Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park

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					Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park

Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park has long been known as a plasma
warehouse-cum flora, and fauna, as well as a representative ecosystem of
the mountains of East Java province that serves as a life support system
of protected areas, biodiversity preservation and sustainable use of
biological resources and ecosystem

There are so many natural phenomena which is a spectacular natural
phenomena such as the existence of rock massif of the Tengger Mountains,
where in the middle of the caldera appear five pieces of the mountain,
the Mount Widodaren (2,600 m.dpl), Mount Watangan (2.601m.dpl), Mt Kursi
(2.581m.dpl), Mount Batok (m.dpl 2470), and Mount Bromo (2392 m.dpl).
Among the five mountain which is still active Mount Bromo which is only

Mount Bromo is a sacred site as a place melangsungkannya annual ritual
that has been carried down through the generations Tengger people who
inhabit and dominate the surrounding national park

National Park Nature Conservation Area is having a native ecosystems and
managed by the zoning system is utilized for the purpose of protecting
habitat, research, science, education, culture, tourism and recreation
(Forestry Law No.. 41, 1999)
Bromo Tengger Semeru area set into the forest area based on the decision
of the Minister of Agriculture. 736/Mentan/X/1982 dated October 14, 1982
with a total area of ??58,000 hectares.
Then in 1997 determined to be a National Park by Decree of the Minister
of Forestry. 278/Kpts-VI/1997 dated May 23, 1997 with a total area of
??50,276.3 hectares, consisting of 50,266.05 acres of land and 10.25
acres of waters (lakes)
Located in Malang, Pasuruan, Probolinggo, East Java province and Lumajang
with the geographic location of 112 º 47 '- 113 º 10' East Longitude and
07 º 51 '- 08 º 11' LS

PHYSICAL STATE AREA

The area of ??Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park as a whole is a volcanic
area, so the geological formation consists of volcanic activity the young
quarter, and the old quarter volcano with a composition of 20% and 80%.
Rock type region consists of gray sand / intermediate volcanic tuff up to
the base (with physiographic volcanic), the association andosol regosol
gray and gray (with the parent material ash / sand), and tuff intermedia
to the base. The shape of this geological structure produces no solid
rock and not strong grain bonding, making it easily eroded, especially in
the rainy season.

Type of soil based on soil maps to review the 1966 East Java Province is
regusol litosol dam. Soil type is derived from volcanic ash and sand with
properties intermediate to base permiabilitas very high and its top layer
is very sensitive to erosion. Ground color ranging from gray, yellowish
brown, to white, with the texture of the soil is generally sandy to clay
dust with loose structure or single-grained
Topography varies from undulating to hilly slopes of the ramps up, and
mountainous with altitudes between 750-3676 m above sea level. This area
has slopes are very steep with the highest peak on Mount Semeru (3676 m
asl), with temperatures ranging between 3 ° - 20 ° C

Based on altitude and temperature, forest formation Bromo Tengger Semeru
National Park is divided into three zones namely;

1. Sub Montane (750-1500 asl)
in this zone is classified as a tropical rain forest type lowlands to the
mountains that have this level of species diversity and high densities.
These forests are primary forests can be found in the South Semeru,
Semeru Semeru East and West which is the core zone of national park

2. Montane (1500-2400 m asl)
in these forests is largely a primary forest biodiversity has begun to
diminish and the type of vegetation is a pioneer plant that can not live
under the auspices

3. Sub Alpin (2,400 m above sea level and above)
in this zone there are only stunted trees are less kind, including
mountain mentigi (Vaccinium varingifolium), kemlandingan mountain
(Albizia lophanta), and Edelweiss (Anaphalis javanica)

LEGEND

According to myth or legend that developed in the Tengger tribe, they
come from the descendants of Roro Anteng who is the daughter of King
Brawijaya with Joko Seger son of a Brahmin. Tengger tribe name suffix
name is taken from both pairs of husband and wife is, "Teng" from Roro
Anteng and "Ger" from Joko Seger. The legend of Roro and Joko Seger
Anteng the god promised to hand over their youngest son, Raden Kusuma is
the beginning of ceremony Kasodo in Tengger.
According to some historians, the Tengger tribe native Javanese who at
that time lived in the heyday of Majapahit. When the arrival of Islam in
Indonesia (Java) when it happened the intersection of Islam with the
existing kingdoms in Java, one of which is Majapahit who feel pressured
by the arrival of Islamic influence, then fled to Bali and the inland
region around Mount Bromo and Semeru . Those who dwell in the countryside
around Mount Bromo is then set up a village named after their leader's
name suffix that is Roro Anteng and Joko Seger

Tengger tribe dwelling in the rural area around Mount Bromo, located in
Probolinggo district, East Java. Based on the distribution patterns of
language and social life of the community, local Tengger tribe is spread
around Probolinggo, Lumajang, (Ranupane Senduro district), Malang (rural
district Ngadas Poncokusumo), and Pasuruan. While originally a cultural
center around the interior of the foot of Mount Bromo

Once a year according to the Javanese calendar, the community held a
ceremony Kasodo Tengger, which is housed at the peak of Mount Bromo and
the adjacent North Sea Sand foot of Mount Batok. The ceremony was held in
December / January according to the calendar and the AD performed during
the full moon. One of the interesting events of this ceremony is an event
Kasodo throwing offerings in the form of paddy fields and their cattle
into the crater of Mount Bromo as a thank you to the Creating and Giving
life

				
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Description: Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park