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1817 First special education school in the United States, the American Asylum for the Education and Instructio 1840 Rhode Island passed a law mandating compulsory education for children 1870 Association of Instructors of the Blind and the American Association on Mental Deficiency Formed 1918 All States have compulsory education 1922 Council for Exceptional Children 1930 1930, in Peoria, Illinois, the first white cane ordinance gave individuals with blindness the right-of-way w 1931 The Bradley Home, the first psychiatric hospital for children in the United States, was established in Eas 1933 Cuyahoga Council for Retarded Citizens (The ARC) 1950 National Association for Retarded Citizens 1951 The first institution for research on exceptional children opened at the University of Illinois 1954 Brown vs Board of Education 1960 States start their own special Ed 1963 Association for Children with Learning Disabilities, organized in 1963 1964 Civil Rights Act 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1965 1966 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1966 1968 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1968 1970 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1970 1972 Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) vs Pennsylvania 1972 Mills vs. District of Columbia Board of Education 1973 Rehabiliation Act 1974 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1974 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1981 Espino vs. Besteiro (Cube within a classroom) 1982 Board of Education of Hendrick Hudsom Central School District vs Rowley (First 1983 Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1983 1983 Roncker vs. Walter (Critical Analysis of Segregated Placements) 1984 Hurry vs. Jones (Door to Door Transportation) 1984 Irving ISD vs. Tatro (Related Services) 1985 Aguilar vs. Felton 1986 Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1986 1986 Alama Heights ISD vs. State Board of Education (Year Round Services) 1986 Max M. vs. Illinios State Board of Education (Psychological Services and Counseling) 1987 A.W. vs. Northwest R-1 School District (Cost as a Consideration) 1988 Lachman vs. Illinios State Bd. Of Ed. (District Determines Methodology) 1988 Honig vs. Doe (Student Removal) 1989 Daniel R.R. vs. State Board of Education (SegregatedPlacement) 1989 Timothy W vs. Rochester, NH School District ("Zero Reject" Case) 1989 Hendricks vx. Gilhool (comparable facilities) 1990 Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1990 1990 Americans with Disabilitites Act 1990 EHA named changed to Individuals with Disabilities Act 1992 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments 0f 1990 1993 Oberti and Rachel H. (Educating in regular classrooms & Holland Test) 1994 Parents of Student W. (Due Process Case-Ten Day Rule) 1995 Poolaw vs. Bishop (Programs tailored to individual child) 1996 Seattle School District, No. 1 vs. B.S. (placement of students) 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments 0f 1997 1999 Cedar Rapids Community School District vs. Garret F. (Nursing as a Related Service) 2001 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 2001 President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education 2004 Assistive Technology Act 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act m for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb (now called the American School for the Deaf), was established in H Mental Deficiency Formed with blindness the right-of-way when crossing the street d States, was established in East Providence, Rhode Island University of Illinois d Counseling) elated Service) or the Deaf), was established in Hartford, Kristen Barra Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE Special Education n l he ta d re on de en of t ld of ry h ar M hi b on ce n rc o Du tru e rs et lC ls on s th r e ea n m cti r to rR pu na ns fo n na ld s a n In r n c tio af nd fo hi re om fo di ru tio ze n io iti tio a or st l c for De n a lum pt e il ia uc C c om C ia In e y oc ne un n g Ed xc na n d oc o y io in of H nc s ca io io ns Co th ati As d E ie As de s a t at y pt tut ey d ion ar As te or or uc nd ze a uc n dl ef an ce t i hi lf iti g ls lin t E d r ic a et l Ed Ma ex ins B ci a ra R na C ho tw pu D ric i nc B io o ic a e w om t e rs ou uy ss rs e Am m at e La Th Fi Fi A A C C C N 1817 1840 1870 1886 1918 1922 1930 1931 1933 1950 1951 The International Council for the Education of Exceptional Parental Advocacy Group Children is organized by a composed of five mothers of Rhode Island passed a law First special education school in The American Association on group of administrators and 1930, in Peoria, Illinois, The Bradley Home, the children with mental mandating compulsory the United States, the American The School for the Deaf and the Intellectual and Developmental supervisors attending the the first white cane first psychiatric retardation who came in education for all children ARC was founded in 1950. It The first institution for Asylum for the Education and School for the Blind offer Disabilities (AAIDD) (formerly By 1918 all States summer session at Teachers ordinance gave hospital for children in Cuyahoga, Ohio to protest Compulsory education is helped identify children with research on exceptional Instruction of the Deaf and comprehensive educational the American Association on have mandated College, Columbia individuals with the United States, was their children's exclusion education which children disabilities and mental retardation children opened at the Dumb (now called the American programs for hearing impaired Mental Retardation (AAMR) is compulsory education. University, and their faculty blindness the right-of- established in East from public schools. Led to are required by law to and bring them out of their houses. University of Illinois. School for the Deaf), was and visually impaired students. formed to advocate for members on August 10, way when crossing the Providence, Rhode the establishment of a receive and governments established in Hartford. handicapped people's rights. 1922. The Council begins street. Island. special class for their to provide. with 12 members. Elizabeth children, even though the E. Farrell was the Founder parents sponsored the class. and first President, 1922‑26. Kristen Barra Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE Ed at t n uc ric d on io of of of ze n rd vs s. l Ed ist B ill RC r or ith ia tio bi & (PA n fo ni ts ts ts h oa s ) v ec A ry dm y dm y dm y of . D n rc s, w ga en en en ca en ar en ar en ar t s SE d a Sp r e ea io tie n )& du m d m d m d ili dre ol n e at en t (E con A on A on A on ld s n hi re E C lva ldr ci ow c c c ab il of of sy hi sso dm Ac Se A Se A Se A Se 63 is Ch l c for M um ia n ir rd en n d 66 on nd 68 on nd 70 on nd C A ct he na n 19 g D or oa m o n ct ct ct io io A Pe rde nia in nin n f A ati y a 19 ati y a 19 ati y a 19 ati y a tt pt tut .B a s ar ar tio a ht uc tar uc tar uc tar uc tar ce st i vs et lv nn d St ig Le cia E d en E d en E d en E d en R sy n n lR es w o nn em em em em a at ss i ro iv Pe ex St El El El El B A C 1954 1960 1963 1964 1965 1966 1968 1970 1972 In this milestone decision President Johnson's legislative plan the Supreme Court ruled *Pennsylvania Association for Retarded termed, "War on Poverty". As Daniel Revised statement of purpose to that separating children in Transferred authority from the Children, along with parents of children with Schugurensky states the act "was include adults who had attained public schools on the Director of OEO to the U.S. mild to severe disabilities, sued the state and developed under the principle of age 16 and had not graduated basis of race Commissioner of Education won their case to establish a free appropriate Parents first joined forces at a redress, which established that children from high school, State allotment unconstitutional. It (Department of Health, Education $100,000 was provided as the education for all children with mental In the 1960s states start national conference held in Made discrimination based on from low-income homes required more base raised to $150,000, Special signaled the end of and Welfare) Not less than 10 base for the state allotment and retardation between the ages the ages of 6 setting up their own special Chicago in 1963. There they race, religion, sex, national origin, educational services" The act proved to emphasis given to adult basic legalized racial percent nor more than 20 percent Private non-profit agencies added and 21 in Pennsylvania. *The Mills suit education programs. formed the Association for and other characteristics illegal be a catalyst for future educational education, Presidentially segregation in the schools reserved for special projects and as eligible local grant recipients. brought on behalf of over 18,000 children in Children with Learning Disabilities legislation. A few of the pivotal acts that appointed National Advisory of the United States, teacher training (Sections 309 b the District, based on the 14th amendment derived from the ESEA include the Council on Adult Education overruling the "separate and c) National Advisory Council and claimed that children with disabilities were Individuals with Disabilities Education established, 5 percent but equal" principle set on Adult Education established. excluded from public education without due Act, the Bilingual Education Act, and the administrative cost authorized. forth in the 1896 Plessy v. process. Goals 2000: Educate America Act. Ferguson case. Kristen Barra Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE at t of x . n uc ric vs D ick rd Ma t io of d d Ed . Il d o eig en ped ic rd vs s. te ion s. Ed ist e . W en e B ill RC r te of at ois du IS of D tr ol dr pp vs dm app ts oa s ) v n Sta cat D v oa & IS is of . D dm y s r H m p ho en al ts uc lin f E hts ts en en ar ca d a g er en ic M B ma en dic r Sc f H m d in di ck m nd A on Irv an at Al Am an le tral n o B on A a c ro ct ll H R ct ll H St & ct ll H A Se M ow en tio & ct n i te to A s 74 on nd n rA 83 n A r A 86 n A r A . R C ca es ne el ct n vs on du 19 ati y a re fo 19 re fo 19 re fo tio .F .B a o Jo y e a s E A ld n ld n ld n vs uc tar ta vs . v oa t r s. hi o hi o hi o io ud f ili H do C ati C ati C ati E d en Ta y v r no ab ila uc uc uc em r pi r gu eh oa ur Ed Ed Ed Es El R B H A 1973 1974 1975 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 In the Rowley case the court The Rehabilitation Act prohibits “specific learning disabilities” was ruled "once a court determines *The title of the act was changed by amendments New York City uses federal funds discrimination on the basis of Community school program was added, recognized and added as a new *Hurry- Door to Door that the requirments of the act in 1983 This law allows for federal funding to received under the Title I disability in programs conducted State allotment revised, State plan disability category in The Education transportation. State must give have been met, questions of create parent training and information centers program of the Elementary and by Federal agencies, in programs expanded to include institutionalized for All Handicapped Children Act of Cube within a classroom- free door to door transportation *In 1986, an amendment to the EHA, extended the purpose of EHA to methodology are for the (PIC) so that parents could learn how to protect Secondary Education Act of receiving Federal financial adults, Cap on adult secondary education 1975. the EAHCA was intended to U.S. District concluded that service to the education include children ages 0-5 and included: To extend the guarantee to a resolution by the state." Parents the rights that PL 94-142 guarantees their child. 1965 to pay the salaries of public assistance, in Federal at 20 percent, Provided for bilingual adult provide administrators with proof of placement in a "cube" was program he is enrolled. Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) to children with do not have a right to compel a PL 98-199 also provided financial incentives to school employees who teach in employment, and in the education, 15 percent for special projects compliance, teachers with formalized not the maximum extent *Irving- Related Services. disabilities, ages 3-5. To establish Early Intervention Programs (EIP) school district to provide specific expand services for children from birth to age 3 parochial schools in the city. employment practices of Federal and teacher training, Special projects for plans, parents with a voice, and appropriate to achieve peer Medical Services are only for infants and toddlers with disabilities, ages 0-2. To develop an programs. The Rowley case is and the initiatives for transition services from That program authorized federal contractors. The standards for the elderly, State advisory councils could students with an appropriate interaction not was the excluded if they have to be Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) for each family with an often cited by school districts for school to adult living for students with disabilities. financial assistance to local determining employment be established and maintained, National education. Along with assurances of placement to the maximum administred by hospital or infant/toddler with disabilities. *Alama the general proposition that the *Critical Analysis of Segregated Placements- educational institutions to meet discrimination under the Advisory Council on Adult Education to nondiscriminatory evaluation, extent practicable. physcian. Developed two-step Heights ISD vs. State Board of Education (Year Round Services) The school district or municipality "Roncker Test" whether segregated placement the needs of educationally Rehabilitation Act are the same include limited English-speaking individualized educational planning, analysis to determine related School District is required to provide a "free appropriate public need not provide "optimum" could be modified and provided in a mainstream deprived children from low- as those used in title I of the members. and education in the least restrictive services. education." The some-educational-benefit standard does not mean services, and need only provide classroom. income families. Americans with Disabilities Act. environment that the requirements of the Act are satisfied so long as a handicapped services which are "appropriate." child's progress, absent summer services, is not brought "to a virtual standstill." Rather, if a child will experience severe or substantial regression during the summer months in the absence of a summer program, the handicapped child may be entitled to year-round services. *Max M. vs. Illinois State Board of Education (Psychological Services and Counseling) The district court opinion dealt with the substantive issue of whether “psychotherapy” was a related service. The holding was in the affirmative, along the lines of the Garret F. case. The court simply asked whether the service was capable of being delivered by a non-physician; answer was yes. The district had to reimburse the parents at the cost level of a non-physician. Kristen Barra Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE f t& O A s w en ed l oo d. vs Sch W of ric f ith ts o p B h G o l s. y rd tie ca d ap oo ist Sc oe tate o v ic NH th oa ili eri en ic ilh D -1 ab m m nd dr r, mo B l n m .D S . W tR . en te Ti te is A A a H vs is D & ct ll H nt p H es & ta es ig ino l he ho de S w 90 n A r A ct on Ill ac is oc o s. t rth .. tu .B R ati . v H s. 19 re fo R S tr No s v d uc .R of vs h n ld n ks .& n an hi o E d el R is . Ed m a ts C ati D vs w ic i n a rt uc ch . i re ol be .W an Ed Po Pa La O A 1987 1988 D 1989 1990 1993 1994 1995 Parents of Student W.- Due Process: Ten Day *Daniel R.R- When segregated *Lachman-District Determines Rule. When a student placement is appropriate. Methodology. School System poses a potential threat to Determines the least restrictive EHA named changed to Individuals Oberti and Rachel H. (Educating in didn't want to place student in others he may be environment. with Disabilities Act (IDEA). It regular classrooms) The central Poolaw- Requirment A.W. vs. Northwest R-1 School District (Cost as a mainstream classroom. Court suspended for up to 10 *"Zero Rejection" States must give guarantees equal opportunity for issue in this case concerns the that schools provide Consideration) Congress provided limited quotes Rowley case- question days. When suspension free appropriate public education individuals with disabilities in appropriateness of an IEP which individualized programs resources to the states to implement the policy of of methodology are ruled by totals more than 10 days and doesn't ask any level of employment, public recommended placement of the tailored to the needs of educating all disabled students, and the sufficiency the state. constitute a change in achievement be derived from accommodations, transportation, child in a "segregated" program each child with of that education must be evaluated in light of the *Honig v. Doe "stay put" placement. Also, schools individual's education. State and local government services, outside the child's "home" district. disabilities must be available resources provision prohibits schools will have to judge whether *Hendricks- Comparable facilities. and telecommunications. Cases are proponets of the least balanced. from excluding students from handicapping condition is Special Education classrooms have restrictive environment. classrooms for misconduct that the cause and if so to be comparable facilities to is due their disability. whether the studen'ts regular classrooms. current program and placement is appropriate. Kristen Barra Special Education HISTORICAL TIMELINE l oo ic . R o 6 n bl i v t, N 99 J. it Sc ox . 1 tio . 70 ity f ch 9 Un ol ry M o. un s 0 Pu init tric f 1 ca ho bu ct . yS ov bi & lE n is C d s en e s t N m nt Sp iss t & o ia o D n en tie tA du pr isa ct s v. em liti hi ulg Dis ct e t F it ec ion c ol rto m ili tr om m Im D A re un A e mm A ho Mo t A sab y w & oo ns nc o ind ar m io it og G m p To .S. ch tio Sc & Ac Di at s w ol lle s C h ho s. Co ns F l ce nt' Be uc al hn . B le ica 97 on ith n h is ic tv s Ed idu Tec in 19 ati s w Ex ide eft vs att un .B ic id S tr ap es d L Se m vs uc al p di e & com Ed idu D rR In stiv Pr hil wa a C v v ol i le ed ss di is o Po Te In C N A 1996 1997 1999 2001 2004 *This most recent legislation to address students with disabilities amends and reauthorizes IDEA. One change was parent participation. Parents‟ right to be *Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 mandates involved in decision making was On October 3, 2001, President George Bush that telecommunications equipment and services - including cell significantly expanded-Prior to IDEA established a Commission on Excellence in phones and plans - are provided so that someone with a disability „97, parents were only guaranteed to be Special Education to collect information and Cedar Rapids- Nursing as a can use them. part of the group that developed their study issues related to Federal, State, and related service. Medical The "Tech Act," as it is *Seattle School District, No. 1 vs. B.S. (placement of students) child‟s IEP. However, with IDEA „97 local special education programs with the goal services are those services sometimes called, funds 56 Whether the District failed to provide FAPE. The facts at hearing Congress further strengthened and of recommending policies for improving the of a physician. Services state programs designed to support a finding that the IEP as developed on April 17, 2003 specified parents‟ role in their child‟s education performance of students with that can be provided in address the assistive contained measurable goals in the areas of math, interpersonal IEP. disabilities. On January 8, 2002, President school by a nurse or technology needs of individuals skill, and study skills. The Parent agreed at hearing that the goals *Due to the child's dependence on a George Bush signed the No Child Left Behind layperson are not excluded with disabilities. were measurable. Parent‟s arguments to the contrary in closing ventilator, tracheostomy, and Act (NCLB). This act reauthorized and medical services. arguments were not persuasive. The District met its burden to gastrostomy, a pediatric nurse was amended federal education programs state measurable goals in the areas identified as necessary for required to suction airways, administer established under the Elementary and the Student to receive FAPE. medication, and monitor portable life- Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 support equipment. A federal district court ordered the school district to bear the cost of a "qualified" individual to provide the needed health services *Fulgrini The court especially focused on the tracheostomy tube, which required constant monitoring and clearing of mucus. At first, the public school provided a full-time nurse to provide services to Carissa while at school.The school determined that it was not required by law the services due to their "medical nature." The Court ruled the school wasn't required under IDEA to provide medical services to the student.
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