note Page numbers in italic refer to figures_ those in bold refer to

					Index




                                                                          AL
note: Page numbers in italic refer to    airway                                   effects on muscle and performance




                                                                     RI
figures, those in bold refer to tables.      maintenance 505–6, 509–10                   485 – 6
                                            obstruction 274, 505, 508 – 9         endogenous 486–7
abdominal injuries 526 –7                albumin 493                              exogenous/xenobiotic 486, 487




                                                               TE
acclimatization                          alcohol 497                              and sudden cardiac death 242
   to altitude 24, 444                   aldosterone 379                          suppliers 483
   to exercise in cold water 471, 472    allelic association studies 551        anaerobic threshold 179, 182–5
   to hot environments 465, 533
ACE gene 560 – 4
acne mechanica 326, 327
                                         allergens
                                                      MA
                                            air-borne 279– 80
                                            skin 339
                                                                                anaphylaxis 341–2, 515 –17, 516
                                                                                Ancylostoma braziliense 336
                                                                                androgen receptors 485
acne rosacea 327                         allergic contact dermatitis 338–9      androstenediol 486
acne vulgaris 326–7                      allergies                              androstenedione 486
                                                 D
acquired training intolerance (ATI)         respiratory 279 – 80                anemia
        214 –15                             skin 338–42                           iron deficiency 212, 586–8, 590
                                         α-actinin-3 560
                                           TE

ACTH                                                                              physiologic 392
   and doping 491                        altitude                                 sports 95
   in overtraining syndrome 146, 150        acclimatization to 24, 444          angioedema, exercise-induced
   response to training 92                  advice for climbers 447                     341–2
                                         GH



actinic keratosis 329, 329                  exercise at 444 – 8                 anovulation 316, 404, 409
acute coronary syndrome (ACS)                  during pregnancy 400, 401        anthropometric measurement
        513 –14, 514                           and overtraining syndrome                techniques 193–4, 193, 581
acute mountain sickness 400, 401,                148                            antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 377– 8
                                 RI




        528                                 illness associated 400–1, 401,      anti-estrogens 492
acute renal failure (ARF) 384 –7, 387            528 – 9, 529                   antihistamines 283, 328
adaptations to training 3 – 4, 49           training at 96, 295, 447– 8         anti-leukotrienes 283, 286
                          PY




   bone and connective tissue            Alzheimer’s disease 425                antiviral therapy 329, 330, 330
        111–18                           amenorrhea 91, 314, 403–4              anuria 378
   cardiorespiratory 93 –111, 236           and bone mineral density 316–17,    aortic regurgitation, chronic 250
   endocrine 87–93                               409                            aortic stenosis 241, 249–50
                 CO




   metabolic 78 – 87                        clinical evaluation 317–21, 406–7   apolipoprotein E (apoE) 565
   neuromuscular 67–78                      definition 316                       aquagenic urticaria 341
ADP (adenosine diphosphate) 53, 55,         differential diagnosis 317–19       aromatase inhibitors 492
        57, 58                              etiology 404 – 6                    arrhythmias 254 – 60
adrafinil 496                                and HPO axis 91, 315, 404 –5        arrhythmogenic right ventricular
aerobic capacity see maximal oxygen         management 321–2, 406–7                     cardiomyopathy/dysplasia
        consumption (VO2max)                primary 404                                 (ARVC) 241, 242, 245, 245,
aerobic fitness 5 – 6                        secondary 404, 405                          512, 513, 565
Aeromonas hydrophilia infection 352      amphetamines 300, 495                  arterial hypoxemia, exercise-induced
agility 173, 176 – 8                     amputation, traumatic 528                      274
AIDS 354 – 61, 357, 358, 360             amputee athletes 431, 431, 441         arterial occlusive disease 226
air                                      amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 425–6    arterial partial pressure of oxygen
   pollution 277– 9, 277, 448 – 50       anabolic agents 488–9                          (PaO2), and altitude 444–6,
   standards 448, 448                    anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS)             447
Air Quality Index (AQI) 448                      485                            arteriovenous oxygen difference
air travel 466 –7                           adverse effects 421, 487–8                  (a-vDO2) 93, 95

                                                                                                               601
602       index


asthma 268–9                                  rectal 368, 370, 372                      supplementation 407
   definitions and description 275 – 7,        severe 517–19                           calpain 204
        284                                blind athletes 431, 441–2                  cannabinoids 496
   diagnosis in sport 272– 5               blood                                      carbohydrate
   differential diagnosis 274, 277            oxygen carrying capacity 95– 6            absorption 366
   environmental factors 277–81, 282,         volume expansion 99–100                   and fatigue 54, 64 –5, 584 – 6,
        449–50                             blood doping 96, 493– 4                            585, 587
   exercise-induced 273 – 4, 290, 491      blood pressure                               intake
   genetics 284–6                             heritability 549 – 50                        in diabetes 307, 308
   immunology in childhood 288 – 9            postural hypotension 461, 465,               during exercise 594 – 5
   link with allergic rhinitis 292 –3               507, 532                               during pregnancy 391
   pharmacogenetics 286                    body composition 6, 191– 5, 404, 581            guidelines 587
   prevalence 276, 291–2                   body mass index (BMI) 194, 390                  inadequate 584–6, 585
   and sudden death 300                    body temperature                             loading 592, 593
   treatment 281–4, 491–2                     and dehydration 456– 60                   metabolism disorders 215, 216, 217
athlete’s heart (athletic heart               and hypothermia 530                       oxidation during endurance
        syndrome) 97, 236 – 40, 243 – 4,      regulation 450 – 66                             training 81, 87
        244, 249                                 in pregnancy 393 – 4                   and recovery 588 – 9
athletic pseudonephritis 384                     wheelchair athletes 437– 8           carbon monoxide 448, 449
atlantoaxial instability 432, 434,         bone 6                                     cardiac arrest 513–14, 514
        434, 442                              adaptation to training 25, 111–14,      cardiac output (Q) 93, 95
atmospheric pollution 277– 9, 277,                  112, 113                            and endurance training 96 –7
        448–50                                cortical 407– 8                           and exercise at altitude 445
atopic dermatitis 328                         in the female athlete 407– 9              maximal 233
atopy 212, 268, 286, 291, 292                 fractures 528, 557                      cardiogenic embolism 420
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) 52– 4,           peak mass 408                           cardiomyopathies 241, 242, 243–5,
        53, 57, 58, 66, 84, 450               remodeling 408                                  246, 512, 513
ATPase microenvironment                       strength improvement through            cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
        hypothesis of fatigue 57, 58                exercise 114–15, 114                      506, 520
atrial flutter/fibrillation/tachycardia         trabecular 407– 8                       cardiorespiratory fitness 93
        255–6                                 trauma 421                              cardiovascular disease
automated external defibrillator               see also osteoporosis                     benefits of exercise 232, 305
        (AED) 513                          bone mineral content (BMC) 112, 114          congenital 247–9, 442
autonomic dysreflexia 436 –7, 436           bone mineral density (BMD) 112               eligibility determination 243 – 60
AV block 259                                  female athletes 314, 316–17, 321–2,       genetic factors 565
AV nodal re-entry tachycardia 256                   408 – 9                             and stroke 420
AV re-entrant tachycardia 257– 8              genetic factors 557, 558 – 9, 564 – 5     and sudden cardiac death 240–2
                                           ‘boosting’ 437                             cardiovascular drift 104
ballistic resistance exercise 17           boxing 425, 565                            cardiovascular fitness
ballistic stretching 32                    brachial plexus injuries 524                       (cardiovascular endurance)
ballistic testing 169 –70, 169             bradycardia, sinus 255                             5–6
basal cell carcinoma 337, 337              brain                                      cardiovascular system
benign exertional headache (BEH)              chronic traumatic injury 565              adaptation to training 96–104, 236
        415                                   in overtraining syndrome 146 –7           beneficial effects of exercise 232
beta-blockers 496                             and performance at altitude 446–7         effects of anabolic steroids 487
β-endorphins 405                              response of higher centers to             and female athlete triad 317
β2-agonists                                         training 69–70                      in Marfan syndrome 246
   and diagnosis of asthma 273                symptoms of pathology 414                 in pregnancy 392, 392, 393
   and doping 281–2, 488, 491–2            bromantan 495–6                              preparticipation screening 260 –3,
   inhaled 283–4                           bronchial hyperresponsiveness                      512 –13
   pharmacogenetics 286                             271–2, 291, 292, 492                response to exercise 233 – 6
   response to 273, 275                    bronchoconstriction, exercise-             carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)
bicarbonate 595                                     induced 273, 275– 6, 280,                 deficiency 215, 218
bilharzia 353, 354                                  449 – 50                          carotid arterial dissection 419–20
bioelectrical impedance                    Brugada syndrome 260, 566                  carpal tunnel syndrome 391, 439
        measurement 192 –3, 193                                                       catabolic state in overtraining
birth weight and maternal exercise         caffeine 56, 591, 595                              syndrome 145
        396–8                              calcium                                    catastrophe theory of fatigue 57–9,
bladder, neurogenic 438                      in fatigue 55 – 6                                59
bleeding                                     nutritional intake 407, 408              catecholaminergic polymorphic
   intracranial 421, 521                     role in delayed onset muscle                     ventricular tachycardia
   nasal 525                                      soreness 204                                (CPVT) 260
                                                                                                  index           603


central fatigue hypothesis (CFH)           consciousness, loss of 417, 506,         and fluid intake 473–7, 592–4
        61– 3, 61                                 507, 521                          and hyperthermia 300, 455–66,
central governor theory (central           contact dermatitis 338–9, 338                 532
        integrative model) 65 – 6, 66,     convulsions 422–3                        in pregnancy 402
        446 –7, 452 –3                     coronary arteries, congenital            recovery from 589–91
central nervous system                            anomalies 241, 247                and rectal temperature 456–60
   infections 361–2                        coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)      and sudden death 300
   in overtraining syndrome 146 –7                247                               and weight loss during exercise
   plasticity 34 –5                        coronary artery disease (CAD)                 454, 473
   and skill acquisition 33 –5               acute coronary syndrome 513–14,      dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS)
cerebral edema, high-altitude 401,                514                                    91, 486
        528                                  in diabetes 306–7                    delayed onset muscle soreness
cerebral palsy, athletes with 431,           protective effects of exercise 232          (DOMS) 59–61, 203
        440 –1                               risk associated with exercise 253,     initial events causing 203 – 4
cervical immobilization, indications              254                               metabolic consequences 206
        for 523                            corticosteroids                          prevention 206 – 7
cervicogenic headache 415                    inhaled 281, 286                       role of calcium 204
childhood, training for bone strength        restrictions on use 282                symptoms 204 – 6
        114, 115                             topical 283, 328                       and training 207
chloride 377, 379                          corticotropic-releasing hormone          treatment 207, 208
chlorine 278, 281                                 (CRH) 150                       densitometry 192, 404, 581
cholinergic urticaria 339 – 40             cortisol                               depth jump 170–1, 170
chronic compartment syndrome                 and amenorrhea 405                   dermatographism 340–1, 340
        225 – 6                              response to training 92              descending corticospinal tracts,
chronic fatigue syndrome 213 –14             testosterone:cortisol ratio 146             response to training 70
chronic kidney disease 387– 8              cramping                               dextroamphetamine 495
chronic traumatic encephalopathy             abdominal 370, 373                   diabetes mellitus 302
        425                                  muscle 32, 207–11, 209                 and exercise 302–7, 305, 306, 307
ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)         creatine 595                             gestational 390, 402–3
        556                                creatine kinase (CK)                     management 307–9
circadian rhythms and travel 466             and delayed onset muscle soreness    diarrhea 370, 372, 373
citrate 595                                       61, 204, 205, 207               digestion, normal physiology 365 –6
clenbuterol 488                              in exertional rhabdomyolysis 219     disabled athletes 429
clomiphene 492                               in overtraining syndrome 149           classification 430–2
clothing                                   cross-country skiing, and exercise-      common medical problems
   and body temperature regulation                induced bronchoconstriction            434 – 42
        452                                       280                               history of participation in sport
   and hypothermia 452, 453, 467           cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis               429 –30
   insulating capacity 468 – 9                    297–8                             preparticipation physical
   sun protection 338                      cryptosporidiosis 352                         examination 432, 434, 434, 434
   and survival times following cold       cutaneous larvae migrans 336           diuretics 300, 492–3
        water immersion 471– 2             cycle ergometers 182                   diving reflex 520
cluster set 18                             cytokines 92–3, 554, 555               doping 2
cocaine 495                                cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection          agents and methods 485–97
cold                                              351                               blood 96, 493–4
   exercise in 467–73                                                               control 482–3, 499–501
   habituation to 471, 472                 DALDA (Daily Analysis of Life            genetic 494–5, 567–9
cold shock response 471                            Demands for Athletes)            history of 482
cold urticaria 340                                 questionnaire 8, 151             and hyperthermia 453, 455
cold water, immersion/exercise in          darbopoetin alfa 489                     masking agents 492–3
        470 –2, 520                        De Quervain’s thyroiditis 313            and nutritional supplements 497,
collagen 115 –16, 116, 556                 deaf athletes 431–2, 442                      595 – 6
collapse 460 –1, 465, 504 – 8, 506, 507,   death                                    prohibited list 483, 484
        507, 508, 532                        in diabetes 304–5                      and risk of stroke 421
commotio cordis 242, 514 –15                 drowning-related 519                   and sudden cardiac death 242
compartment syndrome, chronic                from hypothermia 452, 455, 467         therapeutic use exemptions 268,
        225 – 6                              see also sudden death (sudden               281, 483, 484, 498, 498
concussion 423, 425, 506, 507, 521,                cardiac death)                   and treatment of asthma 281–4,
        522 –3                             defecation 367                                491–2
concussive convulsions 423                 dehydration                            Down’s syndrome 432, 434,
congenital heart disease 247– 9, 442         and acute renal failure 385 – 6             434, 442
conjunctivitis 277, 291                      and collapse 460–1                   drowning 518, 519 –21
604       index


drugs                                       neuromuscular adaptations to         fatigue
  classification 483 – 4                          67–78                              ATPase microenvironment
  prohibited list 483, 484                  performance adaptations to 85–6              hypothesis 57, 58
  see also doping; recreational drugs;      respiratory adaptations to 105–11       cardiac 104–5
        therapeutic drugs                 energy availability 583, 583              catastrophe theory 57–9, 59
dual energy X-ray absorptiometry          environmental conditions                  central 50, 51, 51, 61– 6, 61
        (DEXA) 191– 2, 192, 404, 581        limiting 452                            chronic 211–15, 220, 221, 222 –3
dyspepsia 371                               respiratory responses to 277– 81        chronic fatigue syndrome 213 –14
dysphagia 371                               and testing 175                         definitions 50
                                          environmental tobacco smoke 279           effect on skill acquisition 41–2, 41
ear injuries 526                          eosinophilic granuloma 298                etiology 211–15
eating disorders 91, 314, 404, 406,       eosinophils and asthma 287                future research 67
        581, 583                          ephedrine 495                             in hypothyroidism 310
echocardiography                          epilepsy 422–4                            models of 49 – 67
   arrhythmogenic right ventricular       epinephrine 88                            muscle 50, 209–10
        cardiomyopathy 245                epistaxis 525                             and nutrition 212, 584–8, 585,
   athlete’s heart 237– 8, 238            epitestosterone 486, 493                       587, 590
economy of motion 179, 185 – 6            Epstein–Barr virus infection 350 –1,      pathological 212, 213
efaproxiral 494                                  351                                peripheral 50, 51–61, 51
effort, and resistance training 12        equipment, standardization 2              physiological 211–12
effort headache 415 –16                   ergogenic drugs 483                       practical considerations 67
electrocardiography (ECG)                 ergometers 187                            respiratory muscles 108, 109–10
   arrhythmogenic right ventricular       erythropoietin (EPO) 489–90, 567          supraspinal 63–4, 64
        cardiomyopathy 245, 245           estrogen receptors 91                  fatigued athlete myopathic syndrome
   athlete’s heart 238 – 40, 239          estrogens 314                                  214 –15
   in preparticipation screening in         and bone function 316–17             female athlete triad 91, 314, 404, 583
        young athletes 261, 512 –13         effects 90 –1                        ferritin 212, 586–7
   Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome           in pregnancy 391                     fetus, responses to maternal exercise
        257, 257                            replacement therapy 321–2, 407               394 – 6, 396 – 8, 401–2, 402
electrolytes                                response to training 91              first ventilatory threshold 184
   excretion 379                          eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation    fitness, components of 4–6
   in rehydration 590 –1                         (EVH) test 275                  flail chest 510
electromyography (EMG)                    eugonadism 317–18                      flexibility 5
   in muscle pain 226                     events, medical preparation for        fluids
   and neural adaptation to training             535 – 43                           intake 455 – 60, 464 –5, 466, 473 – 8,
        69, 73–5, 74                      exercise-associated hyponatremic               535, 592 –5
elite athletes                                   encephalopathy 379–80, 454,        intravenous 460–1, 465, 507
   and ACE genotype 563 – 4                      476, 477– 8, 534 –5                overload 378, 462, 477–8, 534–5,
   age at peak performance 1              exercise-associated muscle cramping            594
   exercise prescription during                  (EAMC) 32, 207–11                  replacement 589 – 91
        pregnancy 401–3                   exercise challenge tests               follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
emergency medicine 504 – 47                 in asthma 275–6                              91, 146, 314, 404 –5, 491
endocrine adaptations to training           in muscle pain 226                   folliculitis 334–5, 335
        87–93                             exercise-heat stress 148               follitropin alfa/beta 491
endurance athletes, collapse 460 –1,      exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia    force plate 163–4, 163, 164
        465, 506–8, 507, 508                     (EIAH) 109, 110                 forced expiratory volume in 1 s
endurance performance                     exercise intensity 7, 11–12                    (FEV1) 268, 270
   components 93 – 4, 179 – 86, 180       exercise intolerance 310               forced vital capacity (FVC) 270
   heritability 549                       exercise stress testing in diabetes    forearm ischemic exercise test 226
   testing 179–91                                306 –7, 307                     foreign body aspiration 505, 508–9
endurance sports                          exercise testing see testing           Frank–Starling effect 101
   medical coverage 538 – 43, 539         exercise training see training         functional residual capacity (FRC)
   post-race tasks 543                    external work rate 235                         269
   pre-event planning 539 – 42            eye injuries 524–5, 538                fungal infections
   and prevalence of asthma 281, 282                                                ear 352, 353
   race day management 542 –3             family studies 549                        skin 331–4
endurance training 21–32                  fast ramp testing protocols 186        furunculosis 334–5
   cardiac adaptations to 94 –105         fat embolism 421
   concurrent with strength training      fat tissue/fat mass 6                  gastroesophageal reflux disease
        85–6                                 assessment of levels 581                   (GERD) 371
   endocrine effects 87– 93                  and survival times following cold   gastrointestinal tract
   metabolic adaptations to 79 – 83, 80           water immersion 472              effects of anabolic steroids 487
                                                                                                  index            605


  effects of exercise on physiology        athlete’s 97, 236–40, 243–4,          hyperventilation 471
       367– 8, 369, 369                         244, 249                         hypoglycemia 305–6, 307, 309
  management of common                     blunt trauma 242, 514–15              hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism
       symptoms 370, 371– 3, 373 – 4       diastolic function 101                        317–18
  normal physiology 365 – 7                fatigue after prolonged strenuous     hyponatremia 379–80, 454, 462, 476,
  symptoms in athletes 368 –70, 368,            exercise 104–5                           477– 8, 534 – 5
       369, 371–3, 373 – 4                 response to exercise 233 – 6          hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal
Gatorade 457                               stroke volume 93, 97–9, 98, 101– 4,           (HPA) axis 146, 147, 150
gender and training 22– 3                       102, 104, 233                    hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian
gene doping 494 –5, 567– 9               heart murmurs 239–40, 243, 249                  (HPO) axis 91, 314, 315, 404 –5
gene therapy 567                         heart rate 93                           hypothermia 451–3, 467–8, 472–3,
general adaptation syndrome 150            and altitude 445                              529 –31
genetics 548 – 9                           and endurance training 97               classification 530
  and ability 22                           maximal 31, 233–4                       during exercise/submersion in
  of asthma 284 – 6                        monitoring during training 30 –1              cold water 470–2, 520
  identification of factors 550 –1          and overtraining syndrome 145           and exercise on land 468 – 9
  and performance 549 – 64                 predicted maximum 31, 234               treatment 469 – 70
genitourinary tract                        variability 145, 149                    wheelchair athletes 437– 8
  infections 362, 438                    heartburn 370, 373                      hypothyroidism 310–12, 311, 319
  injuries 527                           heatstroke see hyperthermia             hypoxia
German Democratic Republic,              Heinrich theory 454–5, 458, 474           at altitude 444–7
       androgenization program 486       hematuria 383–4, 383, 385, 527            renal 381
giardiasis 352                           hemoglobinuria 386                      hypoxia huts 295
girth measurement 194                    hemorrhage see bleeding
Glasgow Coma Scale 506, 507, 521         hepatitis, viral 354, 355               ice-skating, and exposure to
glomerular filtration rate 375 – 6        heritability 285, 549–50, 549                   air-borne pollutants 280
glucagon, response to training 89 – 90   herpes gladiatorum 330, 330             idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 297–8
glucocorticoid receptor gene 554 – 5     herpes labialis 329–30                  immune system
glucose, blood                           herpes simplex 330, 330                    effects of exercise on 286 – 9,
  effects of endurance training 81–2     high-altitude illness 400 –1, 401,              344 –7, 348
  and exercise in diabetes 303,                 528 – 9, 529                        and overtraining syndrome 145–6,
       306, 307                          high-load speed-strength 165                    149 –50
  and fatigue 54                         hiking and hypothermia 467              immunization 363
  in overtraining syndrome 149           HIV/AIDS 354–61, 357, 358, 360          immunoglobulin A (IgA), salivary
GLUT-4 303                               hives 339–41, 340                               346 – 7
glycogen                                 Hoffmann (H) reflex 72 –3, 73            immunoglobulin E (IgE) 286 – 7
  and carbohydrate loading 591–2         hormones                                immunotherapy, asthma 282–3
  and delayed onset muscle soreness        and doping 489–91                     impetigo 334
       61, 206                             and female athlete triad 315–17       infections 344
  in endurance training 81–2               and overtraining syndrome 146,           blood-borne 354 – 61
  and fatigue 54, 65, 584                       150 –1                              central nervous system 361–2
  in overtraining syndrome 145, 149      house dust mites 280                       genitourinary tract 362, 438
  and recovery 588 – 9                   human chorionic gonadotropin               respiratory system 145, 289–91,
  in strength training 84                       (HCG) 491                                293 – 4, 347– 50
goiter 311                               humidity 451–2                             skin 329–36
gonadotropin-releasing hormone           hydrogen ions, in fatigue 53, 55           systemic viral 350–2
       (GnRH) 91, 314, 404 – 6           hydroxyethyl starch 493                    tropical 353 – 4
Graves’ disease 312–13                   5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)                 water-borne 352–3, 353
growth hormone (GH)                             see serotonergic system          infectious mononucleosis 350 –1, 351
  and doping 490                         hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism         injuries
  and muscle mass 553 – 4                       317–18                              amputee athletes 441
  in overtraining syndrome 146, 150      hyperkalemia 384                           athletes with cerebral palsy 440–1
  response to training 88 – 9            hypersensitivity, type I 286–7             blind athletes 441–2
                                         hyperthermia 300, 386, 450–66, 473,        emergency medicine 521– 8
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 310, 311                475, 476, 531– 4                    genetic factors in risk of 564–7
hay fever 277, 279, 283, 289 – 90,         malignant 463, 464                       head 425, 519, 521–3, 522, 565
       292 –3                              in pregnancy 402                         management kits 538, 539
head injury 425, 519, 521–3, 522, 565      wheelchair athletes 437                  maxillofacial 509
headache 412 –16, 417                    hyperthyroidism 310, 312–14, 319           regional assessment 506
hearing impaired athletes 431–2, 442     hypertrophic cardiomyopathy                wheelchair athletes 439 – 40
heart                                           (HCM) 240, 241, 242, 243 – 4,    inspiratory stridor, exercise-induced
  adaptation to training 96 –104, 236           244, 512 –13, 565, 566                   273 – 4
606        index


insulin                                    LBBB 259                              medical coverage of sports events
   and doping 490 –1                       lead, atmospheric 448                        535 – 43
   resistance 149                          left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)    medication see therapeutic drugs
   response to training 89 – 90                    236 – 8, 243 – 4, 561–2       melatonin 406
   therapy in diabetes 303, 307– 9, 308    left ventricular mass (LVM) 550,      menarche 404, 408
insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)               552 –3, 554                   meningitis 361–2, 362
        89, 145, 553 – 4                   leptospirosis 352                     menstrual dysfunction 91, 314,
insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)       lice 336                                     403 – 4
        554, 556                           ligaments                              clinical evaluation 317–21, 406–7
intellectually impaired athletes 431,         adaptation to training 118, 118     etiology 404 – 6
        432, 442                              structure 115–16                    in hypothyroidism 310
intercontinental travel 466 –7             linear displacement transducer         management 321–2, 406–7
interleukin-6 (IL-6) 92 –3, 554, 555               164 – 5, 165                   spectrum of 315–16
interleukin-15 (IL-15) 555                 linkage analysis 550–1                mental imagery 41
interstitial lung disease 295 – 8          lipid                                 mental status examination 506, 507
intracranial hemorrhage 421, 521              absorption 366                     mesocarb 496
intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) 319             metabolism disorders 215, 216,     metabolic acidosis 381
intraventricular conduction delays                 217, 218                      metabolic adaptations to training
        259                                   oxidation during endurance                78 – 87
iron                                               training 82                   metabolic myopathies 215, 216 –17,
   absorption 366                          log roll 505                                 218
   deficiency 212, 586 – 8, 590             long QT syndrome 259–60, 513,         metabolic rate, and survival times
   supplements 588                                 565, 566                             following cold water
Ironman Triathlons 476                     low-load speed-strength 165                  immersion 472
irritable bowel syndrome 372, 373          lungs                                 methacholine challenge test 268, 272,
irritant contact dermatitis 338, 338          diffusion capacity 271                    273, 276 –7
isoinertial strength testing 166 –7           edema 274, 401, 528 – 9, 529       methylphenidate 495
isokinetic strength testing 168 – 9, 168      eosinophilic granuloma 298         migraine 412, 413, 414, 417, 420
isometric exercise, cardiovascular            flows 269 –71                       mitochondrial adaptations to training
        response to 233                       functions tests 268, 393, 394             81–3, 84 –5
isometric strength testing 167– 8             idiopathic fibrosis 297–8           mitochondrial myopathies 218
isotonic exercise, cardiovascular             interstitial disease 295 – 8       mitral regurgitation, chronic 251–2
        response to 233                       pulmonary embolism 298 – 9         mitral stenosis 250–1, 251
                                              volumes 269                        mitral valve prolapse 252
jaw-thrust maneuver 505, 510               luteal phase deficiency 316, 404       modafinil 496
jet-lag 466                                luteinizing hormone (LH) 91, 146,     molluscum contagiosum 330 –1, 331
joint dislocations 528                             314, 404 – 5, 491             montelukast 283
                                                                                 mood
kidneys                                    ma juang 242                           disturbances 146
  advanced chronic disease 387– 8          McArdle’s syndrome 55, 215             effects of travel 466 –7
  effects of exercise 377, 378, 379 – 88   malaria 353 –4, 354                   motivation 22
  electrolyte excretion 379                malignant hyperthermia 463, 464       motoneuron disease 425 – 6
  functions 375                            marathon runners                      motor control, closed-loop/
  nephron structure and function             fluid intake 473 – 6                        open-loop 34–5, 34
       375                                   hypothermia 467–8                   motor coordination see skill
  normal physiology 375 – 7                Marfan syndrome 246, 565              motor units (MUs) 70 –1
  polycystic 388                           marijuana 496                         mountaineering
  renal blood flow 376 – 7                  maximal oxygen consumption             effects of altitude 444–5, 447–8
  solitary 388                                    (VO2max) 6, 93                  and hypothermia 453
  water excretion 377– 8                     and ACE genotype 562                multi-joint exercises 11
                                             determinants 94–105, 233            multiple repetition test 167
lactate paradox 445                          determination 180, 180, 181–2       multiple sclerosis (MS) 424 –5
lactate threshold 82, 183 – 4                and endurance performance 93 – 4,   muscle
lactic acid                                       179 – 82, 233                   and ACE genotype 562–3
   and delayed onset muscle soreness         and endurance training 94 –105       adaptations to training 67–9, 68,
        61, 206                              genetic factors 551–2                      69, 75–7, 75, 78, 83
   and endurance training 82 – 3             heritability 549                     antagonist co-contraction 71–2
   and exercise at altitude 445, 447         response to endurance training 83    biopsy 227, 584
   and fatigue 53, 54 –5                     wheelchair athletes 435 – 6          chain of command for contraction
   in overtraining syndrome 149            MDMA 495                                     50 –1, 50
larvae migrans, cutaneous 336              measles 351–2                          cramp prone state 210
laryngospasm 509–10                        median nerve entrapment 439            eccentric action 203 – 4
                                                                                                index           607


 effects of anabolic androgenic        nausea 373                               overtraining (OT) 8, 19, 24, 30, 32,
       steroids 485 – 6                near-infrared spectroscopy 226 – 7              138
 exercise-induced damage 59 – 61,      neck injury 505, 523–4, 523                continuum 138, 142, 143
       201                             nephron structure and function 375         definition 138–40, 143
 fiber type transitions 75 – 6          nerve conduction studies in muscle         prevalence 143
 function 200                                 pain 226                            studies on 139 – 40
 functional impairment 205 – 6         nerve stimulation tests in muscle        overtraining syndrome (OTS) 138,
 genetic factors 553 –7                       pain 226                                 142, 154 – 5, 212
 hyperplasia 77                        neural adaptations to training 69–75,      definition 138–40, 143
 hypertrophy 76 –7                            73, 74                              diagnosis 147–53, 152
 imbalances 172                        neurogenic bladder 438                     mechanisms 143 – 7
 mass 6                                neurologic problems 412–28                 performance tests 148 – 9
    guidelines for increasing 582,     neurologic screening 506, 507              prevalence 143
       583 – 4                         neuromuscular junction                     prevention 153, 154
 pain                                    and fatigue 50, 51                       studies on 142
    assessment 223, 224, 225 –7          and training 72                          and training status 148–9
    in delayed onset muscle soreness   neutrophils 346                          oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
       205                             nitrogen dioxide 278, 448, 449                  95 – 6
    due to medication 219              norepinephrine 88                        ozone 278 – 9, 448, 449, 450
 physiology 200 –3                     19-norsteroids 487
 plasticity 200 –1                     NSAIDs 386, 413, 415, 416                pain
 repair and regeneration 201– 3        nutrition 580                              abdominal 370, 372
 respiratory see respiratory muscles     dietary surveys 585                      intracranial pathways 413
 satellite cells 201–3                   and fatigue 212, 584–8, 585, 587,        muscle
 and skill acquisition 33                     590                                    assessment 223, 224, 225 –7
 strain 225                              food intake during events 592–5             in delayed onset muscle soreness
 swelling 205                            and menstrual disorders 406                    205
 tears 225                               pre-event eating 591–2, 593                 due to medication 219
 temperature 59 – 60                     in pregnancy 390–1                       retrosternal 370
 tissue activation 70 –1                 reaching an ideal weight for           Paralympic Games 429, 430, 432, 433
muscle cells, excitation–contraction          performance 580 – 4               paraplegia 435
       coupling 51, 52, 54               and recovery 588 – 91                  parasitic infections, skin 336
muscle endurance 5                       and traveling 596, 597                 Parkinson’s disease 425
muscle group split training program    nutritional supplements 595 – 6          participation
       10                                and doping 497, 595–6                    by disabled athletes 429–30
muscle power see power                   and sudden cardiac death 242             heritability 549
muscle strength see strength                                                    particulate matter air pollution 278,
musculoskeletal system                 obesity                                          448, 449
 emergency treatment 527– 8               effects on exercise testing 270       peak oxygen consumption
 genetic factors in risk of injury        effects on respiratory function 299           (VO2peak) 181
       564 –5                             and menarche 404                      peak performance 1, 30
 in pregnancy 391                         and pregnancy 402                     pediculosis 336
 wheelchair athletes 439 – 40          oligomenorrhea 316, 404                  performance
 see also bone; muscle                 oliguria, post-exercise 386 –7             determination of key
Mycobacterium marinum 335 – 6          Olympic lifts 17–18                              characteristics 162 –3
myoadenylate deaminase (AMPD)          1 RM (1 repetition maximum) test           effects of air pollution on 449
       deficiency 218                           166 –7, 167                        effects of anabolic androgenic
myocardial bridging (MB) 247           ophthalmologic injuries 524 –5, 538              steroids 485 – 6
myocardial contractility 100 –1        osteoporosis                               factors affecting 4, 4
myocardial infarction 232                 female athletes 91, 314, 404, 407–9     genetic factors 549 – 64
myocardial ischemia 306 –7, 307           genetic factors 564 –5                  peak 1, 30
myocarditis 241, 245 – 6, 349             wheelchair athletes 439                 reaching an ideal weight for
MyoD 201–2                             otitis externa 352–3, 353                        580 – 4
myogenin 201–2                         otitis media 352                           respiratory system limitations to
myoglobinuria 386                      overhydration 378, 462, 477–8,                   109 –10, 110
myostatin 494, 555, 555, 567– 8                534 –5, 594                        and travel 466–7
                                       overload 2, 6–7, 140, 211                performance diagnosis 162, 162
narcotics 496                             progressive 14–15                     performance tests in overtraining
nasal injuries 525 – 6                 overreaching (OR) 138, 211                       syndrome 148 – 9
nasal polyps 294                          definition 138 – 9                     pericardium, and endurance training
natural killer cytotoxic activity         functional 140–1, 143                         102 – 4, 104
       (NKCA) 345, 346                    non-functional 141–2, 143             periodization of training 8–9, 18–21
608       index


peripheral nerve entrapment               premature ventricular complexes          resistance training 9 –21
        syndromes 391, 439                       (PVCs) 258                          adaptation to 163
pharmacology, sports 483 – 4              preparticipation physical                respiratory arrest 508–11, 509
phenylephrine 495                                examination (PPE) 260–3,          respiratory muscles
phenylpropanolamine 495                          512 –13                             effects of training 106 –7
phosphate, inorganic (Pi), in fatigue       disabled athletes 432, 434, 434, 434     fatigue 108, 109–10
        53, 55                              and risk of stroke 416–18                specific training 107– 9
phosphocreatine (PCr) 52 – 4, 53, 84      pressure sores, wheelchair athletes      respiratory system 268–301
phosphofructokinase (PFK)                        438, 438                            adaptations to endurance training
        deficiency 215                     probenecid 493                                   105 – 9
phosphorus magnetic resonance             progesterone 91, 314                       airway maintenance 505–6,
        spectroscopy 226 –7, 584          progressive exercise (VO2max) tests              509 –10
physicians and doping 482 – 3, 500–1             179, 186 –7, 188                    bronchial hyperresponsiveness
plasma expanders 493                      prohormones 595, 596                             271–2, 291, 292, 492
pleural disease 298                       prolactin 150, 405–6                       challenge tests 268, 272, 273, 276–7
pneumothorax 510 –11                      protein digestion and absorption 366       disorders 294 – 9
pollen 279–80, 448                        proteinuria, exercise-induced 380 –3,      effects of obesity 299
pollution, environmental 277– 9, 277,            382                                 exercise-induced
        448–50                            pseudoephedrine 495                              bronchoconstriction 273,
polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)        psoriasis vulgaris 328, 328                      275 – 6, 280, 449 – 50
        318–19                            pulmonary contusion 510                    fatigue 108
POMS (Profile of Mood State)               pulmonary edema                            infections 145, 289–91, 293–4,
        questionnaire 8, 151                high-altitude 401, 528 – 9, 529                347– 50
popping sarcomere hypothesis 60,            swimming-induced 274                     limitations to performance
        204                               pulmonary embolism 298 – 9                       109 –10, 110
post-activation potentiation (PAP)        pulmonary hypertension 248–9, 299          in pregnancy 392–3, 393, 394
        73                                pulmonary regurgitation 253                pulmonary physiology 269–71
postpartum exercise prescription 403      pulmonary valve stenosis, congenital       response to environmental
postural hypotension 461, 465,                   248                                       conditions 277–81
        507, 532                          punch drunk syndrome 425                   response to exercise 271
potassium 56–7, 57, 379                                                              see also asthma
power 4                                   quadriplegia 435                         rest 7– 8, 13, 29, 30
  definition 15–16                           transient 524                          resuscitation, ABCDE approach 505
  genetic factors 555                                                              rhabdomyolysis 218–19, 300, 386,
  heritability 550                        rate of force development (RFD) 165,             463, 464
  peak 182                                        170                              rheumatic fever 250
  response to training 67– 9, 68          RBBB 259                                 rhinitis, allergic 277, 279, 283,
  testing 163–6                           recombinant human erythropoietin                 289 – 90, 292 –3
  training 9–21                                   (rHuEPO) 489 – 90                RSR-13 494
power endurance 165                       recombinant human growth
pregnancy                                         hormone (rHuGH) 490              sarcoidosis 298
  and amenorrhea 318, 407                 recovery 7–8, 13, 29, 30                 sarcomeres, popping sarcomere
  benefits and risks of exercise             and nutrition 588 – 91                         hypothesis 60, 204
        390–6                             Recovery Stress Questionnaire            SARS 294
  cardiovascular system in 392,                   (RestQ-Sport) 151                scabies 336
        392, 393                          recreational drugs 483                   scalp lacerations 519
  contraindications to exercise 391,        and risk of stroke 420–1               schistosomiasis 353, 354
        398                               reflexes, potentiation 72 –3              scuba diving
  elite athletes 401– 3                   reflux esophagitis 295                       barotrauma 526
  exercise prescription 396, 398 – 403,   rehydration 589 – 91                        in pregnancy 400
        398, 401                          relative work rate 235                   seborrheic dermatitis 327–8
  musculoskeletal system in 391           renal hypoxia 381                        second impact syndrome 522
  nutrition 390–1                         renal vasoconstriction 381               second ventilatory threshold 184 – 5
  recreational activities 400, 401        renin 381                                seizures 422, 424, 521
  respiratory system in 392 – 3, 393,     renin–angiotensin system (RAS)           serotonergic system
        394                                       560 – 4                             in central fatigue 61–3, 61
  thermoregulation in 393 – 4             repeat-bout effect 207                      and overtraining syndrome 147
  weight gain 390 –1                      repeat sprint 5, 173, 174–5              shock
premature atrial complexes (PACs)         Repoxygen 495                               classification 518
        255                               residual volume (RV) 269                    hypovolemic 517–19
premature ovarian failure (POF)           resistance exercise, cardiovascular      short QT syndrome 260
        318                                       response to 233                  sickle cell trait 300
                                                                                                    index          609


single-joint exercises 11                   reactive 165, 170–1, 170, 171             catecholaminergic polymorphic
sinus bradycardia 255                       testing 163–73                                 ventricular 260, 566
sinus node rhythm disturbances 255       strength training 9 –21                      sinus 255
sinus tachycardia 255                       concurrent with endurance                 supraventricular 256
skeletal muscle see muscle                       training 85 – 6                      ventricular 258 – 9
skill                                       endocrine effects 87– 93               talk test 24
   acquisition                              imagined 70                            tamoxifen 492
      effect of fatigue on 41–2, 41         and improvement in endurance           team sports
      grouping of practice sessions              performance 86–7                     medical coverage 535 – 8
         36 – 8, 36                         metabolic adaptations to 83–5             and training 1
      instruction vs. demonstration         neuromuscular adaptation to            teloanticipation model for exercise
         39 – 40                                 67– 78                                    66, 66
      and mental imagery 41                 performance adaptations to 85–6        tendons
      perceptual learning 40 –1             program goals 83                          adaptation to training 116–18, 117
      physiologic basis 33 –5               transfer effect from 86                   structure 115–16, 116
      role of feedback 38 – 9, 38, 39    stress                                    tension pneumothorax 511
      theories 35 – 42                      general adaptation syndrome 150        tension-type headache 414 –15
      time course 35                        psychologic 8                          testing
      training for 32– 42                stress testing, in diabetes 306–7, 307       in asthma 275–6
   components 5                          stretching 32                                closed-loop 189–90
   performance 165                          before exercise testing 165 – 6           endurance 179 – 91
skin                                     stroke 416–22, 417                           familiarization trials 187
   disorders 326 – 43                    subacute thyroiditis 313                     general principles 161–2
   effects of anabolic steroids 488      subclavian artery stenosis 420               gold standard 171–2
   infections 329–36                     submersion 518, 519 –21                      open-loop 188–9, 189–90
   sun damage 337                           in cold water 470–2, 520                  preparation for 165–6, 175, 187
skinfold measurement 193 – 4, 193        sudden death (sudden cardiac death)          relative vs. absolute measures 172
sleep apnea 294 –5                               232, 511–13                          scheduling 161–2
slow ramp testing protocols 186 –7          in absence of cardiovascular              speed and agility 173–8
smoking and respiratory disorders                disease 242, 300, 514–21             strength and power 163–73
         279                                cardiovascular causes 240–2, 241,      testosterone
sodium 56–7, 377, 379, 590 –1                    244, 245, 247, 249, 257, 299,        doping with 486, 493
solar urticaria 341                              511–14, 512, 565, 566                effects 90
Special Olympics 430, 442                   classification 511                         response to training 91
speed 5                                     definition and epidemiology 240         testosterone:cortisol ratio 146
   acceleration 5, 173                      genetic factors 565, 566               A-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
   definition 173                         sulfur dioxide 278, 448, 449                      496
   maximum 5, 173                        sun damage, skin 337                      therapeutic drugs 483 – 4
   testing 173 – 6                       sunscreen 337                                in anaphylaxis 516
speed-endurance 173, 174                 superimposed tetanic twitch                  banned 414
speed-strength 165                               technique 63                         causing headache 413, 413
spinal cord injury 505, 523 – 4, 523     supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)           causing muscle pain 219
   see also wheelchair athletes                  256                                  and chronic fatigue 212
spirometry in asthma 275                 sweating 451– 2, 453 –6, 458, 460, 469,      in epilepsy 423
splenic rupture 351                              476, 531                             therapeutic use exemptions 268,
sports, classification 233, 234           ‘swimmer’s ear’ 352 – 3                           281, 483, 484, 498, 498
sports drinks 456, 457, 459, 473, 475,   swimming                                     use in gastrointestinal symptoms
         591, 595                           and epilepsy 424                               370, 373
sports events, medical preparation          and exposure to pollutants 281         thermoregulation 450 – 66
         for 535 – 43                       and hypothermia 453                       in pregnancy 393 – 4
squamous cell carcinoma 337, 337            long-distance 47                          wheelchair athletes 437– 8
stagnation 8, 19, 21                     swimming-induced pulmonary                thyroid disease 309–14, 319
staleness 141                                    edema 274                         thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
   see also overtraining                 swimming pool granuloma 335–6                     309, 310
Staphylococcus aureus 334, 335           syncope 254–5, 417                        thyroxine (T4) 310
stimulants 484, 495 – 6                     convulsive 423                         tibolone 488–9
strength 4                                  post-exercise 460–1, 465, 507, 532     tidal volume (VT) 269
   eccentric 171, 172                       vasovagal 239, 254 –5                  time-to-exhaustion tests 188 – 9
   genetic factors 555                                                                in overtraining syndrome 149
   heritability 549, 550                 T helper lymphocytes 286–9, 345           tinea corporis gladiatorum 333
   maximal dynamic 170                   tachycardia                               tinea pedis 331–3, 332
   maximum 165, 166 – 9                    atrial 255–6                            tinea versicolor 333 – 4
610       index


tongue-jaw lift 505, 509                    for skill acquisition 32 – 42     ventilation, response to training
torsade de pointes 260                      specificity 8, 23–4                        105 – 6, 106
total body bone mineral content             speed 24                          ventilatory threshold 184 –5
         (TBBMC) 114                        and speed of movement 14          ventricular flutter/fibrillation 259,
total body workout 10                       stages 143                                514
total lung capacity (TLC) 269               starting 24                       ventricular tachycardia 258–9
training 1–2                                structure 24–5                    verrucae 331
   acquired intolerance 214 –15             tapering 29–30                    vertebral arterial dissection (VAD)
   adaptations see adaptations to           tempo 29                                  418 –19
         training                           total load 153                    viral infections
   aerobic 67                               unilateral vs. bilateral 75         central nervous system 361–2
   at altitude 96, 295, 447– 8              volume 13–14                        HIV 354–61, 357, 358, 360
   anaerobic 67                             window for adaptation 160–1,        skin 329–31
   basic errors 9                                161, 163                       systemic 350–2
   basic principles 6 – 9                transducer systems 164 – 5, 165      visually impaired athletes 431, 441–2
   biologic process 3 –4                 traumatic plantar urticaria 341      vital capacity (VC) 269
   cardiovascular response to 233 – 6    travel                               vitamin D receptors (VDRs) 556–7
   cross education 75                       and nutrition 596, 597            vitamins, absorption 366
   definition 1, 143                         and performance 466 –7            vomiting 370, 373, 462, 520
   and delayed onset muscle soreness     treadmills 182
         207                             tricuspid regurgitation 252 –3       warts 331
   diary/log 153                         tricuspid stenosis 253               water excretion 377– 8
   duration 7, 26–7                      triiodothyronine (T3) 310            water exercise
   endurance 21–32                       tryptophan (TRP) 61–3, 61              and hypothermia 470–2, 520
   errors in 148                         TUEs 268, 281, 483, 484, 498, 498      infection associated 352–3, 353
   and exercise-induced proteinuria      twin studies 285, 549                  in pregnancy 394–5, 400–1
         380–1                                                                water intoxication 378, 462, 477,
   frequency 7, 12–13, 25                ulnar nerve entrapment, wheelchair          477– 8, 534 – 5, 594
   goal-setting 22                              athletes 439                  weight
   and heart rate monitoring 30 –1       ultramarathon runners 451, 460–1       gain, during pregnancy 390–1
   heavy day/light day (hard             underperformance                       loss
         day/easy day) system 21,          assessment 220, 221, 222–3              during exercise 454, 473, 507
         29, 32                            etiology 211–15                         female athletes 406
   high intensity (speed                 undertraining 138                         guidelines for 582
         work/interval sessions) 27–9,   underwater weighing 192                   unsafe practices 581
         30                              unexplained underperformance           reaching an ideal level 580 – 4
   history of 2–3                               syndrome 144                  weight training 31
   HIV-infected athletes 359             upper body/lower body split            machine vs. free weights 11
   hot weather 24                               training program 10             for power 17
   immune responses to 345 – 6, 347      upper respiratory tract infection    Weil’s disease 352
   increased load 140                           (URTI) 145, 289–91, 293,      wheelchair athletes 430, 431, 435 – 40,
   intensified/strenuous 140                     347– 50, 349                         436, 438
   intensity 24                          urea, in overtraining syndrome 149   wind-chill factor 451
   limitations to 22– 4                  urethritis 362                       winter sports and respiratory
   load 27, 153                          urine                                       disorders 280
   maintenance 20–1                        effects of exercise on 378, 379    Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW)
   monotony 148                            samples 494, 499–500                      syndrome 255, 256–8,
   objectives 78–9                         water excretion in 377– 8                 257, 513
   periodization 8– 9, 18 –21            urticaria 339–41, 340                World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)
   recovery from 588 – 91                                                            482
   regularity 25                         vaccination 363                        prohibited list 483, 484
   resistance 9–21, 29                   vaginitis 362
   rest intervals 7– 8, 13               valvular heart disease 249–53        zafirlukast 283
   and risk of URTIs 348                 vasovagal syncope 239, 254–5         zeranol 488
   single set/multiple set 13 –14        venous return 99                     zilpaterol 488

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:9/26/2011
language:English
pages:12