Docstoc

presenter

Document Sample
presenter Powered By Docstoc
					             Promoting Social
           Emotional Competence


Individualized Intensive Interventions:
      Determining the Meaning of
         Challenging Behavior
                Module 3a
                    Agenda

• Introduction
• Challenging Behavior
• Overview of PBS
• Behavior Equation
• The Process of PBS, Building a Team
• Introduction to Functional Assessment
• Functional Assessment Observation
• Conducting Observations, Data to Collect
• Functional Assessment Interview
• Case Study Activity: Determining the Function
• Hypothesis Development
• Not Sure about The Hypothesis

                                                  2
       Learner Objectives

This workshop will teach you to:
• Define forms and function of communication and
  identify the behavioral mechanisms that
  contribute to viewing challenging behavior as
  communicative
• Describe methods that may be used to determine
  the function of challenging behavior
• Use interview and observation data to determine
  the communicative function of challenging
  behavior
• Develop a behavior hypothesis from functional
  assessment information


                                                    3
            Challenging Behavior

What we are referring to when we say
“challenging behavior” is:
    • Any repeated pattern of behavior that interferes with
      learning or engagement in pro-social interactions
      with peers and adults
    • Behaviors that are not responsive to the use of
      developmentally appropriate guidance procedures.
    • Prolonged tantrums, physical and verbal
      aggression, disruptive vocal and motor behavior
      (e.g., screaming, stereotypy), property destructions,
      self-injury, noncompliance, and withdrawal


                                                              4
Promoting Social Emotional Competence


                    Individualized
                      Intensive
                    Interventions



                Social Emotional
               Teaching Strategies



         Creating Supportive Environments



         Building Positive Relationships


                                            6
 Intensive Individualized
       Instruction

Intensive individualized instruction and
interventions are used with children who
have very persistent and severe
challenging behavior and do not respond
to the typical preventive practices, child
guidance procedures, or social emotional
teaching strategies that would normally
work with most children.



                                             7
       Old Way                 New Way

• General intervention for   • Intervention matched to
  all behavior problems        purpose of the behavior
• Intervention is reactive   • Intervention is proactive
• Focus on behavior          • Focus on teaching new
  reduction                    skills
• Quick Fix                  • Long term interventions




                                                       8
  Challenging Behavior
    Communicates

May be used to communicate a
message when a child does not
have language




                                9
  Challenging Behavior
    Communicates

May be used instead of language by
a child who has limited social skills
or has learned that challenging
behavior will result in meeting his or
her needs




                                         10
  Challenging Behavior


• Children engage in challenging
  behavior because “it works” for
  them.
• Challenging behavior results in the
  child gaining access to something
  (i.e., obtain) or avoiding something
  (i.e., escape).

                                         11
   Children Communicate
   a Variety of Messages
Forms of communication
  •Words
  •Sentences
  •Eye gaze
  •Pulling adult
  •Crying
  •Biting
  •Tantrums
  •?
  •?
                           12
     Children Communicate
     a Variety of Messages
Functions of communication
   –Request object, activity, person
   –Escape demands
   –Escape activity
   –Request help
   –Request social interaction
   –Comment
   –Request information
   –?
   –?

                                       13
               Evan


Evan is playing with Duplos. He tries to
attach a block to his stack of 3. He can‟t
quite get the blocks to connect. He looks
up at a teacher and begins fussing. He
holds the stack of blocks up, looks at the
blocks, and looks at the teacher. The
teacher helps him put the blocks together.



                                             14
              Shana


Shana is sitting in her high chair with
nothing on the tray. Her mother is
stirring her oatmeal. Shana begins
crying and bangs her head on the back
of the seat. Her mother says to her,
"It's not cool enough, honey, just a
minute." Shana stops crying when the
oatmeal is placed on her tray.


                                          15
              Christina


Christina wanders into the kitchen where
her mother is cooking. She looks around
the kitchen and at the tray of her high chair.
She moves to the refrigerator and looks at
her mom. She begins crying and reaching
toward the refrigerator. Her mother takes
out a bottle, warms it, and gives it to her.



                                                 16
                 Tim


Tim is riding a trike on the bike path. He
sees a child move to the sandbox where he
had just finished building a road-way. He
leaps off his trike and tackles the child. He
hits the child. A teacher comes over to
intervene. She comforts the child, and
scolds Tim. Tim goes to the sandbox and
continues construction on his road-way.


                                                17
                    Madison

Madison is in housekeeping, putting on high heels
and a hat. Emily moves into the area and selects a
purse from the dress-ups. Madison shouts “no” and
bites Emily. A teacher comes over, she asks
Madison to go to the thinking chair and takes Emily
to the bathroom to look at the bite. After 4 minutes,
Madison leaves the thinking chair and returns to
housekeeping. She grabs the purse Emily had
selected and continues to play. Emily leaves the
bathroom with the teacher and then begins an art
activity where the teacher is present.
                                                        18
                Kyra

Kyra sees three children playing with the
train set. She watches them carefully. She
grabs one of the trains and holds it. The
children call for a teacher. The teacher
comes over, asks about what happened,
and then prompts Kyra to ask to play. Kyra
complies and joins the group. The children
reluctantly allow her to join the group.


                                             19
  Trigger            Behavior       Maintaining
                                    Consequence



Joey is asked to Joey resists,     Teacher moves
come to circle.  cries, and hits   away from Joey
Teacher          teacher           and allows Joey
provides                           to select a
physical prompt                    different activity.
to move him to
group.




                                                         20
           Setting Event



Event that occurs at another time that
increases the likelihood the child will
have challenging behavior. Setting
events serve to “set the child up” to
have challenging behavior.




                                          21
Setting    Trigger       Behavior            Maintaining
Event                                       Consequence




          Quan           Quan moves         Child leaves
          approaches     his picture to     computer and
          computer and   indicate that he   Quan sits
          sees child     is next. Quan      down and
          working on     observes and       begins
          program.       waits for his      working.
                         turn.




                                                           22
  Setting         Trigger       Behavior           Maintaining
  Event                                           Consequence




Quan was up      Quan           Quan hits child   Child leaves
most the night   approaches     and pushes his    computer and
with an asthma   computer and   body on the       Quan sits
attack. He       sees child     child’s chair.    down and
arrives at       working on                       begins
school looking   program.                         working.
sleepy and
with dark
circles under
his eyes.




                                                                 23
                  Evan


Evan is playing with Duplos. He tries to attach
a block to his stack of 3. He can‟t quite get
the blocks to connect. He looks up at a
teacher and begins fussing. He holds the
stack of blocks up, looks at the blocks, and
looks at the teacher. The teacher helps him
put the blocks together.




                                                  24
                 Shana


Shana is sitting in her high chair with nothing
on the tray. Her mother is stirring her
oatmeal. Shana begins crying and bangs her
head on the back of the seat. Her mother
says to her, "It's not cool enough, honey, just
a minute." Shana stops crying when the
oatmeal is placed on her tray.




                                                  25
                Christina


Christina wanders into the kitchen where
her mother is cooking. She looks around
the kitchen and at the tray of her high chair.
She moves to the refrigerator and looks at
her mom. She begins crying and reaching
toward the refrigerator. Her mother takes
out a bottle, warms it, and gives it to her.




                                                 26
                  Tim


Tim is riding a trike on the bike path. He sees
a child move to the sandbox where he had
just finished building a road-way. He leaps off
his trike and tackles the child. He hits the
child. A teacher comes over to intervene.
She comforts the child, and scolds Tim. Tim
goes to the sandbox and continues
construction on his road-way.


                                                  27
                   Madison

Madison is in housekeeping, putting on high heels
and a hat. Emily moves into the area and selects a
purse from the dress-ups. Madison shouts “no” and
bites Emily. A teacher comes over, she asks
Madison to go to the thinking chair and takes Emily
to the bathroom to look at the bite. After 4 minutes,
Madison leaves the thinking chair and returns to
housekeeping. She grabs the purse Emily had
selected and continues to play. Emily leaves the
bathroom with the teacher and then begins an art
activity where the teacher is present.

                                                        28
                  Kyra


Kyra sees three children playing with the train
set. She watches them carefully. She grabs
one of the trains and holds it. The children
call for a teacher. The teacher comes over,
asks about what happened, and then prompts
Kyra to ask to play. Kyra complies and joins
the group. The children reluctantly allow her
to join the group.


                                                  29
       Process of Positive
        Behavior Support
Step 1: Establishing a team and
        identifying goals of intervention

Step 2: Gathering information (functional
        assessment)
Step 3: Developing hypotheses
Step 4: Designing behavior support plans
Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, and
         evaluating outcomes

                                            30
    Potential Team Members


•   Parents/Family
•   Teacher
•   Assisting Teacher/Paraprofessional
•   Therapists
•   Administrative Staff
•   Other




                                         31
       Process of Positive
        Behavior Support
Step 1: Establishing a team and identifying
        goals of intervention
Step 2: Gathering information (functional
        assessment)
Step 3: Developing hypotheses
Step 4: Designing behavior support plans
Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, and
        evaluating outcomes


                                              32
    Functional Assessment


A process for developing an
understanding of a person‟s challenging
behavior and, in particular, how the
behavior is governed by environmental
events.




                                          33
    Functional Assessment


• Observe the child in target routines and
  settings
• Collect data on child behavior, looking for
  situations that predict challenging behavior
  and that are linked with appropriate behavior
• Interview persons most familiar with the child
• Review records
• Click on link to review Jackson’s FAI
  H3a.4J.pdf



                                                   34
1   2   3

4   5   6

7   8   9

*   0   #

            35
 1      2      3
       ABC    DEF


 4      5      6
GHI    JKL    MNO


 7      8      9
PQRS   TUV    WXYZ


 *      0      #
TONE   OPER

                     36
 Name:               Observer:   Date:
                                 Time:
 General Context:


        •
Social Context:




Behavior Problem:




Social Reaction:


POSSIBLE FUNCTION:
                                         37
Observation Vignette #1
 Name: SEGMENT 1                    Observer:                  Date:
                                                               Time:
 General Context: Choice time


         •
Social Context: Playing alone in block play. Goes over to a group of
children playing.



Behavior Problem: Sticks out tongue and makes raspberry sound, hits boy,
scratches his shoulder.


Social Reaction: Boy yells at him, friend brings him a lizard, boy yells to
teacher.

POSSIBLE FUNCTION: Initiate social interaction/Join play
                                                                              39
Observation Vignette #2
Name: SEGMENT 2                    Observer:                           Date:
                                                                       Time:
General Context: Playground


Social Context: Playground play with 2 friends. Girl goes to basket and gets
              •
truck just like the other friend’s truck.



Behavior Problem: He tries to take her truck, shoves, pushes, and continues
tugging for toy.


Social Reaction: Gets toy for a second, continues to fight girl for toy , teacher
reprimands and carries him away.


POSSIBLE FUNCTION: Obtain the toy (same truck as “best friend’s”)
                                                                                    41
Observation Vignette #3
Name: SEGMENT 3                    Observer:                        Date:
                                                                    Time:
General Context: Computer


          •
Social Context: Brother is having a turn at the computer. Brother sits. Mom
Says, “1. Josh 2. Brendan.” Brendan says, “It’s Brendan’s turn.”


Behavior Problem: B. yells, falls to ground, pulls chair, kicks, cries.



Social Reaction: Josh protests, mother says, “Do you want me to carry you?”
B. says,“Carry me.” She carries him away.

POSSIBLE FUNCTION: Obtain computer/Adult attention                            43
Observation Vignette #4
Name: SEGMENT 4                   Observer:                      Date:
                                                                 Time:
General Context: Enter Library



         •
Social Context: Going into library. Mother says, “Let’s go inside.” Then she
counts down.


Behavior Problem: Drops to floor, resists moving, screams, kicks, tries to run,
drops, resists, screams, becomes “wet noodle.”


Social Reaction: Mother pulls him through doors then picks him up as he resists.


POSSIBLE FUNCTION: Escape/avoid going into the library (prolonged)
(and adult attention)
 CSEFEL                                                                           45
Observation Vignette #5
Name: SEGMENT 5                     Observer:                     Date:
                                                                  Time:
General Context: Circle with puppet


           •
Social Context: Teacher kisses children’s cheeks with puppet. Says, “Say
good-bye to MiMi” Teacher gets up to put away puppet.

Behavior Problem: Hitting self on head with fist, pull at shirt



Social Reaction: Adult says “Ryan, ready to dance? Want to dance Ryan?”
Goes and sits in her lap and is happy.


POSSIBLE FUNCTION: Adult attention
                                                                           47
Observation Vignette #6
Name: SEGMENT 6                    Observer:                          Date:
                                                                      Time:
General Context: Floor Play



            •
Social Context: Teacher brings him to the floor, sits him down, and then leaves.



Behavior Problem: Pulls shirt off one arm, hits head with fist, thrusts back, head
bangs.


Social Reaction: Teacher returns, helps him with getting shirt back on and then
hugs him.

POSSIBLE FUNCTION: Adult attention
                                                                                     49
Setting Event Data Collection




                                50
52
                              Activity Analysis
Child: Rachel
Routine/Activity: House Center
      Activity Description   Behavior Expectations         Problems

     Steps:                  1. Pick materials
     1. Select materials     that no one is using

                             2. Use materials
     2. Pretend in roles     appropriately

     3. Exchange             3. Don’t take from      3. Takes materials
     materials with          peer                    from others
     peers

     4. Follow peers’        4. Maintain             4. Ignores peers,
     lead or accept role     engagement              interferes in play
     assignment
     5. Clean-up             5. Put materials on
                             shelf in correct
                             area
                                                                          53
                              Activity Analysis
Child: Rachel
Routine/Activity: Snack
      Activity Description     Behavior Expectations            Problems
    Steps:
     1. Sit in chair          1. Stay in seat
                                                         2. Takes multiple
    2. Take food from         2. Take one item, wait
                                                         items, puts hand in
    plate when passed         for turn
                                                         bowl, grabs while plate
                                                         is passed
    3. Eat food on plate      3. Eat from own plate
                                                         3. Takes food from
                                                         other children’s plates
    4. Drink juice from own   4. Drink and put cup on
    cup                       table
                                                         5. Grabs food when she
    5. Ask for more food      5. Ask if using please
                                                         wants more
    6. Wipe face with         6. Use napkin, not
    napkin                    clothing

    7. Throw                  7. Clear place, throw in
    plate/cup/napkin away     trash
    when finished
                                                                                   54
        Everybody Helps


• Family collects data
• Collect data in ALL settings




                                 55
                “KIS”


“KIS it” (Keep It Simple) Create simple,
user-friendly forms to collect information
(e.g., rating scales, check sheets)




                                             56
   Home Observation Card


This card can be used by families when
doing observations




                                         57
Functional Assessment Interview


 • Define behavior (describe what you see)
 • Describe frequency and intensity
 • Explore possible setting events
 • Identify predictors
 • Identify maintaining consequences
 • Identify current communicative functions
 • Describe efficiency of the behavior
 • Describe previous efforts
 • Identify possible reinforcers

                                              58
Functional Assessment Interview


 Refer to sample of Jackson’s Functional
 Assessment Interview in handouts.




                                           59
          Working as a
       Collaborative Team


• Assign roles
• Determine agenda and time for
  meetings
• Ensure group participation through
  facilitation and participatory processes




                                             60
                   Roles
• Facilitator – person   • Reporter – person who
  who guides group in      shares group
  stating agenda, work     information, makes
  goals, time allocation   presentation
• Recorder – person who • Encourager – person
  writes down the          who provides feedback
  discussion               to group members
• Time Keeper – person • Jargon-buster – person
  who tracks time and      who asks the question
  warns when agenda        “what do you mean
  item is ending           when you say „gobbley-
                           gook‟” and helps the
                           group with
                           communicating clearly

                                                    61
Determining the Function of
   Challenging Behavior

• Assign roles
• Review child description
• Review observations
• Review interview
• Complete final page of interview
• Determine functions of problem behavior
• Report to group



                                            62
        Process of Positive
         Behavior Support
Step 1: Establishing a team and
            identifying goals of intervention
Step 2: Gathering information (functional
        assessment)
Step 3: Developing hypotheses
Step 4: Designing behavior support plans
Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, and
             evaluating outcomes

                                                63
       Hypothesis Statement



•   Description of the challenging behavior
•   Predictors of the challenging behavior
•   Purpose of the behavior
•   Maintaining consequences




                                              64
     Hypothesis Statement


Jackson avoids the demands of activities
that he finds difficult (structured language-
based activities, sharing objects,
interactive play) by resisting or
withdrawing. If pushed to participate,
Jackson will react by throwing objects,
screaming, or stating “shut up.” When he
resists, adults will often give up or allow
him to leave the activity.

                                                65
     Hypothesis Statement


Billy will use tantrums to request a social
interaction. Billy will initiate a chase game
or request to be held by pulling the adult‟s
hand or positioning the adult. If the adult
does not comply, Billy will cry loudly,
scream, and bring his hands to his face or
ears. Often the caregiver will comply with
his request or pick him up.


                                                66
     Hypothesis Statement

Marcia tantrums to escape moving to a
new activity. When she is asked to
transition from an activity (e.g., playing in
the sandbox) to another activity, she will
whine, cry, pretend to vomit, slap at the
adult, and scream. When she does this,
the adult lets her stay a little longer with
the original activity or picks her up kicking
and screaming.

                                                67
   Hypothesis Development


• Assign roles
• Review functions as determined by your
  case study group
• Write hypothesis statement on overhead or
  chart paper
• Present to group




                                              68
Not Sure about the Hypothesis?

• What would make the challenging behavior
  stop? Is it something you would provide or
  allow the child access to? Or is it something to
  remove or allow the child to leave?
• If still unsure, collect more data in the same
  context
• Some challenging behaviors may have the
  same form, but serve multiple functions
• Some problem behaviors may begin around
  one function (e.g., escape) and continue to
  access something additional (e.g., attention)

                                                     69
             Summary


• Challenging behavior has meaning for
  the child
• The function of challenging behavior is
  defined by the context
• Functional assessment is the formal
  process for determining the why (i.e.,
  function) of challenging behavior


                                            70

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:6
posted:9/26/2011
language:English
pages:70