and September 7, 2008, MLB

                                                                  Photo courtesy of Major League Baseball.

           22            	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                                        WATER, AIR, AND SOIL
   Water, Air, and Soil SPA informs the sustainable management of these essential resourc-
   es through information on how to provide clean air and drinking water, protect lives and
   property from wildfire and smoke, and improve the ability to adapt to climate variability
   and change . It encompasses studies on ecosystem services with integration between water,
   air, and soil research . It notes the effects of climate variability and change on water budgets .

                                                     ecosystems, and practical measures that
Scientists Summarize                                 natural resource managers can apply on na-
Adaptation Options and                               tional forests, State lands, and private lands.
Teach Courses on Climate                             Using SAP 4 with advice from Forest Service
Change                                               scientists and partners, the Olympic Na-
                                                     tional Forest is implementing climate-smart
Climate change and its impacts add com-
                                                     actions in operational management and
plexity to forest management because
                                                     long-term planning. Other forest managers
forested ecosystems may be responding to
                                                     have attended workshops on the Olympic
it by changing in new ways. Forest Service
                                                     pilot project. The scientists also have pre-
scientists provided the first set of science-
                                                     sented a course
based options for national forests to adapt
                                                     on different
to climate change, and a forest in the
                                                     classes of vegeta-
Northwest is trying them out. “Preliminary
                                                     tion models for
Review of Adaptation Options for Climate-
                                                     management and
Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources: Na-
                                                     planning under
tional Forests” (Research Synthesis and
                                                     climate uncertain-
Assessment Product 4.4) is one in a series
                                                     ties (available at
of 21 Synthesis
and Assessment          Key Points                   eos.com/videos/). The Climate Change Re-
Products (SAPs)         • Climate change             source Center (CCRC) Web site (http://www.
produced by the            may alter forest
                                                     fs.fed.us/ccrc) offers basic science modules
Global Change              ecosystems.
                                                     on climate change and climate impacts and
Research Pro-           • Scientists provide
                                                     decision-support models, maps and simu-
gram. It describes         adaptation options
                           for land managers.        lations, and toolkits that address common
regional climate
                                                     Forest Service management and planning
changes expected        • Northwestern
                           national forest tries     situations.
during this cen-
                           them out.
tury, likely re-                                     Leads: Pacific Northwest Research Station,
sponses by forest                                    Pacific Southwest Research Station,
                                                     Rocky Mountain Research Station

                                                            HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA        23       	
                          Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                          Monitoring Ozone in                             Oregon’s Sandy River

                          Mountain Ecosystems                             Responds Well to Marmot
                          Ozone is a pollutant in the atmosphere that     Dam Removal
                          is highly injurious to vegetation. Yet the      Removing dams that are outdated, are un-
                          amount of ozone in mountain ecosystems          safe, or pose significant economic or envi-
                          is largely unknown, and ozone is difficult to   ronmental costs has emerged in the past
                          monitor in remote areas because continu-        10 years as a major river restoration strat-
                          ous ozone monitors require electric power.      egy. Removing the 45-foot-high Marmot
                          Forest Service scientists in Fort Collins are   Dam on the Sandy River in 2007 was the
                          exploring two solutions to this problem—        largest sediment release from any dam
                          passive samplers that rely on a chemical        removal to date and provided an unprec-
                          reaction to estimate ozone loading over a       edented scientific opportunity to predict,
                          2-week period and a solar-powered, battery-     monitor, and evaluate how a large, energet-
                          operated, portable monitoring system to         ic river “digests” a mammoth meal of sedi-
                          continuously record ozone concentration.        ment. Forest Service scientists found that
                          Results, useful to air specialists throughout   an energetic river can efficiently incise and
                          the West, indicate that ozone in Colorado’s     remove very large volumes of unconsoli-
                          high-elevation ecosystems is at concentra-      dated stored sediment, even under modest
                          tions that can exceed the National Ambient      flows. Most of the channel changes oc-
                          Air Quality Standard; ozone concentrations      curred upstream of a bedrock gorge, with
                          in remote ecosystems in Colorado increase       only limited chang-
                          with elevation; passive ozone samplers          es downstream.
                                                 can be used to indi-                                Key Points
                                                                          The Marmot project
                                                 cate loading of ozone                               • Marmot Dam re-
                                                                          demonstrates that
                                                                                                       moval shows how
                                                 at remote locations;     under the right              an energetic river
                                                 and battery-powered      circumstances, dam           digests sediment.
                                                 portable active ozone    removal can be ef-         • Results are promis-
                                                 monitors can be used     fective for restoring        ing for restoring
                                                 to determine actual      ecosystem function           ecosystem function
                                                 ozone values at remote                                and threatened
                                                                          and connectivity to
                                                                                                       and endangered
                                                 locations.               large rivers and for         species habitat.
                                              Lead: Rocky Mountain        improving condi-
            Remote battery-powered ozone      Research Station            tions for threatened
            monitoring station near Silt,                                 and endangered
                                                                          species. Results will

         24        	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
                                                  matter is exported by streams. Streams export

                                                                                                    WATER, AIR, AND SOIL
                                                  leaves, wood, plant material, and nutrients
                                                  from forested headwaters. How streams
                                                  export or retain coarse (large) particulate
                                                  organic matter (CPOM) depends greatly on
                                                  rainfall and streamflow pulses, droughts, and
                                                  phenology (effects of climate on biology). In
                                                  headwater streams, organic matter creates
                                                  fish and wildlife habitat by adding complexity
                                                  to pools and riffles, creating dams, providing
likely guide future dam removals for the
                                                  cover, changing depth of the stream channel,
next decade. The project also has merged
                                                  and providing a food source. Forest Service
an engineering challenge with a scientific
                                                  scientists have monitored export patterns by
opportunity to deliver understanding for
                                                  collecting matter in nets. Peak exports for the
future use, all within the framework of a
                                                  study site were May and September, linked to
dynamic and open public process. Partners
                                                  rainfall patterns. For most years, CPOM was
included Graham Mathews and Associates,
                                                  exported every week. During drought years,
Johns Hopkins University, National Center
                                                  9 to 12 collection periods (21 percent) lacked
for Earth-Surface Dynamics, National Sci-
                                                  any measurable exports. Over the 13-year
ence Foundation, Oregon State University,
                                                  period, CPOM collected in the nets averaged
Portland General Electric, Stillwater Sciences,
                                                  14.1 kilograms per
University of Oregon, and U.S. Geological
                                                  year. For about three-
                                                  quarters of the time,
Lead: Pacific Northwest Research Station          only 2.5 grams of
                                                  matter was transport-
Puerto Rico Experimental                          ed daily. Large events
Watersheds Study Yields                           that transported
                                                  more that 10 grams
Insights Into 13 Years of
                                                  of matter per day
Organic Matter Exports in                         occurred 17 percent
Tropical Watersheds                               of the time, or on
A 13-year study of stream export patterns in      average once every
Puerto Rico experimental watersheds may           2.8 months.
be the longest continuous record of litter        Lead: International
flow dynamics available for any ecosystem.        Institute of Tropical
It provides a unique opportunity to under-        Forestry
stand long-term patterns of how organic

                                                        HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA        25       	
                             Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                           New Tool Helps Scientists                             across the Southeast. The Chinese Academy

                                                                                 of Sciences is a project partner.
                           Predict Pressures on the South’s
                           Water Supplies                                        Lead: Southern Research Station

                             The South is one of the fastest growing areas       Impacts of Roads on Forested
                             of the United States, and water resources are
                             critical to sustainable development of the          Watersheds
                             water-rich region. However, managers and            Forest roads are the principal source of fine
                             planners lack comprehensive tools to assess         sediment entering streams on National
                             the long-term impacts of changes in climate,        Forest System lands. The Geomorphic Road
                             population, and land use at the regional scale.     Assessment and Inventory Package (GRAIP)
                             Forest Service scientists developed the Water       is a set of tools for analyzing the impacts of
                             Supply Stress Index (WaSSI) to evaluate water       roads on forested watersheds. GRAIP com-
                                              stress conditions over time        bines a road inventory with a powerful geo-
                                              and across watersheds in the       graphic information system (GIS) analysis
                                              13 Southeastern States. Re-        tool set to predict sediment production and
                                              searchers integrated predic-       delivery, erosion from gullies and landslides,
                                              tions from two global circu-       stream diversion potential, culvert mainte-
                                              lation models, one land use        nance, and fish passage at stream crossings.
                                              change model, and one human        The road inventory protocol describes how
                     Research hydrolo-        population change model to         to systematically inventory a road system
                     gist Ge Sun is a lead    project future water supply
                     researcher on the                                           using global positioning system (GPS) and
                      WaSSI project.          stress in 2020. Scientists found   automated data forms. The program pro-
                                              that population growth greatly     duces maps of surface erosion, accumulated
                                              stressed the water supplies        road sediment in streams, and slope stability
                                              of metropolitan areas in the       and gullying risks. It also provides analyses
                  Key Points
                                              Piedmont region and across         for stream diversion potential, culvert main-
                  • New tool helps            Florida. Climate change had        tenance needs, and fish passage. National
                    evaluate water            the most pronounced effects        forests, the Bureau of Land Management,
                    supply stress in
                                              on regional water supply and       tribes, and State agencies have used GRAIP
                                              demand, especially in western      to complete inventories in areas of critical
                                              Texas, where water stress was      concern.
                  • Managers can use          historically highest for the
                    the tool to develop       study region. WaSSI can be         Lead: Rocky Mountain Research Station
                    water-supply plans        used by water resources man-       Map of
                    in light of climate                                          accumulated
                                              agers to help develop long-
                    change, popula-                                              road
                                              term water-supply plans and        sediment
                    tion growth, and                                             in streams.
                                              by policymakers considering
                    economic develop-
                    ment across the
                                              appropriate actions to manage
                    Southeast.                multiple stresses from climate
                                              change, population growth,
                                              and economic development

         26        	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
Nobel Peace Prize for                           Dr. Wei Min Hao,

                                                                                                WATER, AIR, AND SOIL
                                                Rocky Mountain Research Station
Research on Climate
Change                                          Dr. Linda Joyce,
                                                Rocky Mountain Research Station
Forest Service scientists contributed to the
2007 Nobel Peace Prize awarded in equal         Dr. Robert Musselman,
parts to the Intergovernmental Panel on         Rocky Mountain Research Station
Climate Change (IPCC) and Al Gore, Jr. The      Dr. Michael Ryan,
13 Forest Service researchers who share         Rocky Mountain Research Station
in this esteemed honor are IPCC authors
and reviewers specializing in diverse fields,   Dr. Ariel Lugo,
including forest ecology, hydrology, soils,     International Institute for Tropical Forestry
and climate:                                    Dr. Allen M. Solomon,
Dr. Ralph Alig,                                 Washington Office
Pacific Northwest Research Station              Their work is part of studies covering
Dr. Ronald Neilson,                             40 years of climate and air quality research
Pacific Northwest Research Station              on forested lands. The Nobel Committee
                                                recognized “efforts to build up and dissemi-
Dr. David Peterson,                             nate greater knowledge about man-made
Pacific Northwest Research Station              climate change, and to lay the foundations
Dr. Richard Birdsey,                            for the measures that are needed to coun-
Northern Research Station                       teract such change.” IPCC scientists volun-
                                                teer their time to analyze and synthesize
Dr. Linda Heath,                                scientific findings on climate change. Their
Northern Research Station                       documents are written under close scrutiny
Dr. David Nowak,                                and are considered to be the most credible
Northern Research Station                       information on climate change in the world.

Dr. Kenneth Skog,
Forest Products Laboratory

                                                      HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA      27       	
WILDLIFE AND FISH         Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                         Wildlife and Fish SPA relies upon interdisciplinary research to inform policy initiatives affect-
                         ing wildlife and fish habitat on private and public lands and the recovery of threatened or en-
                         dangered species . Scientists in this program area investigate the complex interactions among
                         species, ecosystem dynamics and processes, land use and management, and emerging broad-
                         scale threats, including global climate change, loss of open space, invasive species, and disease .

                     Wildlife CSI                                        particularly important because they may di-
                                                                         rectly affect lynx productivity. The U.S. Fish and
                    A wild cougar shows up in downtown Chi-              Wildlife Service, in listing the lynx as a threat-
                    cago. Where did it come from? Does the               ened species, identified that human alteration
                    Midwest need to start managing for these             of forests is the most influential factor affecting
                    large cats? A wolverine appears in California        lynx habitat. From 1999 to 2006, Forest Service
                    for the first time in 80 years on Federal lands.     scientists used radio telemetry to locate 57 lynx
                    How did it get there? Was it from a captive          dens in western Montana. They then evaluated
                    facility? A federally protected lynx is poached      den selection through field sampling and geo-
                    from the Superior National Forest. Can a             graphic information system
                    confiscated mount from an alleged wildlife           (GIS) analysis. They found           Key Points
                    trafficker’s house be linked to the local popu-      that lynx mostly denned
                    lation, or was it imported from Alaska? These                                             • Threatened
                                                                         in pre-existing sheltered
                    are examples of forensic questions that the                                                 Canada lynx
                                                                         spaces created by downed
                                                                                                                denning hab-
                    Wildlife Genetics Laboratory in Missoula,            logs, root-wads from wind-             its described.
                    Montana, answers using the same DNA tools            thrown trees, boulder fields,
                    and techniques made popular by television            slash piles, and live trees in       • Results help
                    shows. Cooperative studies with research-                                                   land manag-
                                                                         mature spruce–fir forests.
                                               ers from around the                                              ers manage
                                                                         This research provides in-
                                               world have helped                                                habitat to
                                                                         formation that is defensible
                                               Forest Service scien-     and relevant to lynx man-              the species.
                                               tists develop the best    agement and is based on
                                               genetic databases in      the largest sample of lynx
                                               existence for several     dens ever surveyed in the
                                               sensitive species of      United States. Land manag-
                                               interest.                 ers are now better able to
   Work at the genetics laboratory is as-
   sisting resource managers and aiding                                  manage habitat in ways that
   law enforcement in several States.        Lead: Rocky Mountain
                                                                         conserve the species. Study
                                             Research Station
                                                                         results are already being
                                                                         incorporated into manage-
                    Den Selection of Canada Lynx                         ment plans.                        Researchers use radio
                    Understanding the habitats and structures                                                telemetry to study den
                                                                         Lead: Rocky Mountain                selection of Canada lynx.
                    that Canada lynx need for denning is critical                                            Results are being incor-
                                                                         Research Station                    porated into manage-
                    to maintaining and conserving habitat for this                                           ment plans.
                    elusive cat. Habitat features for den sites are

        28      	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
    Noninvasive Survey Methods                            Pivotal Research Contributes

                                                                                                              WILDLIFE AND FISH
    for Carnivores Developed                              to Amphibian Conservation
     Many carnivore populations have been deci-
     mated as a result of trapping, logging, and          Working with researchers around the world,
     uncharacteristically severe fires. However, de-      a Forest Service scientist determined the
     termining the status of many carnivore spe-          geographic and taxonomic scope of chy-
     cies is an ongoing challenge because these           tridiomycosis, an amphibian disease im-
     animals tend to be secretive. Forest Service         plicated in amphibian species decline and
     scientists and collaborators have devel-             species extinctions. The aquatic fungus that
     oped noninvasive survey methods for these            causes the disease is widely detected in the
                           animals so that captur-        Americas and Australia, patchy in Africa and
                           ing, handling, and stress-     Europe, and not yet seen in wild amphibian
                           ing individual animals is      populations in Asia. The disease has been
                           no longer necessary to         detected in 59 percent of countries sam-
                           achieve many research          pled, 85 percent of U.S. States, and
                           goals. These techniques        56 percent of the species sampled, includ-
                           also reduce risks to human     ing 17 anuran (frog and toad) families and
                           handlers. The methods are      5 caudate (salamander) families. This project
                                detailed in “Noninva-     is an unparalleled example of collaboration
Key Points                      sive Survey Methods       among scientists.
• New survey methods
                                for Carnivores,” a 379-   Data were collated      Key Points
  allow study of carnivores     page book describing      from more than          • Scientist tracks scope
  without capture               current methods for       2,000 sites world-        of amphibian disease
  or handling.                  collecting information    wide. The data are        that causes species de-
                                on carnivore distribu-                              cline and extinctions.
• Methods reduce stress                                   accessible on an
  to the animals and harm       tion and abundance        interactive Web         • Worldwide
  to human handlers.                                                                collaboration and
                                while minimizing dis-     portal with
                                                                                    data collection from
                                turbances to animals      mapping                   more than 2,000 sites
                                being studied. The        capabilities (http://     determine extent
                                volume is intended        www.spatialepi-           of chytridiomycosis.
                                primarily for wildlife    demiology.net).         • Disease found in more
                                biologists, conserva-     Maps from the             than half the amphib-
                                tionists, and students    project have been         ian species sampled
                                                                                    and in 17 frog and
                                working with these        used in various
                                                                                    toad families and
                                elusive species.          publications, such        5 salamander families.
                             Lead: Pacific Southwest      as “Nature” and the
                             Research Station             “Seattle Times,” to

                                                          HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA                29     	
                       Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                                                                                    a measure of the health of biological systems.

                                                                                    Assessments of biodiversity often use models
                                                                                    of how animal species are distributed across
                                                                                    a given area. These models mathematically
                                                                                    estimate between known occurrences and
                                                                                    predict distribution where suitable habitat
                                                                                    occurs within an expected range. Although
                                                                                    many scales of species range maps are pos-
                 increase awareness of this disease. Part-                          sible, there is no consensus about the best
                 ners included Amphibian Specialist Group,                          range map unit and no scale that satisfies all
                 World Conservation Union; Department of                            scenarios. Conservation biologists can better
                 Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial                          predict species distributions at broader scales.
                 College, London, UK; and Partners in Am-                           However, land managers want more detailed
                 phibian and Reptile Conservation.                                  information on the presence or absence of
                                                                                    a given species, number of different species,
                 Lead: Pacific Northwest Research Station
                                                                                    and general biodiversity for a given land area
                                                                                    so they can make decisions and develop con-
                 Mapping Species
                                                                                    servation priorities. At this specific level, the
                 Distribution for                                                   usefulness of models is affected by increased
                 Conservation Analysis                                              variability and uncertainty of species distri-
                 Biodiversity—the variation of life forms                           bution. This uncertainty is increased by the
                 within a given ecosystem—is often used as                          different ways that various animals perceive,
                                                                                                 occupy, and move about the land-
                                                                                                 scape and by the dynamic nature
                                                                                                 of landscapes. To address this issue,
                                                                                                 three integrated sets of minimum
                                                                                                 map units were developed to
                                                                                                 display species ranges for the U.S.
                                                                                                 Virgin Islands and to model the
                                                                                                 predicted distributions of species.
                                                                                                 The usefulness of this multiple-
                                                                                                 scale system of range mapping will
                                                                                                 be proven as the maps are used
                                                                                                 for modeling species distributions
 Three sets of multiscale range information show the distribution of the yellow mottled
 coqui (Eleutherodactylus lentus). The coqui’s range is (a) 312 km2 (183 km2 occurring over      and the predicted distributions are
 land) when using the 24-km2 hexagon, (b) 110 km2 (87 km2 occurring over land) when using
 the 2-km2 hexagon, (c) 175 km2 when using the subwatersheds as mapping units. Some              used for conservation analyses and
 amphibians, such as the E. lentus, tend to have a patchy distribution because their popula-     land management decisions.
 tions usually are not connected. In these cases, mapping the species distribution benefits
 from a smaller mapping unit.
                                                                                              Lead: International Institute of
                                                                                              Tropical Forestry
        30      	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                                                          INVENTORY AND MONITORING
       Inventory and Monitoring SPA provides the resource data, analysis, and tools needed to identify
       current status and trends of forests; management options and impacts; and threats from fire, insects,
       disease, and other natural processes, thus enhancing the use and value of our Nation’s forests and grass-
       lands . Assessing current and potential effects of climate change depends on the monitoring of forest
       ecosystems at greatest risk to rapid change . Focus areas include the development and use of integrated
       interdisciplinary science, technologies, and remote sensing to increase the timeliness and spatial resolu-
       tion of incidence of forest fragmentation, insect outbreaks, diseases, fires, and extreme weather events .

    Elfin Woodland Recovery                                                                            After 37 years,
                                                                                                       elfin wood-
    in the Luquillo Mountains                                                                          land recovery
                                                                                                       continues to be
    of Puerto Rico                                                                                     slow. Tree ferns
                                                                                                       and woody
                                                                                                       broadleaf tree
    The summits of mountainous islands in the                                                          species ac-
    Caribbean, including peak areas in the Luquillo                                                    count for most
                                                                                                       of the biomass.
    Experimental Forest (LEF), are covered with a
    short, dense, gnarled, epiphyte-laden forest                recovery was estimated to span at least
    type called elfin woodland. A narrow, machete-              200 years, and recovery of forest structure
    hacked trail along a ridge in the woodland                  (that is, typical tree size classes) perhaps
    became the route to a botanical adventure                   twice as long. In addition, trees on six
    that lasted a lifetime. On December 14, 1968, a             nearby forest plots impacted by Hurricane
    Fairchild C-199 (“flying boxcar”) crashed at the            Hugo in 1989 averaged only 3 millimeters
    very end of the trail. Grasses and ferns domi-              per year in growth during 15 years of obser-
    nated the wreck site for the first few years when           vation. This long-term study, the only one
                           woody plant seedlings were           of its kind in elfin woodland, shows that
                           scarce. After 20 years, ferns        the wind-swept, cloud-covered summits of
                           and woody broadleaf species          Caribbean islands recover slowly after dis-
                           were prominent and nearly            turbance. Moreover, it highlights the value
                           equal in biomass (amount             of protecting the elfin woodland, a veritable
                           of total biological material).       “endemic forest.” In the small mountainous
                           After more than 30 years,            islands of the Caribbean, elfin woodland
                           biomass averaged only a              stabilizes the soil, intercepts heavy rainfall
                           third of that found in the sur-      and fog droplets, and supplies growing
                           rounding mature woodland.            coastal populations with valuable water
The remains of a Fairchild At this time, several rare,          resources.
C-199 (flying boxcar)
9 years after the 1968     endemic trees accounted
crash. Site recovery is
                                                                Lead: International Institute of Tropical
slow and at this stage is
                           for about 90 percent of the          Forestry
dominated by grasses       stems. Complete biomass
and ferns.
                                                                HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA                      31         	
                                 Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                                 North American Forest                                                               Maps pro-
                                                                                                                     duced by the
                                 Dynamics Project                                                                    NAFD Project
                                                                                                                     can show
                                                                                                                     timing and
                                 Forest Service R&D is partner in the multi-                                         intensities of
                                 faceted North American Forest Dynamics
                                 Project (NAFD), which uses inventory and
                                 satellite data to characterize the effects
                                 of forest disturbance (natural processes
                                 including fire, wind events, insects, and         Pennsylvania, and forest carbon tracking in
                                 disease) across North America. Landsat            Idaho and Montana.
                                 imagery is being used to create disturbance       Lead: Rocky Mountain Research Station
                                 maps that provide estimates of the biomass
                                 or volume loss associated with forest dis-        Forest Service Carbon Storage
                                 turbance and recovery. Models will extend
                                 this information to maps of forest dynamics
                                                                                   Calculations Used for
                                 throughout the United States. In collabora-       California Carbon Policy
                                 tive work with Canada and Mexico, these           California policymakers are using equations
                                 methods are being applied across North            for calculating carbon storage from Forest
                                 America to gather carbon-relevant histori-        Service reports to develop the State’s carbon
                                 cal information about forest dynamics. His-       policy. The five annual reports interpret basic
                                 torical Landsat imagery is also being used        information about public and private forest
                                 to support a number of management-rele-           land in California and Oregon. They provide a
                                 vant applications. Maps produced through          baseline for comparing to future conditions
                                 NAFD methodologies offer the opportunity          and identifying trends. The data can also be
                                 to communicate the timing, area, and in-          used for regional and State-level assessments
                                                     tensity of fires, harvests,   of biomass, carbon flux, fuel loading, and
                      Key Points                     and other disturbances.       fire risk; land use change; status and change
                      • Effects of fire, wind,       Demonstration projects        in oak woodlands; air quality; timber avail-
                        insects, and other           include harvest pat-          ability; and the impacts of climate change.
                        disturbances are being       terns on the Allegheny        The reports are the
                        mapped across North
                                                     National Forest (Penn-        first to be pub-
                                                     sylvania), blowdown in        lished in response
                      • Project uses inventory
                                                     the Boundary Waters           to a congressional
                        and satellite data.
                                                     Canoe Area (Minnesota),       mandate in the
                      • Estimates are provided
                                                     woody encroachment in         2002 Farm Bill.
                        of biomass lost from
                        forest disturbance and       diverse ecozones, land        They are based
                        recovery.                    use change in eastern

            32             	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                                           INVENTORY AND MONITORING
                       on annual data gath-               clearing and recovery after large-scale re-
Key Points
                       ered under the new,                forestation. Although development focuses
• Policymakers
                       standardized national              on younger forests, older more species-rich
  use carbon stor-
  age reports for      inventory method in                forests are still vulnerable if close to urban
  California carbon    which a portion of all             centers and unprotected. The inventory
  policy.              plots in each State                data also showed less forest carbon stor-
• Reports can be       are measured each                  age in cleared forests, which are younger
  used to assess       year. Partners include             and have less biomass and fewer species.
  biomass, fuels,      Bureau of Business and             Similarities between the factors patterning
  fire risk, land use
                       Economic Research,                 forest age and land development explain
  change, and other
  factors on private   California Department              why most forests cleared for land develop-
  and public forest    of Forestry and Fire,              ment are younger. Forests are increasingly
  lands.               Oregon Department                  younger in more accessible and fertile areas
                       of Forestry, and Forest            where agriculture has lasted longer and
  Service Pacific Northwest and Pacific South-            land development is most common. Part-
  west Regions.                                           ners include Colorado State University.
  Lead: Pacific Northwest Research Station                Leads: International Institute of Tropical
                                                          Forestry, Southern Research Station
  Puerto Rico Maps Yield
  Insights Into Urbanization
  Impacts on Tropical Forests
  The most comprehensive
  time series of land cover
  maps for Puerto Rico
  (1951–2000) has yielded
  new insights into tropi-
  cal forests cleared for
  urban development or
  surface mining. Sci-
  entists assembled the
  maps, interpreted them
  with forest inventory
  data, and character-
  ized what drives spatial
  patterns of both forest         Puerto Rico forest cover maps.

                                                         HIGHLIGHTS	BY	STRATEGIC	PROGRAM	AREA              33         	
                                  Highlights by Strategic Program Area
                                  Forest Inventory Data

                                  Reveals Cypress Facts
                                  Growing use of
                                  cypress for furniture,
                                  construction, and the
                                  emerging cypress
                                  mulch industry has
                                  escalated interest
                                  in the status of the
                                  cypress resource.
                                  The Forest Service
                                  Southern Region and
                                  Research Station cooperated in a study of
                                  ownership, status, and recent trends in the
                                  cypress–tupelo forest type and volume of
                                  all live cypress on timber land for 13 South-
                                  ern States. They used Forest Inventory and
                                  Analysis (FIA) data collected by each of the
                                  Southern State forestry agencies to evalu-
                                  ate the cypress resource. Cypress–tupelo
                                  forests make up 3.3 million acres, less than
                                  2 percent of the South’s timber land, and
                                  7.3 billion cubic feet live volume. More
                                  than three-fourths are privately owned and
                                  almost one-fourth publicly owned. Most
                                  of the acreage is in Florida and Louisiana.
                                  FIA is a 70-year-old nationwide program
                                  run by Forest Service R&D that reports on
                                  status and trends in forest area and loca-
                                  tion; species, size, and health of trees; total
                                  tree growth, mortality, and removals by
                                  harvest; wood production and utilization
                                  rates by various products; and forest land

                                  Lead: Forest Inventory and Analysis

            34             	 		RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	2008–2009	HIGHLIGHTS
  Research and Development Contacts
Research and Development                         Northern Research Station

Deputy Area                                      Station Director: Michael T. Rains
Deputy Chief: Ann Bartuska                       11 Campus Boulevard
Associate Deputy Chief: David A. Cleaves         Newtown Square, PA 19073
USDA Forest Service
201 14th St., SW                                 Pacific Northwest Research
Washington, DC 20250
                                                 Station Director: Bov Eav
Resource Use Sciences                            333 SW First Avenue
Staff Director: Robert L. Doudrick               Portland, OR 97204
Quantitative Sciences                            P.O. Box 3890
Staff Director: Richard W. Guldin                Portland, OR 97208-3890
Forest Management Sciences
Staff Director: Carlos Rodríguez-Franco          Pacific Southwest Research
Environmental Sciences                           Station
                                                 Station Director: Deanna J. Stouder
Acting Staff Director: Carlos Rodríguez-Franco
                                                 800 Buchanan Street
Science Quality Services                         West Annex Building
Staff Director: John Sebelius                    Albany, CA 94710-0011
Policy Analysis                                  P.O. Box 245
Staff Director: William Lange                    Berkeley, CA 94701-0245
Forest Products Laboratory
Director: Chris Risbrudt                         Rocky Mountain Research
One Gifford Pinchot Drive                        Station
Madison, WI 53726-2398                           Station Director: G. Sam Foster
                                                 240 West Prospect
                                                 Fort Collins, CO 80526
International Institute                          http://www.fs.fed.us/rmrs/
of Tropical Forestry
Director: Ariel E. Lugo                          Southern Research Station
Jardín Botánico Sur                              Station Director: Jim Reaves
1201 Calle Ceiba                                 200 WT Weaver Blvd
San Juan, PR 00926-1119                          Asheville, NC 28804
http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/                http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov

                                                  RESEARCH	AND	DEVELOPMENT	CONTACTS    35 	
    USDA Forest Service
1400 Independence AVE., SW
 Washington, DC 20250-003

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