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   4th Period
           Research Psychologist
   A psychologist who collects information
    systematically
   They must begin with a hypothesis
   They must then collect evidence
   Then they must choose a method by which they will
    collect data (Naturalistic observation, Case studies,
    Surveys, Longitudinal studies, Cross sectional
    studies, Correlations and explanations, Experiments,)
   They then present results
          Applied Psychologists
   These psychologists are more interested in
    discovering ways to use what we already know
    about people to benefit others.
   They are using psychological principals to
    solve more immediate problems
   Ex would be using data to help toy
    manufacturers to make a toy more appealing
              Parts of the Brain
   Corpus Callosum- it connects the left and right
    hemisphere, as well as, helping the two communicate
   Cerebellum-is a region of the brain that plays an
    important role in motor control; there is controversy
    about whether it has non-movement-related functions
    as well. The cerebellum does not initiate movement,
    but it contributes greatly to coordination, precision,
    and accurate timing.
   Thyroid Gland-controls how quickly the body burns
    energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive
    the body should be to other hormones.
              Parts of the Brain
   RAS- Reticular activating system. Its main function is
    to alert the brain to incoming signals and is involved
    in the sleep/wake cycle
   Hypothalamus-a portion of the brain that contains a
    number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
    One of the most important functions of the
    hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the
    endocrine system via the pituitary gland. The
    hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger,
    thirst,[1] fatigue, and circadian cycles.
               Parts of the Brain
   Medulla-contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting
    and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic
    functions, such as breathing, heart rate and blood
    pressure.
   Left hemisphere-Sequential Analysis: systematic,
    logical interpretation of information. Interpretation
    and production of symbolic information: language,
    mathematics, abstraction and reasoning. Memory
    stored in a language format.
             Parts of the Brain
   Right Hemisphere: Holistic Functioning:
    processing multi-sensory input simultaneously
    to provide "holistic" picture of one's
    environment. Visual spatial skills. Holistic
    functions such as dancing and gymnastics are
    coordinated by the right hemisphere. Memory
    is stored in auditory, visual and spatial
    modalities.
                Phineas Gage
   He was a railroad construction foreman now
    remembered for his incredible survival of an
    accident in which a large iron rod was driven
    completely through his head, destroying one or
    both of his brain's frontal lobes, and for that
    injury's reported effects on his personality and
    behavior—effects said to be so profound that
    friends saw him as "no longer Gage."
      Lobes of the Brain and their
                Function
   Frontal lobe—conscious thought; damage can
    result in mood changes
   Parietal lobe—plays important roles in integrating
    sensory information from various senses, and in the
    manipulation of objects; portions of the parietal
    lobe are involved with visuospatial processing
   Occipital lobe—sense of sight; lesions can produce
    hallucinations
   Temporal lobe—senses of smell and sound, as
    well as processing of complex stimuli like faces and
    scenes.
                       Neurons
   There are three basic parts of a neuron: the dendrites,
    the cell body, and the axon. However, all neurons
    vary somewhat in size, shape, and characteristics
    depending on the function and role of the neuron.
   Dendrites are the branched projections of a neuron
    that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation
    received from other neural cells to the cell body
   Cell Body is the largest part of a cell, the cell body
    holds all of the general parts of a cell
   An axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell,
    or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away
    from the neuron's cell body
                  Neurons
   Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals
    which relay, amplify, and modulate signals
    between a neuron and another cell.
                    REM Sleep
   Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a normal stage
    of sleep characterized by the rapid movement of the
    eyes. A newborn baby spends more than 80% of total
    sleep time in REM.[2] During REM, the activity of
    the brain's neurons is quite similar to that during
    waking hours. REM sleep is physiologically different
    from the other phases of sleep, which are collectively
    referred to as non-REM sleep (NREM). Vividly
    recalled dreams mostly occur during REM sleep.
               Stages of Sleep
   Stage 1:transition state between sleep and
    wakefulness
   eyes begin to roll slightly
   consists mostly of theta waves (high
    amplitude, low frequency (slow))
   brief periods of alpha waves, similar to those
    present while awake
   lasts only for a few minutes before moving on
    to next stage
               Stages of Sleep
   Stage 2: peaks of brain waves become higher
    and higher (sleep spindles)
   k-complexes (peaks suddenly drastically
    descend and then pick back up) follow
    spindles
   again, only lasts for a few minutes
               Stages of Sleep
   Stage 3: also called delta sleep or deep sleep
   very slow brain waves, called delta waves
    (lower frequency than theta waves)
   20 to 50% of brain waves are delta waves; the
    rest are theta waves
               Stages of Sleep
   Stage 4: again, also called delta sleep or deep
    sleep
   more than 50% of brain waves are delta waves;
    the rest are theta waves
   last (and deepest) of the sleep stages before
    REM sleep; stages reverse and then REM
    sleep begins
               Stages of Sleep
   Stage 5: beta waves have a high frequency and
    occur when the brain is quite active, both in
    REM sleep and while awake
   frequent bursts of rapid eye movement, along
    with occasional muscular twitches
   heart may beat faster and breathing may
    become shallow and rapid
   most vivid dreaming occurs during this stage
               Sleep Disorders
   Night Terrors: characterized by extreme terror
    and a temporary inability to regain full
    consciousness. The subject wakes abruptly
    from slow-wave sleep, with waking usually
    accompanied by gasping, moaning, or
    screaming. It is often impossible to awaken the
    person fully, and after the episode the subject
    normally settles back to sleep without waking.
               Sleep Disorders
   Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which
    you have one or more pauses in breathing or
    shallow breaths while you sleep.
   Breathing pauses can last from a few seconds
    to minutes. They often occur 5 to 30 times or
    more an hour. Typically, normal breathing
    then starts again, sometimes with a loud snort
    or choking sound.
                  Narcolepsy
   The condition is characterized by excessive
    daytime sleepiness (EDS) in which a person
    experiences extreme fatigue and possibly falls
    asleep at inappropriate times, such as while at
    work or at school. A narcoleptic will most
    likely experience disturbed nocturnal sleep and
    also abnormal daytime sleep pattern, which is
    often confused with insomnia.
            Free Running Cycles

   Freerunning sleep is sleep which is not
    adjusted, entrained, to the 24-hour cycle in
    nature nor to any artificial cycle. Such
    experiments are used in the study of circadian
    and other rhythms in biology. Subjects are
    shielded from all time cues, often by a constant
    light protocol, by a constant dark protocol or
    by the use of light/dark conditions to which the
    organism cannot entrain.
Chronobiology and Entrainment
   Chronobiology is a field of science that examines
    periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and
    their adaptation to solar and lunar related rhythms.[1]
    These cycles are known as biological rhythms.
    "Chrono" pertains to time and "biology" pertains to
    the study, or science, of life.
   Entrainment is the alignment of a circadian system's
    period and phase to the period and phase of an
    external rhythm
      5 Approaches to Psychology
   Psychoanalytical approach: Psychoanalysis is
    a body of ideas developed by Austrian
    physician Sigmund Freud and continued by
    others. It is primarily devoted to the study of
    human psychological functioning and
    behavior, although it also can be applied to
    societies.
     5 Approaches to Psychology
   Cognitive Approach: Cognitive psychology is
    a discipline within psychology that
    investigates the internal mental processes of
    thought such as visual processing, memory,
    problem solving, and language.
      5 Approaches to Psychology
   Behavioral approach: The behavioral approach
    is based on the concept of explaining behavior
    through observation, and the belief that our
    environment is what causes us to behave
    differently or suffer illnesses. Initiated
    arguably by John B. Watson.
      5 Approaches to Psychology
   Neurobiological Approach: This is a scientific
    approach to learning that relates behaviour to
    the electrical and chemical events taking place
    inside the body. It emphasises the need to
    understand activities within the brain and
    nervous system, together their effect upon
    behavioural and mental processes.
      5 Approaches to Psychology
   Humanistic Approach: emerged in the 1950s in
    reaction to both behaviorism and
    psychoanalysis. It is explicitly concerned with
    the human dimension of psychology and the
    human context for the development of
    psychological theory. only analyzes what can
    be seen. Does not concentrate on your
    thoughts.
          Classical Conditioning
   Classical conditioning is a form of associative
    learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan
    Pavlov.[1] The typical procedure for inducing
    classical conditioning involves presentations of
    a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of
    some significance. The neutral stimulus could
    be any event that does not result in an overt
    behavioral response from the organism under
    investigation. Pavlov referred to this as a
    conditioned stimulus (CS).
     Conditioned and Unconditioned
               Stimulus
   Conversely, presentation of the significant
    stimulus necessarily evokes an innate, often
    reflexive, response. Pavlov called these the
    unconditioned stimulus (US) and
    unconditioned response (UR), respectively. If
    the CS and the US are repeatedly paired,
    eventually the two stimuli become associated
    and the organism begins to produce a
    behavioral response to the CS. Pavlov called
    this the conditioned response (CR).
                John Watson
   was an American psychologist who established
    the psychological school of behaviorism, after
    doing research on animal behavior. He also
    conducted the controversial "Little Albert"
    experiment. Later he went on from psychology
    to become a popular author on child-rearing,
    and an acclaimed contributor to the advertising
    industry.
        Little Albert Experiment
   John B. Watson, after observing children in the
    field, was interested in finding support for his
    notion that the reaction of children, whenever
    they heard loud noises, was prompted by fear.
    Furthermore, he reasoned that this fear was
    innate or due to an unconditioned response. He
    felt that following the principles of classical
    conditioning, he could condition a child to fear
    another distinctive stimulus which normally
    would not be feared by a child.
          Operant Conditioning
   Operant conditioning is the use of
    consequences to modify the occurrence and
    form of behavior. Operant conditioning is
    distinguished from classical conditioning (also
    called respondent conditioning, or Pavlovian
    conditioning) in that operant conditioning
    deals with the modification of "voluntary
    behavior" or operant behavior.
                 BF Skinner
   Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 –
    August 18, 1990) was an American
    psychologist, author, inventor, advocate for
    social reform He invented the operant
    conditioning chamber, innovated his own
    philosophy of science called Radical
    Behaviorism. and founded his own school of
    experimental research psychology—the
    experimental analysis of behavior.
                 Harry Harlow
   Harry Frederick Harlow (October 31, 1905 –
    December 6, 1981) was an American psychologist
    best known for his maternal-separation and social
    isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, which
    demonstrated the importance of care-giving and
    companionship in social and cognitive development.
    He conducted most of his research at the University
    of Wisconsin–Madison, where humanistic
    psychologist Abraham Maslow worked for a time
    with him.
                    Harry Harlow
   Harlow's experiments were controversial; they included
    rearing infant macaques in isolation chambers for up to 24
    months, from which they emerged severely disturbed.[1] Some
    researchers cited the experiments as a factor in the rise of the
    animal liberation movement in the United States. In a well-
    known series of experiments conducted between 1957 and
    1963, Harlow removed baby rhesus monkeys from their
    mothers, and offered them a choice between two surrogate
    mothers, one made of terrycloth, the other of wire. Whenever a
    frightening stimulus was brought into the cage, the monkeys
    ran to the cloth mother for protection and comfort, no matter
    which mother provided them with food. This response
    decreased as the monkeys grew older.
               Albert Bandura
   Albert Bandura is a psychologist specializing
    in social cognitive theory and self-efficacy. He
    is most famous for his social learning theory.
    Bandura engaged in studies of social learning
    and aggression. Their joint efforts illustrated
    the critical role of modeling in human behavior
    and led to a program of research into the
    determinants and mechanisms of observational
    learning.
                Generalization
   In classical conditioning, the tendency for a
    stimulus that is similar to the original
    conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is
    similar to the conditioned response.
                Discrimination
   The ability to respond differently to similar but
    distinct stimuli
                  Extinction
   The gradual disappearance of a conditioned
    response because the reinforcement is withheld
    or because the conditioned stimulus is
    repeatedly presented without the
    unconditioned stimulus.
          Positive and Negative
     Reinforcement, and Punishment
   Positive reinforcement means a stimulus that is
    going to increase the likelihood that the
    response will happen again.
   Neg. Reinforcement is increasing the strength
    of a given response by removing or preventing
    a painful stimulus when the response occurs
   Punishment is a means to react to a response
    not wanted
              Intrinsic Motivation
   Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards inherent to a task or
    activity itself - the enjoyment of a puzzle or the love of
    playing. This form of motivation has been studied by social
    and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research
    has found that it is usually associated with high educational
    achievement and enjoyment by students. Students are likely to
    be intrinsically motivated if they:
   attribute their educational results to internal factors that they
    can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in),
   believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals
    (i.e. the results are not determined by luck),
   are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-
    learning to achieve good grades.
            Extrinsic Motivation
   Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the
    performer. Money is the most obvious example, but
    coercion and threat of punishment are also common
    extrinsic motivations.
   In sports, the crowd may cheer on the performer,
    which may motivate him or her to do well. Trophies
    are also extrinsic incentives. Competition is in
    general extrinsic because it encourages the performer
    to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic
    rewards of the activity.
                Size Constancy
   Size constancy refers to the fact that our
    perceptions of the size of objects are relatively
    constant despite the fact that the size of objects
    on the retina vary greatly with distance.
                  Weber’s Law
   The Weber–Fechner law attempts to describe the
    relationship between the physical magnitudes of
    stimuli and the perceived intensity of the stimuli.
    Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795–1878) was one of the
    first people to approach the study of the human
    response to a physical stimulus in a quantitative
    fashion. Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801–1887) later
    offered an elaborate theoretical interpretation of
    Weber's findings, which he called simply Weber's
    law.
    Consciousness, sub consciousness
         and unconsciousness
   Consciousness-Consciousness is subjective
    experience or awareness or wakefulness or the
    executive control system of the mind.
   sub consciousness-The term subconscious is
    used in many different contexts and has no
    single or precise definition. This greatly limits
    its significance as a meaning-bearing concept,
    and in consequence the word tends to be
    avoided in academic and scientific settings.
    Consciousness, sub consciousness
         and unconsciousness
   Unconsciousness- Unconsciousness, more
    appropriately referred to as loss of consciousness or
    lack of consciousness, is a dramatic alteration of
    mental state that involves complete or near-complete
    lack of responsiveness to people and other
    environmental stimuli. Being in a comatose state or
    coma is an illustration of unconsciousness. Fainting
    due to a drop in blood pressure and a decrease of the
    oxygen supply to the brain is an illustration of a
    temporary loss of consciousness.
             Mnemonic Devices
   A mnemonic device is a mind memory and/or
    learning aid. Commonly, mnemonics are verbal—
    such as a very short poem or a special word used to
    help a person remember something—but may be
    visual, kinesthetic or auditory. Mnemonics rely on
    associations between easy-to-remember constructs
    which can be related back to the data that is to be
    remembered. This is based on the principle that the
    human mind much more easily remembers spatial,
    personal, surprising, sexual or humorous or otherwise
    meaningful information than arbitrary sequences.
                     Chunking
   In cognitive psychology and mnemonics, chunking
    refers to a strategy for making more efficient use of
    short-term memory by recoding information. More
    generally, Herbert Simon has used the term chunk to
    indicate long-term memory structures that can be
    used as units of perception and meaning, and
    chunking as the learning mechanisms leading to the
    acquisition of these chunks.
   Chunking means to organize items into familiar
    manageable units.
          Recognition and Recall
   When discussing memory, recall is the act of
    retrieving from long term memory a specific incident,
    fact or other item. A temporary failure to retrieve
    information from memory is known as the tip of the
    tongue phenomenon.
   The ability to recognize what is known is usually
    superior to the ability to recall it. Examples abound:
   We know a person's face, but his name eludes us.
   People are more likely to recognize a suspect in a
    police line-up (or a book of mug shots) than to
    provide an accurate description from recall memory.
             Working Memory
   Short-term memory is the ability to remember
    information over a brief period of time (in the
    order of seconds). Most theorists today use the
    concept of working memory to replace or
    include the older concept of short-term
    memory, thereby marking a stronger emphasis
    on the notion of manipulation of information
    instead of passive maintenance.
                   Interference
   Proactive interference is when an older memory
    interferes with remembering a newer memory. If you
    take a French lesson after taking a Spanish lesson,
    some of your Spanish may creep into your French. It
    is harder to remember that the word for man is now
    homme, not hombre! Retroactive interference is
    when newer memories interfere with older ones.
    When you talk to your friend Juan right after your
    French class, you may tend to say homme instead of
    hombre. Interference is really a simple idea - sort of
    like how its hard to find things when your hard-drive
    is stuffed full of files, or your room is filled with
    junk.
                  Encoding
   Moving things from short-term to long-term
    memory is called encoding.
    Types of Long Term Memory
   Declarative memory refers to all memories that are
    consciously available
   Episodic memory refers to memory for specific
    events in time
   Semantic memory refers to knowledge about the
    external world, such as the function of a pencil
   Procedural memory refers to the use of objects or
    movements of the body, such as how exactly to use a
    pencil or ride a bicycle
         Memory and the Brain
   Short-term (Working) Memory
   Long-term Memory
   Perhaps the most fascinating questions about
    memory have to do with the connection
    between human consciousness and memory.
   In other words, the neurobiological process of
    recollecting an experience is in some ways
    identical to the process of experiencing it in
    the first place!
            Nature Vs. Nurture
   The nature versus nurture debates concern
    the relative importance of an individual's
    innate qualities "nature", versus personal
    experiences "nurture" in determining or
    causing individual differences in physical and
    behavioral traits.
            Longitudinal study
   It is a type of research used to discover
    relationships between variables that are not
    related to various background variables.
   This technique involves studying the same
    group of individuals over an extended period
    of time.
        Cross Sectional Research
   involve observation of some subset of a
    population of items all at the same time, in
    which, groups can be compared at different
    ages with respect of independent variables,
    such as IQ and memory.
      Interview research method
   Personal interviews are a way to get in-depth
    and comprehensive information. They involve
    one person interviewing another person for
    personal or detailed information. Personal
    interviews are very expensive because of the
    one-to-one nature of the interview
                     Survey
   Mail surveys are a cost effective method of
    gathering information. They are ideal for large
    sample sizes, or when the sample comes from
    a wide geographic area. They cost a little less
    than telephone interviews, however, they take
    over twice as long to complete (eight to twelve
    weeks). Because there is no interviewer, there
    is no possibility of interviewer bias. The main
    disadvantage is the inability to probe
    respondents for more detailed information.
                  Case Study
   Case study research excels at bringing us to an
    understanding of a complex issue or object and
    can extend experience or add strength to what
    is already known through previous research.
    Case studies emphasize detailed contextual
    analysis of a limited number of events or
    conditions and their relationships.
               Scientific Method
   Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for
    investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge,
    or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To
    be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be
    based on gathering observable, empirical and
    measurable evidence subject to specific principles of
    reasoning. A scientific method consists of the
    collection of data through observation and
    experimentation, and the formulation and testing of
    hypotheses.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
           Theories of Emotion
   Schachter’s- Schachter proposed the two factor
    theory of emotion. He said emotions have two
    ingredients: physiological arousal and a
    cognitive label. A person's experience of an
    emotion stems from the mental awareness of
    the body's physical arousal.
             Theories of Emotion
   James-Lange- The James-Lange theory refers to a
    hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions
    developed independently by two 19th-century
    scholars, William James and Carl Lange. The theory
    states that within human beings, as a response to
    experiences in the world, the autonomic nervous
    system creates physiological events such as muscular
    tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness
    of the mouth. Emotions, then, are feelings which
    come about as a result of these physiological changes,
    rather than being their cause.
             Theories of Emotion
   Cannon-Bard- The Cannon-Bard theory is a
    psychological theory developed by physiologists
    Walter Cannon and , which suggests that people feel
    emotions first and then act upon them. These actions
    include changes in muscular tension, perspiration, etc.
    The theory was formulated following the introduction
    of the James-Lange theory of Emotion in the late
    1800s, which alternately suggested that emotion is the
    result of one's perception of their reaction, or "bodily
    change."
         Visual Cliff Experiment
   To investigate depth perception in human and animal
    species, psychologists E.J. Gibson and R.D. Walk
    created the visual cliff apparatus which allowed them
    to experimentally adjust the optical and tactical
    stimuli associated with a simulated cliff while
    protecting the subjects from injury.
   They discovered that all species tested can perceive
    and avoid a sharp drop by the time they take up
    independent locomotion, be it at day 1 in chicks, 4
    weeks in rats, or 6 months in humans. Most rely on
    visual cues for depth perception.
Manipulation Motive and Curiosity
             Motive
   manipulation motive- a drive that moves a
    person to handle and use objects in the
    environment
   curiosity motive- a drive that moves a
    person to seek new and different things
             Anorexia Nervosa
   Anorexia Nervosa
    The person suffering with Anorexia may be
    abnormally sensitive about being perceived as
    fat, or have a massive fear of becoming fat --
    though not all people living with Anorexia
    have this fear. They may be afraid of losing
    control over the amount of food they eat,
    accompanied by the desire to control their
    emotions and reactions to their emotions
              Bulimia Nervosa
   Bulimia Nervosa
    Men and women who live with Bulimia seek
    out binge and purge episodes -- they will eat a
    large quantity of food in a relatively short
    period of time and then use behaviors such as
    taking laxatives or self-induced vomiting --
    because they feel overwhelmed in coping with
    their emotions, or in order to punish
    themselves for something they feel they should
    unrealistically blame themselves for
                   Cognition
   Cognition is the scientific term for "the
    process of thought" to knowing. Usage of the
    term varies in different disciplines; for
    example in psychology and cognitive science,
    it usually refers to an information processing
    view of an individual's psychological
    functions.
          Illusions and Closure
   Perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli
   refers to a conclusion to a traumatic event or
    experience in a person's life. The term became
    popular in the 1990s due to its use in the
    popular media. The term cognitive closure has
    been defined as to "a desire for definite
    knowledge on some issue and the eschewal of
    confusion and ambiguity
           Mueller-Lyer Illusion
   The Müller-Lyer illusion is an optical illusion
    consisting of nothing more than an arrow. When
    viewers are asked to place a mark on the figure at the
    mid-point, they invariably place it more towards the
    "tail" end. Another variation consists of two arrow-
    like figures, one with both ends pointing in, and the
    other with both ends pointing out. When asked to
    judge the lengths of the two lines, which are equal,
    viewers will typically claim that the line with outward
    pointing arrows is longer.
    Mueller-Lyer Illusion

                   Life Span
   According to Levinson, each era has its
    distinct and unifying character of living. Each
    transition between eras thus requires a basic
    change in the character of one's life, which
    may take between three and six years to
    complete. Within the broad eras are periods of
    development, each period being characterized
    by a set of tasks and an attempt to build or
    modify one's life structure.
         Empty Nest Syndrome
   Empty nest syndrome is a general feeling of
    loneliness that parents or guardians may feel
    when one or more of their children leave
    home, being more common in women.
           Sandwich Generation
   The Sandwich Generation is a generation of people
    who care for their aging parents while supporting
    their own children.
   For example:
   Thomas and Liz are a couple in their 40s. They are
    busy raising a family of three children. They also
    spend much time each week at their parents' homes
    doing yard maintenance and running errands for their
    parents. Thomas and Liz are members of the
    Sandwich Generation.
        Cerebral Arteriosclerosis
   Cerebral arteriosclerosis is the result of
    thickening and hardening of the walls of the
    arteries in the brain.
    Everything else needs to be looked
             up in your Text
   They are all very easy to find.

				
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