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					                                 CLAUSE SUPPLEMENTAL EXERCISES

Independent and Subordinate Clauses
A. Decide if each item below is and Independent (IC) or Subordinate Clause (SC)
1. Cuba is the largest island in the Greater Antilles.

2. Where more than eight thousand different species of plants grow.

3. That the national flower is the mariposa.

4. This flower is also called the butterfly jasmine.

5. Since Cuban women once wore flowers to show support for soldiers.

6. Many kind of cactus grow in Cuba.

7. Since it has the smallest hummingbird in the world.

8. Because buses are the chief form of transportation.

9. Christopher Columbus arrived in Cuba in 1492.

10. Which the Taino generously provided for them.

B. Identify each italicized word group as an independent or a subordinate clause.
(1) Large plants like the one in the photographs are where most eggs are processed today. (2) After an egg is laid,
it gently rolls along the slanted floor of the cage to a narrow conveyor belt. (3)These narrow conveyer belts
converge into one wide belt that runs directly into the processing plant. (4)As soon as the eggs reach the
processing plant, they are automatically sprayed with detergent and water. (5)The eggs then pass through a
specially lit inspection area, where defective eggs can be detected and removed. (6)After the eggs are weighed,
they are separated by weight into groups. (7)Each group of eggs goes onto a separate conveyor belt, which leads
to a forklike lifting device. (8)This device lifts six eggs at a time while the empty egg cartons wait two feet
below it. (9)The eggs are gently lowered into the cartons, which are then shipped to grocery stores and
supermarkets. (10)What is truly amazing is that no human hands ever touch the eggs during the entire process.

C. Identify each italicized word group as an independent or a subordinate clause.
1. Customers demand thousands of products, and every grocery tries to please.

2. Because people have different tastes, stores order many brands.

3. When a product is popular, a store stocks many sizes of one product.

4. In the past, a cashier made mistakes as she rang up a sale.

5. While the store was closed, workers took inventory.


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6. Managers notice products low in stock, and purchasing agents reorder.

7. If stock ran out too soon, customers complained.

8. When a student heard about the problem, he set out to solve it.

9. Many years passed before their solution became practical.


Adjective Clauses
A. Identify the adjective clause in each of the following sentences and cite the noun or pronoun it modifies.
1. Some of us have read Native Son, which was written by Richard Wright.
2. The book to which he referred was ordered yesterday.
3. In March many countries have festivals that can be traced back to ancient celebrations of spring.
4. The fish that I caught yesterday weighed three pounds.
5. The nominee was a statesman whom everyone admired.
6. It’s not easy to understand someone who mumbles.
7. They finally found my briefcase, which had been missing for weeks.
8. Please indicate the people to whom we should go for help.
9. The guide advised those who enjoy Native American art to visit the new exhibit of Hopi weaving and pottery.
10. Everyone cheered for the player that had the best serve.

B. Identify the adjective clause in each of the following sentences and cite the noun or pronoun it modifies.
1. The Pulitzer Prize, which was founded by a newspaper publisher, recognizes excellent writing in journalism.
2. Joseph Pulitzer, who spent his life as a journalist, left funds at his death for prizes in journalism.
3. The year 1904, when two writers won the Noble Prize, was unusual.
4. The Pulitzer Prize is the award that everyone considers the greatest honor.
5. Toni Morrison, whose novel ‘Beloved’ won the Pulitzer Prize, was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.
6. Alice McDermott, who won the National Book Award, has written four novels.
7. Upton Sinclair, who wrote The Jungle, was an active reformer.
8. Tasmania, which is an island, belongs to Australia.
9. The book that Ray is writing may be purchased next year.
10. Benny likes the girl who sits behind him in English class.

C. Identify the adjective clause in each of the following sentences and cite the noun or pronoun it modifies.
1. I looked for the book that Asad recommended.
2. Red is a color that often signals danger.
3. The passengers suffered delays that they thought were intolerable.
4. The lake where we spent last weekend is called Morgan Lake.
5. Joe is the only one of you who is always polite.

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6. Cecilia went to the store, where she hoped to find the answer.
7. The plants that we put outside last summer really thrived
8. Robbie entered the library where they had first met.
9. South Carolina, which is one of the original thirteen states, has a rich history.
10. Young men who want to wear wigs sometimes have to shave their heads.
11. Jen saw several pictures of the house that she loved.
12. The wave that swept the island destroyed two buildings.
13. The place where Kelly works is a mile from town.
14. The sight that Chloe enjoyed most was the sunset.

D. Combine each pair of sentences to form one sentence containing an adjective clause that modifies the
boldfaced word.

1. Nobel Prizes are awarded to individuals. The winners have made valuable contributions to mankind.

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

2. The first Caldecott Medal was awarded to Dorothy Lathrop. The medal was designed by Rene Chambellan.

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

3. A Pulitzer Prize is also awarded to the best American play. The play deals with American life.

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

4. Pearl S. Buck is an American novelist. She won the Nobel Prize in 1938.

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

5. John Berryman wrote the poem Seventy-Seven Dream Songs. It won the Pulitzer Prize for poetry in 1965.

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

Noun Clauses
A. Identify the noun clause in each of the following sentences. Tell whether the noun clause is a subject, a
direct object, an indirect object, a predicate nominative, or an object of a preposition.
1. Would you please tell me what the past tense of the verb swing is?
2. I will listen carefully to whatever you say.
3. Whatever you decide will be fine with me.
4. Give whoever wants one a free pass.
5. That Jill was worried seemed obvious to us all.
6. Do you know why Eduardo missed the Cinco de Mayo celebration?
7. The teacher said that we could leave now.
8. In biology class we learned how hornets build their nests.
9. You can appoint whomever you like.
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10. A remote desert island was where the pirates buried their treasure.
11. That a secretive lynx lives in this area has long been suspected.
12. The counselors offered whoever saw a mountain lion a ride home.
13. The researchers knew that emperor penguins were seldom seen in their in their natural habitat.
14. Whoever sees a dead leaf mantis must have a good eye for camouflage.
15. Risa showed whoever was interested her slides of her vacation.
16. Gerunds and infinitives were what confused the student.
17. He heard that the solitary loon lived on this remote lake.
18. The people were shocked at how many bats hung hidden deep in the cave.
19. To see how the African lung fish builds its mud cocoon was fascinating.
20. The players knew that the game was going to be difficult.

B. Identify the noun clause in each of the following sentences. Tell whether the noun clause is a subject, a
direct object, an indirect object, a predicate nominative, or an object of a preposition.
1. The candidate gave whomever he met a firm handshake and a genuine smile.
2. Whether he wrote the poems or not is still unknown.
3. Everyone wants to know how the magician made her assistant disappear.
4. Some scientists believe that dinosaurs may have been warm-blooded.
5. I have no information about whose boots these are.
6. My only question is why he needs our sleeping bag.
7. Her poems focus on our best qualities, whatever is praiseworthy in humans.
8. Garret recognized that some people were prejudiced.
9. Gary was the man who invented the earliest traffic signal.
10. He told whoever would listen about his past adventures.

C. Identify the noun clause in each of the following sentences. Tell whether the noun clause is a subject, a
direct object, an indirect object, a predicate nominative, or an object of a preposition.
1. Kevin recognized that some people were prejudiced.
2. Brianna told whoever would listen about her long vacation.
3. James noticed that Gabby wasn’t feeling very well.
4. Trish agreed that going to school at 6am wasn’t a good idea.
5. Whether there is life on Mars or not is another question entirely.
6. Krissy knew that Big Was was an excellent guitarist.
7. How you plan your time will determine your success.
8. Tracy’s reason for being late was that she overslept.
9. I finally understood what his objections were.
10. Autumn will hand whoever arrives the letter.
11. The encouragement was what Victoria needed.

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12. The scholarship is awarded to whoever truly deserves it.
13. Whoever wrote the poem should get an award.
14. Conor drove whoever wanted a ride.

D. Use the following clauses as noun clauses in an original sentence.
1. whoever threw the baseball

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

2. how seldom she likes to cook dinner

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

3. what animals live in the zoo

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

4. that little brown puppies sleep there

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

5. where the little boy hides

   _______________________________________________________________________________________

E. Identify the subordinate clause in each of the following sentences and determine whether it is an
adjective (adj) or noun (n)clause.
1. That honor is given to the bristlecone pine, a small, gnarled tree that few people have ever heard of.
2. Botanists estimate that some bristlecone pines are more than six thousand years old.
3. The oldest sequoias are only 2,200 years old according to those who know.
4. Whoever respects hardiness has to respect the bristlecone.
5. The high altitude of the Rocky Mountains, the bristlecone’s natural habitat, is what makes the tree grow.
6. Do you think that the bristlecone pine will win any beauty contests?
7. Judge by what you can see in this photograph.
8. The bristlecone’s needles last on the branches for up to fifteen years, a length of time that is extraordinary.
9. Botanists tell us that the bristlecone is a member of the foxtail family.
10. Like all members of this family, the bristlecone has needle clusters that resemble a fox’s tail.


Adverb Clauses
A. Identify the adverb clause in each of the following sentences and give the word or group of words that
the clause modifies. Then state whether the clause tells, how, when, where, why, TWE, or UWC.
1. When our school has a fire drill, everyone must go outside.
2. Your trip to New York will not be complete unless you see the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater.
3. She walked until she was too tired to take another step.

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4.   Because he was late so often, he bought a watch.
5. Gazelles need to be able to run fast so that they an escape their enemies.
6. Return this revolutionary, new sonic potato peeler for a full refund if not completely satisfied.
7. As soon as you’re ready, we’ll leave.
8. You can help by setting the table while I prepare the salad.
9. I visited the collection of Aztec artifacts because I wanted to see the religious and solar calendars.
10. You understand the situation much better than I.

B. Identify the adverb clause in each of the following sentences and give the word or group of words that
the clause modifies. Then state whether the clause tells, how, when, where, why, TWE, or UWC.
1. William Faulkner won two Pulitzer Prizes after he won the Nobel Prize.
2. Until he won the Pulitzer Prize, Faulkner never felt successful as a poet.
3. If he had not invented dynamite, Nobel might never have created his peace prize.
4.   Because Alfred Nobel died on December 10, 1896, the Nobel Prize in literature is awarded on that day.
5. As she walked onto the stage, the famous actress, Catherine Nerelli, forgot her lines.
6. Since wood was scarce on the Great Plains, pioneer families built sod houses.
7. I always need more time than Jennifer.
8. Matt likes the cake as much as Sammy.
9. Winning athletes are regarded more highly than others.
10. If and when you win, your reputation rises immensely.

C. Identify the adverb clause in each of the following sentences and give the word or group of words that
the clause modifies. Then state whether the clause tells, how, when, where, why, TWE, or UWC.
1. When we visit the beach, we stay in a hotel
2. Lindsay removes her shoes before she enters the house.
3. While X was at dinner, his girl sang him a song.
4. Taylor doesn’t bring a robe since room service provides one.
5. The water in the hot tub was much hotter than Matty expected.
6. Joe is the only one of you who is always polite.
7. Drink the juice if you dare.
8. Although it is very late, Katie is still up studying.
9. Nick is a good student because he is very intelligent.
10. Before he goes to bed every night, George kisses his teddy bear, Yum Yums.
11. Although Smitty isn’t too fast, he still beat Marcellus in the 40 yard dash.
12. As the car sped by, Chris noticed the license number.
13. As soon as Lauren got to class, she forgot the test material.
14. Emily likes ice cream because it tastes good.
15. Until you get enough sleep, you will always be tired.

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Clause Review- Adjective, Noun, and Adverb
A. Identify each italicized clause as independent or subordinate. If the clause is a subordinate clause,
determine whether it is an adjective, noun, or adverb.
1. Whenever Jorge practices the clarinet, his neighbor’s beagle howls.
2. Advertisements encourage people to want products, and many people cannot distinguish between their wants
   and needs.
3. In science class we learned that chalk is made up mostly of calcium carbonate.
4. Liliuokalani, who was the last queen of Hawaii, was an accomplished songwriter.
5. Does each of you know how you can protect yourself if a tornado strikes?
6. If there is a tornado warning, go quickly to the lowest level in your house, cover your head with your hands,
   and lie flat or crouch low until the danger is past.
7. The American Indians who inhabited the area of Connecticut around the Naugatuck River were called the
   Pequots.

8. When you enter the school, the principal’s office is the third room on your right.
9. That the girls’ volleyball team was well coached was clearly demonstrated last night when the team won the
   state championship.
10. American music has been enriched by Ella Fitzgerald, Leslie Uggams, and Lena Horne, three well-known
    African American vocalists.

B. Identify each italicized clause as independent or subordinate. If the clause is a subordinate clause,
determine whether it is an adjective, noun, or adverb.
  Do you know [1] why the Dakota spring to mind? I think it is [2] because they are known for their impressive
eagle-feather headdresses. Until recently, [3] if an artist painted or drew Native Americans of any region, the
people were usually shown wearing Dakota headdresses, fringed buckskin shirts, and elaborately beaded
moccasins. Even paintings of the Pemaquid people receiving the Pilgrims [4] as they landed on Cape Cod show the
Pemaquid dressed in the style of the Dakota, [5] who lived far away in the northern plains region. Artists
apparently did not recognize [6] that there are many different groups of Native Americans. Each group has its own
traditional clothing, and [7] the variety of Native American dress is truly amazing. For example, [8] compare the
turbans and bearclaw necklaces of these Fox men with the headband and turquoise jewelry of this Navajo boy. [9]
While these images may not be familiar to you, they are just as authentic as the image of the Dakota. To see other
colorful and unique styles of dress, you might want to research the clothing worn by Native Americans [10] that
live in different regions of the United States.


C. Identify each italicized clause as independent or subordinate. If the clause is a subordinate clause,
determine whether it is an adjective, noun, or adverb.

1. If there is an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere, plant growth will increase.
2. Many Americans voted for the New deal, which was the political philosophy of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
3. When you travel abroad, you gain greater perspective on being American.


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4. Amy thought that “The Rockpile” was the best short story in our literature book, and she asked the librarian to
   help her find other stories by James Baldwin.
5. Since both of Len’s parents are short, Len doesn’t expect to be tall.
6. The governor had to answer several questions about the budget after he addressed the legislature.
7. Please turn down that stereo so that I can do my homework.
8. Sandra Day O’Connor, who had been an Arizona judge, became the first female Supreme Court Justice.
9. Scientists are carefully monitoring how much carbon dioxide is present in the atmosphere.
10. The Civil War, often called the War Between the States, resulted in the deaths of more than 600,000
    Americans; it devastated the nation socially, politically, and economically.

Classifying Sentences

A. Classify each of the sentences as simple, compound, complex, or compound- complex.

                                                                                               S    CP    CX   CC

1. Flying like a bat, a chimney swift is almost always in the air.

2. Because a swift’s tail is so short, it cannot be seen unless it is spread.

3. When a swift rests, their short, spiny tails help them prop themselves against walls.

4. As they glide at night, they hold their wings, and they sometimes make noise.

5. Swifts feed on insects in the air.

6. A chimney swift flies many miles a year, and sometimes they fly very fast.

7. Charles Drew did research on blood plasma and helped develop blood banks.

8. Supposedly, if the month of March comes in like a lion, it goes out like a lamb.

9. The Malayans believe that sickness will follow the eating of stolen foods.

10. When World War I ended in 1918, many people thought that there would be no more
wars; but twenty-one years later, World War II began.

11. In his letter to Mrs. Bixby, Abraham Lincoln consoled her for the loss of several sons
and hoped that time would ease her sorrow.

12. After the announcement of the final score, all of us fans cheered the team.

13. In England the Wales, salmon was once king, yet few salmon rivers remain.

14. The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes once aspired to be a mathematician, but he
never fulfilled this ambition.

15. As an older woman, Queen Elizabeth I always wore a dark-red wig, so no one knew
whether her own hair had grayed or not.


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16. Tennis star Zina Garrison-Jackson devotes time to training and encouraging young
inner-city tennis players.

17. The word volcano comes from Vulcan who was the Roman God of fire.

18. Many volcanoes are located in areas of weakness in the earth’s crust where internal
pressure occasionally breaks through.

19. Many volcanoes form mountains, but others are just cracks in the ground.

20. Over the last few centuries, volcanoes have caused thousands of deaths.

21. The lava that spewed forth by volcanoes consists of molten rock.

22. In Iceland, planes take tourists to view volcanic eruptions.

23. Prehistoric volcanoes were far more violent than those in recorded history have been; in
fact, a giant volcano is blamed for the extinction of dinosaurs.

24. When Mount St. Helens in Washington erupted, it killed 65 people.

25. Volcanoes are not unique to earth; many planets show evidence of violent eruptions.

26. Volcanic materials are used in industry, and volcanic steam can generate power.

27. Anyone who is a member may attend the party.

28. When the play was over, the cast returned to the stage, and we all applauded.

29. After the storm, fifteen-foot waves pounded the beach.

30. People who are optimistic are usually cheerful.

31. Let’s reserve seats now, and then we can pay for the tickets tomorrow.

32. The driver braked so suddenly that the car behind was forced to swerve.

33. We campaigned as hard as we could; nevertheless, our candidate lost.

34. From our dining room, we could enjoy a perfect view of the sunset.

35. You will abide by the terms of the contract, or you will lose your job.

36. Until you discover your benefactor’s identity, you will get no rest.




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