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Timeline

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  • pg 1
									1817   First special education school in the United States, the American Asylum for the Education and Instructio
1840   Rhode Island passed a law mandating compulsory education for children
1870   Association of Instructors of the Blind and the American Association on Mental Deficiency Formed
1918   All States have compulsory education
1922   Council for Exceptional Children
1930   1930, in Peoria, Illinois, the first white cane ordinance gave individuals with blindness the right-of-way w
1931   The Bradley Home, the first psychiatric hospital for children in the United States, was established in Eas
1933   Cuyahoga Council for Retarded Citizens (The ARC)
1950   National Association for Retarded Citizens
1951   The first institution for research on exceptional children opened at the University of Illinois
1954   Brown vs Board of Education
1960   States start their own special Ed
1963   Association for Children with Learning Disabilities, organized in 1963
1964   Civil Rights Act
1965   Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
1965   Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1965
1966   Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1966
1968   Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1968
1970   Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1970
1972   Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) vs Pennsylvania
1972   Mills vs. District of Columbia Board of Education
1973   Rehabiliation Act
1974   Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1974
1975   Education for All Handicapped Children Act
1981   Espino vs. Besteiro (Cube within a classroom)
1982   Board of Education of Hendrick Hudsom Central School District vs Rowley (First
1983   Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1983
1983   Roncker vs. Walter (Critical Analysis of Segregated Placements)
1984   Hurry vs. Jones (Door to Door Transportation)
1984   Irving ISD vs. Tatro (Related Services)
1985   Aguilar vs. Felton
1986   Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1986
1986   Alama Heights ISD vs. State Board of Education (Year Round Services)
1986   Max M. vs. Illinios State Board of Education (Psychological Services and Counseling)
1987   A.W. vs. Northwest R-1 School District (Cost as a Consideration)
1988   Lachman vs. Illinios State Bd. Of Ed. (District Determines Methodology)
1988   Honig vs. Doe (Student Removal)
1989   Daniel R.R. vs. State Board of Education (SegregatedPlacement)
1989   Timothy W vs. Rochester, NH School District ("Zero Reject" Case)
1989   Hendricks vx. Gilhool (comparable facilities)
1990   Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1990
1990   Americans with Disabilitites Act
1990   EHA named changed to Individuals with Disabilities Act
1992   Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments 0f 1990
1993   Oberti and Rachel H. (Educating in regular classrooms & Holland Test)
1994   Parents of Student W. (Due Process Case-Ten Day Rule)
1995   Poolaw vs. Bishop (Programs tailored to individual child)
1996   Seattle School District, No. 1 vs. B.S. (placement of students)
1997   Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments 0f 1997
1999   Cedar Rapids Community School District vs. Garret F. (Nursing as a Related Service)
2001    No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
2001   President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education
2004   Assistive Technology Act
2004   Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act
m for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb (now called the American School for the Deaf), was established in H

 Mental Deficiency Formed


 with blindness the right-of-way when crossing the street
 d States, was established in East Providence, Rhode Island


University of Illinois




 d Counseling)
elated Service)
or the Deaf), was established in Hartford,
Kristen Barra
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE

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                                                                                                                                               The International Council for
                                                                                                                                               the Education of Exceptional                                                             Parental Advocacy Group
                                                                                                                                               Children is organized by a                                                               composed of five mothers of
                                  Rhode Island passed a law
First special education school in                                                            The American Association on                       group of administrators and      1930, in Peoria, Illinois,   The Bradley Home, the      children with mental
                                  mandating compulsory
the United States, the American                              The School for the Deaf and the Intellectual and Developmental                    supervisors attending the        the first white cane         first psychiatric          retardation who came in
                                  education for all children                                                                                                                                                                                                            ARC was founded in 1950. It           The first institution for
Asylum for the Education and                                 School for the Blind offer      Disabilities (AAIDD) (formerly By 1918 all States summer session at Teachers       ordinance gave               hospital for children in   Cuyahoga, Ohio to protest
                                  Compulsory education is                                                                                                                                                                                                               helped identify children with         research on exceptional
Instruction of the Deaf and                                  comprehensive educational       the American Association on    have mandated      College, Columbia                individuals with             the United States, was     their children's exclusion
                                  education which children                                                                                                                                                                                                              disabilities and mental retardation   children opened at the
Dumb (now called the American                                programs for hearing impaired Mental Retardation (AAMR) is compulsory education. University, and their faculty     blindness the right-of-      established in East        from public schools. Led to
                                  are required by law to                                                                                                                                                                                                                and bring them out of their houses.   University of Illinois.
School for the Deaf), was                                    and visually impaired students. formed to advocate for                            members on August 10,            way when crossing the        Providence, Rhode          the establishment of a
                                  receive and governments
established in Hartford.                                                                     handicapped people's rights.                      1922. The Council begins         street.                      Island.                    special class for their
                                  to provide.
                                                                                                                                               with 12 members. Elizabeth                                                               children, even though the
                                                                                                                                               E. Farrell was the Founder                                                               parents sponsored the class.
                                                                                                                                               and first President, 1922‑26.
                              Kristen Barra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE




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                              1954                           1960                            1963                                 1964                                 1965                                          1966                                1968                                  1970                                1972




                              In this milestone decision
                                                                                                                                                                       President Johnson's legislative plan
                              the Supreme Court ruled                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              *Pennsylvania Association for Retarded
                                                                                                                                                                       termed, "War on Poverty". As Daniel                                                                                     Revised statement of purpose to
                              that separating children in                                                                                                                                                            Transferred authority from the                                                                                Children, along with parents of children with
                                                                                                                                                                       Schugurensky states the act "was                                                                                        include adults who had attained
                              public schools on the                                                                                                                                                                  Director of OEO to the U.S.                                                                                   mild to severe disabilities, sued the state and
                                                                                                                                                                       developed under the principle of                                                                                        age 16 and had not graduated
                              basis of race                                                                                                                                                                          Commissioner of Education                                                                                     won their case to establish a free appropriate
                                                                                             Parents first joined forces at a                                          redress, which established that children                                                                                from high school, State allotment
                              unconstitutional. It                                                                                                                                                                   (Department of Health, Education    $100,000 was provided as the                                              education for all children with mental
                                                          In the 1960s states start          national conference held in         Made discrimination based on          from low-income homes required more                                                                                     base raised to $150,000, Special
                              signaled the end of                                                                                                                                                                    and Welfare) Not less than 10       base for the state allotment and                                          retardation between the ages the ages of 6
                                                          setting up their own special       Chicago in 1963. There they         race, religion, sex, national origin, educational services" The act proved to                                                                                 emphasis given to adult basic
                              legalized racial                                                                                                                                                                       percent nor more than 20 percent    Private non-profit agencies added                                         and 21 in Pennsylvania. *The Mills suit
                                                          education programs.                formed the Association for          and other characteristics illegal     be a catalyst for future educational                                                                                    education, Presidentially
                              segregation in the schools                                                                                                                                                             reserved for special projects and   as eligible local grant recipients.                                       brought on behalf of over 18,000 children in
                                                                                             Children with Learning Disabilities                                       legislation. A few of the pivotal acts that                                                                             appointed National Advisory
                              of the United States,                                                                                                                                                                  teacher training (Sections 309 b                                                                              the District, based on the 14th amendment
                                                                                                                                                                       derived from the ESEA include the                                                                                       Council on Adult Education
                              overruling the "separate                                                                                                                                                               and c) National Advisory Council                                                                              and claimed that children with disabilities were
                                                                                                                                                                       Individuals with Disabilities Education                                                                                 established, 5 percent
                              but equal" principle set                                                                                                                                                               on Adult Education established.                                                                               excluded from public education without due
                                                                                                                                                                       Act, the Bilingual Education Act, and the                                                                               administrative cost authorized.
                              forth in the 1896 Plessy v.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          process.
                                                                                                                                                                       Goals 2000: Educate America Act.
                              Ferguson case.
                     Kristen Barra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE
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                     1973                               1974                                          1975                                     1981                          1982                                 1983                                                     1984                               1985                                 1986




                                                                                                                                                                            In the Rowley case the court
                     The Rehabilitation Act prohibits                                                 “specific learning disabilities” was
                                                                                                                                                                            ruled "once a court determines        *The title of the act was changed by amendments                                             New York City uses federal funds
                     discrimination on the basis of     Community school program was added,           recognized and added as a new                                                                                                                                        *Hurry- Door to Door
                                                                                                                                                                            that the requirments of the act       in 1983 This law allows for federal funding to                                              received under the Title I
                     disability in programs conducted   State allotment revised, State plan           disability category in The Education                                                                                                                                 transportation. State must give
                                                                                                                                                                            have been met, questions of           create parent training and information centers                                              program of the Elementary and
                     by Federal agencies, in programs   expanded to include institutionalized         for All Handicapped Children Act of      Cube within a classroom-                                                                                                    free door to door transportation                                        *In 1986, an amendment to the EHA, extended the purpose of EHA to
                                                                                                                                                                            methodology are for the               (PIC) so that parents could learn how to protect                                            Secondary Education Act of
                     receiving Federal financial        adults, Cap on adult secondary education      1975. the EAHCA was intended to          U.S. District concluded that                                                                                                service to the education                                                include children ages 0-5 and included: To extend the guarantee to a
                                                                                                                                                                            resolution by the state." Parents     the rights that PL 94-142 guarantees their child.                                           1965 to pay the salaries of public
                     assistance, in Federal             at 20 percent, Provided for bilingual adult   provide administrators with proof of     placement in a "cube" was                                                                                                   program he is enrolled.                                                 Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) to children with
                                                                                                                                                                            do not have a right to compel a       PL 98-199 also provided financial incentives to                                             school employees who teach in
                     employment, and in the             education, 15 percent for special projects    compliance, teachers with formalized     not the maximum extent                                                                                                      *Irving- Related Services.                                              disabilities, ages 3-5. To establish Early Intervention Programs (EIP)
                                                                                                                                                                            school district to provide specific   expand services for children from birth to age 3                                            parochial schools in the city.
                     employment practices of Federal    and teacher training, Special projects for    plans, parents with a voice, and         appropriate to achieve peer                                                                                                 Medical Services are only                                               for infants and toddlers with disabilities, ages 0-2. To develop an
                                                                                                                                                                            programs. The Rowley case is          and the initiatives for transition services from                                            That program authorized federal
                     contractors. The standards for     the elderly, State advisory councils could    students with an appropriate             interaction not was the                                                                                                     excluded if they have to be                                             Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) for each family with an
                                                                                                                                                                            often cited by school districts for   school to adult living for students with disabilities.                                      financial assistance to local
                     determining employment             be established and maintained, National       education. Along with assurances of      placement to the maximum                                                                                                    administred by hospital or                                              infant/toddler with disabilities.                           *Alama
                                                                                                                                                                            the general proposition that the      *Critical Analysis of Segregated Placements-                                                educational institutions to meet
                     discrimination under the           Advisory Council on Adult Education to        nondiscriminatory evaluation,            extent practicable.                                                                                                         physcian. Developed two-step                                            Heights ISD vs. State Board of Education (Year Round Services) The
                                                                                                                                                                            school district or municipality       "Roncker Test" whether segregated placement                                                 the needs of educationally
                     Rehabilitation Act are the same    include limited English-speaking              individualized educational planning,                                                                                                                                 analysis to determine related                                           School District is required to provide a "free appropriate public
                                                                                                                                                                            need not provide "optimum"            could be modified and provided in a mainstream                                              deprived children from low-
                     as those used in title I of the    members.                                      and education in the least restrictive                                                                                                                               services.                                                               education." The some-educational-benefit standard does not mean
                                                                                                                                                                            services, and need only provide       classroom.                                                                                  income families.
                     Americans with Disabilities Act.                                                 environment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  that the requirements of the Act are satisfied so long as a handicapped
                                                                                                                                                                            services which are "appropriate."
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   child's progress, absent summer services, is not brought "to a virtual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   standstill." Rather, if a child will experience severe or substantial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   regression during the summer months in the absence of a summer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   program, the handicapped child may be entitled to year-round
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   services.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   *Max M. vs. Illinois State Board of Education (Psychological Services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   and Counseling) The district court opinion dealt with the substantive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   issue of whether “psychotherapy” was a related service. The holding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   was in the affirmative, along the lines of the Garret F. case. The court
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   simply asked whether the service was capable of being delivered by a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   non-physician; answer was yes. The district had to reimburse the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   parents at the cost level of a non-physician.
Kristen Barra                                                                                                                                                     Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE




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                                                                                       1989                                 1990                                  1993                                1994                          1995



                                                                                                                                                                                                      Parents of Student W.-
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Due Process: Ten Day
                                                                                       *Daniel R.R- When segregated
                                                     *Lachman-District Determines                                                                                                                     Rule. When a student
                                                                                       placement is appropriate.
                                                     Methodology. School System                                                                                                                       poses a potential threat to
                                                                                       Determines the least restrictive     EHA named changed to Individuals Oberti and Rachel H. (Educating in
                                                     didn't want to place student in                                                                                                                  others he may be
                                                                                       environment.                         with Disabilities Act (IDEA). It     regular classrooms) The central                                    Poolaw- Requirment
A.W. vs. Northwest R-1 School District (Cost as a mainstream classroom. Court                                                                                                                         suspended for up to 10
                                                                                       *"Zero Rejection" States must give   guarantees equal opportunity for     issue in this case concerns the                                    that schools provide
Consideration) Congress provided limited             quotes Rowley case- question                                                                                                                     days. When suspension
                                                                                       free appropriate public education    individuals with disabilities in     appropriateness of an IEP which                                    individualized programs
resources to the states to implement the policy of   of methodology are ruled by                                                                                                                      totals more than 10 days
                                                                                       and doesn't ask any level of         employment, public                   recommended placement of the                                       tailored to the needs of
educating all disabled students, and the sufficiency the state.                                                                                                                                       constitute a change in
                                                                                       achievement be derived from          accommodations, transportation,      child in a "segregated" program                                    each child with
of that education must be evaluated in light of the *Honig v. Doe "stay put"                                                                                                                          placement. Also, schools
                                                                                       individual's education.              State and local government services, outside the child's "home" district.                               disabilities must be
available resources                                  provision prohibits schools                                                                                                                      will have to judge whether
                                                                                       *Hendricks- Comparable facilities.   and telecommunications.              Cases are proponets of the least                                   balanced.
                                                     from excluding students from                                                                                                                     handicapping condition is
                                                                                       Special Education classrooms have                                         restrictive environment.
                                                     classrooms for misconduct that                                                                                                                   the cause and if so
                                                                                       to be comparable facilities to
                                                     is due their disability.                                                                                                                         whether the studen'ts
                                                                                       regular classrooms.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      current program and
                                                                                                                                                                                                      placement is appropriate.
                     Kristen Barra
                                                                                                                                       Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE




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                     1996                                                                  1997                                        1999                          2001                                           2004

                                                                                          *This most recent legislation to address
                                                                                          students with disabilities amends and
                                                                                          reauthorizes IDEA. One change was
                                                                                          parent participation. Parents‟ right to be
                     *Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 mandates          involved in decision making was                                          On October 3, 2001, President George Bush
                     that telecommunications equipment and services - including cell significantly expanded-Prior to IDEA                                          established a Commission on Excellence in
                     phones and plans - are provided so that someone with a disability „97, parents were only guaranteed to be                                     Special Education to collect information and
                                                                                                                                       Cedar Rapids- Nursing as a
                     can use them.                                                        part of the group that developed their                                   study issues related to Federal, State, and
                                                                                                                                       related service. Medical                                                     The "Tech Act," as it is
                     *Seattle School District, No. 1 vs. B.S. (placement of students)     child‟s IEP. However, with IDEA „97                                      local special education programs with the goal
                                                                                                                                       services are those services                                                  sometimes called, funds 56
                     Whether the District failed to provide FAPE. The facts at hearing Congress further strengthened and                                           of recommending policies for improving the
                                                                                                                                       of a physician. Services                                                     state programs designed to
                     support a finding that the IEP as developed on April 17, 2003        specified parents‟ role in their child‟s                                 education performance of students with
                                                                                                                                       that can be provided in                                                      address the assistive
                     contained measurable goals in the areas of math, interpersonal       IEP.                                                                     disabilities. On January 8, 2002, President
                                                                                                                                       school by a nurse or                                                         technology needs of individuals
                     skill, and study skills. The Parent agreed at hearing that the goals *Due to the child's dependence on a                                      George Bush signed the No Child Left Behind
                                                                                                                                       layperson are not excluded                                                   with disabilities.
                     were measurable. Parent‟s arguments to the contrary in closing       ventilator, tracheostomy, and                                            Act (NCLB). This act reauthorized and
                                                                                                                                       medical services.
                     arguments were not persuasive. The District met its burden to        gastrostomy, a pediatric nurse was                                       amended federal education programs
                     state measurable goals in the areas identified as necessary for      required to suction airways, administer                                  established under the Elementary and
                     the Student to receive FAPE.                                         medication, and monitor portable life-                                   Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965
                                                                                          support equipment. A federal district
                                                                                          court ordered the school district to bear
                                                                                          the cost of a "qualified" individual to
                                                                                          provide the needed health services




                     *Fulgrini The court especially focused on the tracheostomy tube,
                     which required constant monitoring and clearing of mucus. At first,
                     the public school provided a full-time nurse to provide services to
                     Carissa while at school.The school determined that it was not
                     required by law the services due to their "medical nature." The
                     Court ruled the school wasn't required under IDEA to provide
                     medical services to the student.

								
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