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									                                                                                                                                                                               FAcTS ON

                                                                                                                                                                               BASAl BARk

OveRDOSe. Spraying needless or excess amount of                 SOlUTiONS: Pump only once when pressuring
                                                                backpack, pump less often, drain down pump – i.e. spray
                                                                                                                                                                               with Garlon Ultra, Garlon
                                                                                                                                                                                                  TM                 RTU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RTU and
herbicide and diluent on treatment zone, the use of Oone-
                                                                back into the tank to reduce pressure.
                                                                                                                                                                               Release MSO herbicide.

Ssided treatment when sStreamline treatment is sufficient
and creating huge wrap on treated stems are all examples        DilUeNTS
of potential overdose.
                                                                Experience has shown that off-the-shelf mineral oil                                                            Basal bark applications provide effective, highly               This inward movement reaches and penetrates the cambium
SOlUTiONS: Do not spray up and down during Oone-                such as ISOPAR M works well and poses little risk to
                                                                                                                                                                               selective control of trees and brush for industrial             (conductive tissue) and results in the herbicide creating a
sided treatments or back and forth during Sstreamline           the environment or users. While it is not particularly                                                         and forestry uses, such as conifer release or                   chemical girdle of the stem. Complete control depends on
treatments. Use one-pass treatments, use a short and            harmful when in contact with skin, it will de-fat the skin                                                     thinning. Dow AgroSciences supplies specialized                 the stem being entirely encircled – termed “wrap.” Once
quick trigger pull (i.e. flick and let go), change nozzle to    (dissolve the fat near the surface) leaving white patches                                                      vegetation management herbicides ideally suited                 the chemical girdle is formed, it acts like a physical girdle to
one size down (i.e. from 0.3 to 0.2).                           of skin – which if left unattended, may result in dermatitis                                                   to basal bark application:                                      prevent downward movement of nutrients to the roots, thus
eMUlSiFicATiON. Emulsifier present in Release MSO,              conditions. Immediate washing with soap and water will                                                         • New Garlon      TM
                                                                                                                                                                                                      RTU- Ready to Use for industrial         eventually killing the treated plant.
Garlon RTU or Garlon Ultra is activated by “free” water         prevent this condition. Applicators should always wear                                                           vegetation management, forestry and range &
                                                                the proper personal protective equipment when dealing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               FAcTORS AFFecTiNG
on the stem. The diluent/herbicide mixture is now an                                                                                                                             pasture uses.
                                                                with diluents.
emulsion (oil droplets encased in water) and can no
                                                                                                                                                                               • Garlon Ultra for industrial vegetation management             Optimal results are achieved when applications are made to
longer penetrate bark, so spray turns milky and runs            • Avoid the use of mineral oils above 25°C as they are                                                           and range & pasture uses.                                     young vigorously growing stems which have not developed
down the stem instead of creeping around the stem.                lighter oils and have the potential to volatilize. Garlon
                                                                                                                                                                               • Release  TM
                                                                                                                                                                                               MSO for forestry uses.                          the thicker bark characteristic of slower growing older trees.
SOlUTiONS: Wait for stems to dry; move treatment                  RTU contains a mineral oil diluent in its formulation.
zone up to avoid “free water” on the base caused by                                                                                                                            The active ingredient (triclopyr) readily penetrates            “Free water” on stems resulting from melting frost, wet
                                                                • For Garlon Ultra and Release MSO canola oil is
melting frost, wet snow, or rain.                                                                                                                                              the bark and enters the cambium layer of target                 snow or rain, causes emulsification and failure to penetrate
                                                                  recommended and used when daytime temperatures
                                                                                                                                                                               species. From the cambium, it moves throughout the              bark. Emulsified herbicide runs down the treated stem like
vOlATiliTy. If mineral oil diluent is used in daytime             exceed 25°C. Canola oil is a “heavier” oil and will
                                                                                                                                                                               nutrient and water movement systems of the plant,               water, showing no evidence of “wrap.” If the wetting front
temperatures above 25°, or on a south exposed area                prevent volatilization of the solution from the stem.
                                                                                                                                                                               even into the roots to prevent re-sprouting.                    formed by the oil in the bark does not wrap, then control is
where “an oven” environment could occur, chemical                 Canola oil cannot be used when temperatures are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               likely to be incomplete.
instability of oil could lead to poor efficacy and could risk     below 10°C, and is generally not recommended                                                                 ADvANTAGeS
off-target damage to desirable plants.                                                                                                                                                                                                         FROST. If no emulsification occurs (dry frost), then
                                                                  unless your average temperature during application is
                                                                                                                                                                               • Effective year-round, for selective control of trees and      the solution is working. If the oil solution does not
SOlUTiONS: Change to a more appropriate diluent.                  above 25°C. The oil becomes too thick and improper
                                                                                                                                                                                 brush.                                                        penetrate the frost (ice), shut down the application.
                                                                  application occurs in cool temperatures.
vApORizATiON. If a backpack sprayer is over                                                                                                                                    • Can be applied at any time of the year, including the         Watch for frost as temperature rises above 0° C and
pressured, the spray solution comes out as very small           • Do not spray when temperature exceeds 28°C.                                                                                                                                  moisture appears on stems.
                                                                                                                                                                                 winter months, except when snow or water prevents
particles and turns to a gas before hitting the target.         MixiNG                                                                                                           spraying at the desired height above ground level.            pOTeNTiAl SpRAy DRiFT. Keep application pressure low
A common warning sign is sprayer operators may
                                                                Place the required amount of diluent in the mixing tank,                                                       • Year-round usage allows efficiency in crew allocation         to prevent vapour drift. Small quantities of vapour drift,
complain of headaches. Over-pressuring lowers efficacy
                                                                add Garlon Ultra or Release MSO and mix thoroughly.                                                              and supervision.                                              which may not be visible, can seriously injure susceptible
and increases chance for off-target injury.
                                                                When mixing with diluent oils, read and follow the use                                                                                                                         plants and sensitive non-target vegetation.
                                                                                                                                                                               • Can be used where foliar applications aren’t
                                                                directions and precautions on the product label prepared                                                                                                                       RAiN. Basal bark and cut stump applications cannot be
                                                                                                                                                                                 convenient, such as on steep or uneven terrain.
                                                                by the oil manufacturer.                                                                                                                                                       made to wet stumps or emulsification may occur and
                                                                                                                                                                               • Applications are targeted, greatly reducing the
                                                                Garlon RTU does not require any mixing.                                                                                                                                        the target trees will not be controlled. However, rain
                                                                                                                                                                                 potential for injury to off-target vegetation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               immediately after an application will not affect the efficacy
                                                                                                                                                                               • Minimized impact on environmentally sensitive or              of the product as it will have already entered the bark.
                                                                                                                                                                                 erosion prone areas.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SNOw. When snow prevents access to ground line at
                                                                                                                                                                               HOw BASAl BARk TReATMeNTS wORk                                  the base of target trees, one-sided application should be
                                                                                                                                                                               Young bark is lipophilic, meaning its structure acts like an    stopped. Two-sided streamline application should be used
                                                                                                                                                                               open lattice, and allows fatty substances to move readily       on larger stems to assure wrap.
                                                                                                                                                                               within it. That is why Release MSO or Garlon Ultra mixed        TeMpeRATURe. Do not apply Garlon Ultra and
                                                                                                                                                                               with an oil carrier is able to move within and through young    Release MSO when the temperature is below –10°C.
                                                                                                                                                                               bark tissue. New Garlon RTU is formulated with an oil carrier   Slight coagulation may form, which can plug spray
                                                                                                                                                                               and is ready to use with no mixing required. Basal bark         nozzles. Garlon RTU can be applied at temperatures
AccOMpliSH MORe. ON THe SAMe AcReS. wiTH DOw AGROScieNceS.
                                                                                                                                                                               treatments work best on young tender bark.                      below –10°C, but applicators need to stop operations if
cAll THe SOlUTiONS ceNTeR AT 1.800.667.3852 OR viSiT DOwAGRO.cA.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               coagulation begins to occur.
                                                                                                  *Trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC.
                                                                                                  TM ®
                                                                                                       All products are registered trademarks of their respective companies.
ApplicATiON MeTHODS                                                                                                               ReqUiReD SpRAy eqUipMeNT                                        MAxiMiziNG eFFecTiveNeSS OF
                                                                                                                                                                                                  BASAl BARk TReATMeNTS

STReAMliNe                                                          cUT STUMp                                                     • lOw pReSSURe BAckpAck SpRAyeR: Piston pump                    • Carry spare pump/operating arm link pins and hair pins.
This has proven to be the fastest and most effective method                                                                         pressure control system with aflack, vicon or nitrile         • Carry spare nozzles, seats and changing wrench.
                                                                    This method is excellent for prevention of re-sprouting.
of basal bark application. Best results are on young, actively                                                                      seals (i.e. Hardi K-15, YardmasterTM 189). Use separate
                                                                    It also reduces the need for repeated cutting of large                                                                        • In the pre-job evaluation decide on the nozzle angle,
growing stems less than 8 cm in diameter.                                                                                           sprayers for basal bark applications to prevent emulsion
                                                                    diameter stumps of species that sprout from the base or                                                                         know what “wrap” is and how to use it to judge
                                                                                                                                    from water in the backpack. Basal bark sprayers require
• For Garlon Ultra and Release Release MSO, use 20 to               sucker from roots. Applications may be made to both old                                                                         treatment effectiveness.
                                                                                                                                    a positive shutoff to eliminate drips and different nozzles
  30 litres of herbicide in enough diluent to make 100 litres       and freshly cut stumps. This provides more consistent
                                                                                                                                    than those for foliar applications. Many foliar sprayers        − Keep pressure low, nozzle 2 – 4 cm from target and
  of spray solution (20 to 30 percent). Use the 30 percent          results than treating stumps with glyphosate, which must
                                                                                                                                    also have pump pressure too high for basal bark                   make a single, smooth treatment pass.
  solution for harder-to- control species such as hardwood          be applied immediately after the cut is made.
                                                                                                                                    application.                                                    − On large stems, use Streamline until “wrap” fails,
  trees, or when applying in the dormant season.                    • For Garlon Ultra and Rrelease MSO, use 20 to 30 litres of
                                                                                                                                  • wAND: Spray gun with a light trigger, shutoff at                  then use Two-sided or Three-sided Streamline as
• For Garlon RTU there is no need for mixing with a                   herbicide in enough diluent to make 100 litres of spray
                                                                                                                                    nozzle, having teflon or nitrile seals, and of a length           necessary to achieve wrap within 30 minutes.
  diluent. Simply pour into the backpack or spray tank.               solution (20 to 30 percent). Use the 30 percent solution
                                                                                                                                    suited to method of treatment. One-sided treatment              − Speed and ease of monitoring by the sprayer are
                                                                      for harder-to- control species such as hardwood trees, or
• Achieving complete “wrap” of the solution around the                                                                              requires wands of 16 – 18”, while wands of 12 – 16”               greatest with Streamline application.
                                                                      when applying in the dormant season.
  entire stem circumference is essential to effectiveness.                                                                          are appropriate for Streamline treatment.
                                                                    • For Garlon RTU there is no need for mixing with a                                                                             − Switch from streamline to one-sided treatment if
• Spray 30 to 50 cm above ground level:                                                                                           • NOzzleS: Flat fan pattern, stainless steel, narrow                treating a few, scattered larger stems among large
                                                                      diluent, simply pour into the backpack or spray tank.
  – For stems less than 8 cm basal diameter, spray a                                                                                angle (15° to 25°), large orifice (0.2 or 0.3) such               numbers of smaller stems, or when treating conifers.
                                                                    • Thoroughly wet the stump, including:                          as SS1502, SS1503, SS2502, or SS2503. On larger
    band 5 cm wide on one side of each stem.                                                                                                                                                        − Use Two-Sided Streamline when many larger (> 6
                                                                      – Cut surfaces, especially the cambium layer just inside      trees (> 8 cm dbh) where One-Sided or Cut Stump
  – For stems 8 to 15 cm basal diameter, spray a band                                                                                                                                                 –12 cm diameter) stems are being treated or if any
                                                                        the bark.                                                   treatments are being performed, a wider angle, large
   5 cm wide on two sides of each stem (Two-sided                                                                                                                                                     portion of the lower 30 cm of target stems have free
   Streamline).                                                       – The remaining bark to the ground line, including the        orifice nozzle (2503) should be used. On smaller trees
                                                                                                                                                                                                      water on them.
                                                                        root collar.                                                (< 5 cm dbh) where Streamline treatment is being
• With sufficient volume, the treated zone should widen to                                                                                                                                        • Use minimum effective concentration for the target
                                                                                                                                    performed, a narrow angle, small orifice nozzle (1502
  encircle the entire stem circumference within 30 minutes.                                                                                                                                         species and season of application.
                                                                                                                                    or 1503) should be used.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Only spray once – no back and forth or up and down.
                                                                                                                                  SeTTiNGS FOR eFFecTive ApplicATiON
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Do NOT pull gun “full on”.
                                                                                                                                  • Lowest possible pressure to generate a straight stream
                                            5cm                                                                                     “braided trickle”.                                            • NO DRIPS. Use a positive shutoff spray gun.

                                                                                                                                  • Correct nozzle orientation:                                   • Know what emulsification is, what it looks like and
                                                                                                                                    – Streamline treatment: fan vertical.                           what it means: STOP SPRAYING WHEN YOU SEE IT.
                                                                                                                                    – One-Sided treatment: fan horizontal.                        pROBleMS AND SOlUTiONS
                                                                                                                                  • Nozzle 2 – 4 cm from target point on stem.                    BlOw-By. Spray mixture sprays past target stem onto
                                                                                                                                  cARe AND MAiNTeNANce OF eqUipMeNT                               adjacent vegetation and ground or snow, making stained
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ground or snow behind target trees when using dye.
                                                                                                                                  • Use filter when filling.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  SOlUTiONS: Move nozzle closer to target, keep
                                                                                                                                  • Tighten pump clamp ring twice daily.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  backpack pressure down, shorten dwell time, achieve a
                                                                                                                                  • Wipe outside of pack with dry cloth/paper towel after
                                                                                                                                                                                                  tighter sweep across target zone when using Sstreamline
                                                                                                                                    each fill.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  treatment, change nozzle angle (i.e. from 25° to 15° fan).
                                                                                                                                  • Replace a main flack seal on pump every other year.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  SpATTeR. Spray mixture “bounces” back off target
                                                                                                                                  • Replace shut-off valve seat on spray gun as soon a drip       stem, making “stained” ground or snow in front of target
              For stem less than 15cm basal diameter.
                                                                                                                                    occurs.                                                       tree when using dye.
              Best results on stems less than 8cm basal diameter.
                                                                                                                                  • Install higher quality braided hose on backpack               SOlUTiONS: Prevent excess pressure buildup in
                                                                                                                                    immediately upon purchase.                                    backpack by pump only once when pressuring backpack,
                                                                                                                                  • Support first 10 cm of hose with outer case of larger         pump less often, drain down pump – i.e. spray back into
                                                                                                                                    diameter hose.                                                the tank to reduce pressure.

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