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Anatomy Physiology Lab Objectives

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Anatomy Physiology Lab Objectives Powered By Docstoc
					BI 232L


                                 Anatomy & Physiology
                                    Lab Objectives


Exercise 17: Histology of the ervous System
Define the following terms.
       nerve                   tract
       neuron                  process
       axon                    dendrite
       ganglion, plural: ganglia
       nucleus, plural: nuclei
       plexus, plural: plexi


Microscope slides: identify the following elements on the slides indicated. An asterisk indicates
you are responsible for the function for the structure.

Slides:

          40-Medullated nerve
                axon*
                myelin sheath*
                neurilemma
                endoneurium*
                perineurium*
                epineurium*


          41-Medullated nerve teased
                axon*
                myelin sheath*
                Node of Ranvier*
Exercise 19: Brain and Cranial erves
Human brain models, sheep brains, and a model of the ventricles will be studied for this exercise.
The structures marked with a $ are visible on specimens. Learn the function of the structures
marked with an *.

Anatomy of the Brain
      gyrus $ (p. gyri)                                     midbrain
      sulcus $ (p. sulci)                                   cerebral peduncles
      longitudinal fissure $                                corpora quadrigemina $
      transverse fissure $                                         superior colliculis $ *
      lobes                                                        inferior colluculis $ *
              parietal lobe $ *                             Cerebellum $ *
              frontal lobe $ *                                     arbor vitae $
              occipital lobe $ *                            Ventricles *
              temporal lobe $ *                                    lateral $ (there are 2)
      central sulcus $                                             third $
      primary motor area $ *                                       fourth $
              (also precentral gyrus)                              choroid plexus*
      primary sensory area $ *                                     septum pellucidum
              (also postcentral gyrus)                             cerebral aqueduct
      cerebral cortex $ *                                   Meninges *
      corpus collosum $ *                                          dura mater $
                                                                            superior sagital sinus
Diencephalon                                                                transverse sinus
      thalamus *                                                            straight sinus
      intermediate mass $
      hypothalamus$ *                                               arachnoid mater
      infundibulum *                                                pia mater $
      pituitary gland *
              (sits in sella turcica of sphenoid)
      mammillary body $ *                                   olfactory bulb $
      pineal gland $ *                                      olfactory tract $
                                                            optic nerve $
Brainstem                                                   optic chiasm $
       medulla $ *                                                  (lays in sphenoid bone)
       pons $*                                                      optic tract $



Cranial Nerves
Identify the 12 cranial nerves on models and the first 2 on the sheep brain. For each cranial
nerve, learn one structure it innervates

       I Olfactory $ (only the tract is present)            VII    Facial
       II Optic $                                           VIII   Vestibulocochlear (auditory)
       III Oculomotor                                       IX     Glossopharyngeal
       IV Trochlear                                         X       Vagus
       V Trigeminal                                         XI     Accessory
       VI Abducens                                          XII    Hypoglossal
Exercise 20: Electroencephalography
Be able to identify the four types of brain waves describe in the lab manual. Understand what
they each indicate.



Exercise 21: Spinal Cord and Spinal erves

Cross Section of Spinal Cord
Identify the following features on models of the spinal cord cross section. Learn the function of
the structures marked with an *.

       central canal $
       gray matter $
               anterior and lateral horns * $
               posterior horn $
               anterior and posterior gray commissures * $
       white matter
               anterior funiculus $
               posterior funiculus $
               lateral funiculus $
       spinal nerve
               ventral root *
               dorsal root *
                        dorsal root ganglion *
               ventral ramus
               dorsal ramus
       Meninges *
               epidural space
               dura mater $
               arachnoid mater
               suarachnoid space
               pia mater $
       sympathetic ganglion
       ramus communicans
       vertebral arteries

Histology: Identify from the list above the features marked with a $ on slides 39.
Spinal Nerves and Plexi
On the torso, leg, arm, cervical vertebrae, and pelvic models identify the following plexi and
nerves and learn 1 structure innervated by each nerve:

       Cervical plexus                               Sacral plexus
              phrenic n.                                     sciatic n.
                                                             tibial n.
       Brachial plexus                                       common fibular (peroneal) n.
              axillary n.                                    superficial fibular (peroneal) n.
              radial n.
              musculotaneous n.
              median n.
              ulnar n.                               Lumbar plexus
                                                           femoral n.



Exercise 22: Human Reflex Physiology
Understand the concepts of the activities performed in class.



Exercise 23: General Sensation
Understand the concepts of the activities performed in class.



Exercise 24: Vision
Identify the following structures on models and the sheep eyes. The structures marked with a $
are those you should be able to see on the sheep eye. Learn the functions of the structures
marked with a *.

Extrinsic eye muscles*
       Lateral rectus
       Superior rectus
       Medial rectus
       Inferior rectus
       Superior oblique
       Inferior oblique

Lacrimal apparatus
      Lacrimal gland *
      Lacrimal ducts
      Lacrimal canal
      Lacrimal sac
      Nasolacrimal duct
Eyeball
       Sclera $*
       Cornea $*
       Choroid $*
       Ciliary body $*
       Suspensory ligaments *
       Lens $*
       Pupil $*
       Iris $*
       Retina $*
       Macula lutea
       Fovea centralis *
       Optic disc $
       Optic nerve $*
       Anterior segment
               Aqueous humor
               Anterior chamber
               Posterior chamber
       Posterior segment
               Vitreous humor $

Microscope slides: Identify the structures listed on slide 95
Retina *
        Ganglion cell layer
        Bipolar cell layer
        Photoreceptors (rods & cones)
        Pigmented layer
Sclera*
Choroid*

Exercise 25: Hearing and Equilibrium
Identify the following structures on the ear models. Learn the functions of those with a *.

Pinna* (auricle)
External auditory meatus
Tympanic membrane*
Auditory (Eustachian) tube*
Malleus*
Incus*
Stapes*
Oval window*
Vestibule
Utricle
Saccule
Cochlea*
Semicircular canals
Semiciruclar ducts
Ampulla*, pl: ampullae
Vestibulocochlear (auditory) nerve
Histology and Organ of Corti Model: On slide 28-cochlea, identify all of the following
structures. On the cochlea model, identify those structures marked with an $.

Scala vestibuli $
Scala tympani $
Scala media (cochlear duct) $
Vestibular membrane $
Basilar membrane $
Tectorial membrane $
Organ of Corti $* (spiral organ)
Hair cells $*
Spiral ganglion $
Cochlear nerve




Exercise 26: Taste and Olfaction
Learn the function of the structures marked with an *.

Taste:
On slide 67-vallate papilla, identify taste buds*.
Also note the thick stratified squamous epithelium* coating the tongue and the striated muscle*.

Olfaction:
In lab manual-olfactory epithelium
Observe the epithelium and its receptor cells*. Identify the nasal glands.

Using diagrams from your lab manual and text, be familiar with the following structures and
their order in the “pathway” of olfaction.
        Olfactory foramina
        Olfactory nerve
        Cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
        Olfactory bulb
        Olfactory tract
Exercise 27: Endocrine System
Models:
On models, identify the following endocrine organs and name a hormone secreted by each.
       Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
       Thyroid gland
       Parathyroid gland
       Pancreas
       Adrenal glands
       Ovary
       Testis

Histology:
On slides, identify the following features and list a hormone secreted by those indicated (*).
51-pituitary
       anterior pituitary* (adenohypophysis)
       posterior pituitary* (neurohypophysis)

55, 56-thyroid
        follicle
        follicular cell*
        parafollicular cell*

55-parathyroid
       chief cells* (you do not need to identify the different cell types)
       oxyphil cells



53-pancreas
      pancreatic islets of Langerhans
             do not identify alpha cells*, but know the hormone they produce
             do not identify beta cells*, but know the hormone they produce

54-adrenal glands
       cortex
              zona glomerulosa*
              zona fasciculata*
              zona reticularis*
       medulla*

89-ovary
       follicle*
       corpus luteum*

82-testis
        interstitial cells*
Exercise 29: Blood
On slides 44, 45, and 46 (blood), identify the following cells. Also learn the function of each cell
type.

       Erythrocyte
       Neutrophil
       Eosinophil
       Basophil
       Monocyte
       Lymphocyte
       Thrombocyte (platelet)




Exercise 30: Anatomy of the Heart
On heart models and pig hearts identify the following structures and their functions (*).

       Endocardium
       Myocardium
       Epicardium
       Chambers (atria-left & right; ventricles-left & right)
       Interventricular septum
       Interatrial septum
       Fossa ovale* (in fetus-foramen ovale)
       Papillary muscles*
       Chordae tendinae

       Valves*:               L atrioventricular (bicuspid or mitral)
                              R atrioventricular (tricuspid)
                              Aortic semilunar
                              Pulmonary semilunar
       Aorta
       Brachiocephalic artery
       Pulmonary trunk
       Pulmonary arteries*
       Pulmonary veins*
       Ligamentum arteriosus (in fetus-ductus arteriosus)
       Vena cavae-superior & inferior portions
       Coronary arteries*
       Cardiac veins*


Histology:
Use figures in the lab manual to identify cardiac muscle. Recall and observe the distinguishing
features of cardiac muscle: striations, intercalated discs, branched fibers, and centrally located
nuclei.
Exercise 31: Heart-Conduction System and Electrocardiogram

Conduction System:
      Learn the components of the conduction system and the order in which impulses travel
      through them.
             SA node                      AV node
             Purkinje fibers              AV bundle (bundle of his)
             Bundle branches

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG):
       Identify the P wave, the QRS complex, and the T wave on a ECG tracing. Also describe
       the event that each of these waves corresponds to.




Exercise 32: Blood Vessels

Histology: Use slides 47 & 48-artery and vein. Identify an artery* and vein* and the following
components
       Tunica interna (endothelium)
       Tunica media* (smooth muscle & elastic tissue)
       Tunica externa (loose or fibrous connective tissue)



Models & Diagrams: use the torso, brain, arm, leg, etc. Identify the following vessels and
describe the body structures/areas served.
       Arteries
       aorta                               arcuate
       brachiocephalic                     metatarsal
       common carotid                      facial
       external carotid                    superficial temporal
       internal carotid                    vertebral
       subclavian                          basilar
       brachial
       ulnar                               celiac trunk
       radial                              common hepatic
       superficial palmar arch             left gastric
       digital                             splenic
       common iliac                        superior mesenteric
       external iliac                      inferior mesenteric
       internal iliac                      renal
       femoral                             gonadal
                                           pulmonary trunk
       anterior tibial                     pulmonary
       posterior tibial                    coronary
       dorsalis pedis                      intercostal
Veins
        superior vena cava                   common iliac                 digital
        brachiocephalic                      internal iliac               inferior vena cava
        subclavian                           external iliac               gonadal
        internal jugular                     great saphenous              pulmonary
        external jugular                     femoral                      cardiac
        dural sinuses                        azygous                      palmar venous arch
        popliteal                            hemiazygous                  renal
        intercostal                          posterior tibial
        axillary                             fibular (peroneal)
        cephalic                             dorsal venous arch
        brachial                             superior mesenteric
        radial                               splenic
        ulnar                                inferior mesenteric
        basilic                              hepatic portal
        median cubital                       hepatic

Know the fetal circulation: umbilical artery & vein, foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus & venosus




Exercise 33: Heart-Blood Pressure
Define the following terms.
       Cardiac cycle
       Murmur
       Blood pressure
       Systolic pressure
       Diastolic pressure
       Pulse pressure


Learn the superficial pulse points

The mean arterial pressure is computed as:
Exercise 35: Lymphatic System
Learn the flow of lymph from the tissues back to the circulatory system and the structures it
passes through.
        Lymphatic capillaries
        Lymphatic vessels
        Lymph nodes
        Thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct

Histology:slide 57-lymphatic vessel

Models:
Know the function of the structures marked with an *.
      Lymphatic vessels*
      Lymph nodes*
      Thoracic duct*
      Tonsils*
             Pharyngeal
             Palatine
             Lingual
      Thymus*
      Spleen*