Exam Review 4th Period Research Psychologist A psychologist who collects information systematically They must begin with a hypothesis They must then collect evidence Then they must choose a method by which they will collect data (Naturalistic observation, Case studies, Surveys, Longitudinal studies, Cross sectional studies, Correlations and explanations, Experiments,) They then present results Applied Psychologists These psychologists are more interested in discovering ways to use what we already know about people to benefit others. They are using psychological principals to solve more immediate problems Ex would be using data to help toy manufacturers to make a toy more appealing Parts of the Brain Corpus Callosum- it connects the left and right hemisphere, as well as, helping the two communicate Cerebellum-is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control; there is controversy about whether it has non-movement-related functions as well. The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it contributes greatly to coordination, precision, and accurate timing. Thyroid Gland-controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body should be to other hormones. Parts of the Brain RAS- Reticular activating system. Its main function is to alert the brain to incoming signals and is involved in the sleep/wake cycle Hypothalamus-a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, and circadian cycles. Parts of the Brain Medulla-contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic functions, such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. Left hemisphere-Sequential Analysis: systematic, logical interpretation of information. Interpretation and production of symbolic information: language, mathematics, abstraction and reasoning. Memory stored in a language format. Parts of the Brain Right Hemisphere: Holistic Functioning: processing multi-sensory input simultaneously to provide "holistic" picture of one's environment. Visual spatial skills. Holistic functions such as dancing and gymnastics are coordinated by the right hemisphere. Memory is stored in auditory, visual and spatial modalities. Phineas Gage He was a railroad construction foreman now remembered for his incredible survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying one or both of his brain's frontal lobes, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior—effects said to be so profound that friends saw him as "no longer Gage." Lobes of the Brain and their Function Frontal lobe—conscious thought; damage can result in mood changes Parietal lobe—plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various senses, and in the manipulation of objects; portions of the parietal lobe are involved with visuospatial processing Occipital lobe—sense of sight; lesions can produce hallucinations Temporal lobe—senses of smell and sound, as well as processing of complex stimuli like faces and scenes. Neurons There are three basic parts of a neuron: the dendrites, the cell body, and the axon. However, all neurons vary somewhat in size, shape, and characteristics depending on the function and role of the neuron. Dendrites are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body Cell Body is the largest part of a cell, the cell body holds all of the general parts of a cell An axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body Neurons Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals which relay, amplify, and modulate signals between a neuron and another cell. REM Sleep Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a normal stage of sleep characterized by the rapid movement of the eyes. A newborn baby spends more than 80% of total sleep time in REM. During REM, the activity of the brain's neurons is quite similar to that during waking hours. REM sleep is physiologically different from the other phases of sleep, which are collectively referred to as non-REM sleep (NREM). Vividly recalled dreams mostly occur during REM sleep. Stages of Sleep Stage 1:transition state between sleep and wakefulness eyes begin to roll slightly consists mostly of theta waves (high amplitude, low frequency (slow)) brief periods of alpha waves, similar to those present while awake lasts only for a few minutes before moving on to next stage Stages of Sleep Stage 2: peaks of brain waves become higher and higher (sleep spindles) k-complexes (peaks suddenly drastically descend and then pick back up) follow spindles again, only lasts for a few minutes Stages of Sleep Stage 3: also called delta sleep or deep sleep very slow brain waves, called delta waves (lower frequency than theta waves) 20 to 50% of brain waves are delta waves; the rest are theta waves Stages of Sleep Stage 4: again, also called delta sleep or deep sleep more than 50% of brain waves are delta waves; the rest are theta waves last (and deepest) of the sleep stages before REM sleep; stages reverse and then REM sleep begins Stages of Sleep Stage 5: beta waves have a high frequency and occur when the brain is quite active, both in REM sleep and while awake frequent bursts of rapid eye movement, along with occasional muscular twitches heart may beat faster and breathing may become shallow and rapid most vivid dreaming occurs during this stage Sleep Disorders Night Terrors: characterized by extreme terror and a temporary inability to regain full consciousness. The subject wakes abruptly from slow-wave sleep, with waking usually accompanied by gasping, moaning, or screaming. It is often impossible to awaken the person fully, and after the episode the subject normally settles back to sleep without waking. Sleep Disorders Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which you have one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths while you sleep. Breathing pauses can last from a few seconds to minutes. They often occur 5 to 30 times or more an hour. Typically, normal breathing then starts again, sometimes with a loud snort or choking sound. Narcolepsy The condition is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in which a person experiences extreme fatigue and possibly falls asleep at inappropriate times, such as while at work or at school. A narcoleptic will most likely experience disturbed nocturnal sleep and also abnormal daytime sleep pattern, which is often confused with insomnia. Free Running Cycles Freerunning sleep is sleep which is not adjusted, entrained, to the 24-hour cycle in nature nor to any artificial cycle. Such experiments are used in the study of circadian and other rhythms in biology. Subjects are shielded from all time cues, often by a constant light protocol, by a constant dark protocol or by the use of light/dark conditions to which the organism cannot entrain. Chronobiology and Entrainment Chronobiology is a field of science that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar and lunar related rhythms. These cycles are known as biological rhythms. "Chrono" pertains to time and "biology" pertains to the study, or science, of life. Entrainment is the alignment of a circadian system's period and phase to the period and phase of an external rhythm 5 Approaches to Psychology Psychoanalytical approach: Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and continued by others. It is primarily devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior, although it also can be applied to societies. 5 Approaches to Psychology Cognitive Approach: Cognitive psychology is a discipline within psychology that investigates the internal mental processes of thought such as visual processing, memory, problem solving, and language. 5 Approaches to Psychology Behavioral approach: The behavioral approach is based on the concept of explaining behavior through observation, and the belief that our environment is what causes us to behave differently or suffer illnesses. Initiated arguably by John B. Watson. 5 Approaches to Psychology Neurobiological Approach: This is a scientific approach to learning that relates behaviour to the electrical and chemical events taking place inside the body. It emphasises the need to understand activities within the brain and nervous system, together their effect upon behavioural and mental processes. 5 Approaches to Psychology Humanistic Approach: emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. It is explicitly concerned with the human dimension of psychology and the human context for the development of psychological theory. only analyzes what can be seen. Does not concentrate on your thoughts. Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus could be any event that does not result in an overt behavioral response from the organism under investigation. Pavlov referred to this as a conditioned stimulus (CS). Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimulus Conversely, presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. Pavlov called these the unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. Pavlov called this the conditioned response (CR). John Watson was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. He also conducted the controversial "Little Albert" experiment. Later he went on from psychology to become a popular author on child-rearing, and an acclaimed contributor to the advertising industry. Little Albert Experiment John B. Watson, after observing children in the field, was interested in finding support for his notion that the reaction of children, whenever they heard loud noises, was prompted by fear. Furthermore, he reasoned that this fear was innate or due to an unconditioned response. He felt that following the principles of classical conditioning, he could condition a child to fear another distinctive stimulus which normally would not be feared by a child. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (also called respondent conditioning, or Pavlovian conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior" or operant behavior. BF Skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist, author, inventor, advocate for social reform He invented the operant conditioning chamber, innovated his own philosophy of science called Radical Behaviorism. and founded his own school of experimental research psychology—the experimental analysis of behavior. Harry Harlow Harry Frederick Harlow (October 31, 1905 – December 6, 1981) was an American psychologist best known for his maternal-separation and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, which demonstrated the importance of care-giving and companionship in social and cognitive development. He conducted most of his research at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow worked for a time with him. Harry Harlow Harlow's experiments were controversial; they included rearing infant macaques in isolation chambers for up to 24 months, from which they emerged severely disturbed. Some researchers cited the experiments as a factor in the rise of the animal liberation movement in the United States. In a well- known series of experiments conducted between 1957 and 1963, Harlow removed baby rhesus monkeys from their mothers, and offered them a choice between two surrogate mothers, one made of terrycloth, the other of wire. Whenever a frightening stimulus was brought into the cage, the monkeys ran to the cloth mother for protection and comfort, no matter which mother provided them with food. This response decreased as the monkeys grew older. Albert Bandura Albert Bandura is a psychologist specializing in social cognitive theory and self-efficacy. He is most famous for his social learning theory. Bandura engaged in studies of social learning and aggression. Their joint efforts illustrated the critical role of modeling in human behavior and led to a program of research into the determinants and mechanisms of observational learning. Generalization In classical conditioning, the tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response. Discrimination The ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli Extinction The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response because the reinforcement is withheld or because the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus. Positive and Negative Reinforcement, and Punishment Positive reinforcement means a stimulus that is going to increase the likelihood that the response will happen again. Neg. Reinforcement is increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs Punishment is a means to react to a response not wanted Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity itself - the enjoyment of a puzzle or the love of playing. This form of motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research has found that it is usually associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in), believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote- learning to achieve good grades. Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the performer. Money is the most obvious example, but coercion and threat of punishment are also common extrinsic motivations. In sports, the crowd may cheer on the performer, which may motivate him or her to do well. Trophies are also extrinsic incentives. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. Size Constancy Size constancy refers to the fact that our perceptions of the size of objects are relatively constant despite the fact that the size of objects on the retina vary greatly with distance. Weber’s Law The Weber–Fechner law attempts to describe the relationship between the physical magnitudes of stimuli and the perceived intensity of the stimuli. Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795–1878) was one of the first people to approach the study of the human response to a physical stimulus in a quantitative fashion. Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801–1887) later offered an elaborate theoretical interpretation of Weber's findings, which he called simply Weber's law. Consciousness, sub consciousness and unconsciousness Consciousness-Consciousness is subjective experience or awareness or wakefulness or the executive control system of the mind. sub consciousness-The term subconscious is used in many different contexts and has no single or precise definition. This greatly limits its significance as a meaning-bearing concept, and in consequence the word tends to be avoided in academic and scientific settings. Consciousness, sub consciousness and unconsciousness Unconsciousness- Unconsciousness, more appropriately referred to as loss of consciousness or lack of consciousness, is a dramatic alteration of mental state that involves complete or near-complete lack of responsiveness to people and other environmental stimuli. Being in a comatose state or coma is an illustration of unconsciousness. Fainting due to a drop in blood pressure and a decrease of the oxygen supply to the brain is an illustration of a temporary loss of consciousness. Mnemonic Devices A mnemonic device is a mind memory and/or learning aid. Commonly, mnemonics are verbal— such as a very short poem or a special word used to help a person remember something—but may be visual, kinesthetic or auditory. Mnemonics rely on associations between easy-to-remember constructs which can be related back to the data that is to be remembered. This is based on the principle that the human mind much more easily remembers spatial, personal, surprising, sexual or humorous or otherwise meaningful information than arbitrary sequences. Chunking In cognitive psychology and mnemonics, chunking refers to a strategy for making more efficient use of short-term memory by recoding information. More generally, Herbert Simon has used the term chunk to indicate long-term memory structures that can be used as units of perception and meaning, and chunking as the learning mechanisms leading to the acquisition of these chunks. Chunking means to organize items into familiar manageable units. Recognition and Recall When discussing memory, recall is the act of retrieving from long term memory a specific incident, fact or other item. A temporary failure to retrieve information from memory is known as the tip of the tongue phenomenon. The ability to recognize what is known is usually superior to the ability to recall it. Examples abound: We know a person's face, but his name eludes us. People are more likely to recognize a suspect in a police line-up (or a book of mug shots) than to provide an accurate description from recall memory. Working Memory Short-term memory is the ability to remember information over a brief period of time (in the order of seconds). Most theorists today use the concept of working memory to replace or include the older concept of short-term memory, thereby marking a stronger emphasis on the notion of manipulation of information instead of passive maintenance. Interference Proactive interference is when an older memory interferes with remembering a newer memory. If you take a French lesson after taking a Spanish lesson, some of your Spanish may creep into your French. It is harder to remember that the word for man is now homme, not hombre! Retroactive interference is when newer memories interfere with older ones. When you talk to your friend Juan right after your French class, you may tend to say homme instead of hombre. Interference is really a simple idea - sort of like how its hard to find things when your hard-drive is stuffed full of files, or your room is filled with junk. Encoding Moving things from short-term to long-term memory is called encoding. Types of Long Term Memory Declarative memory refers to all memories that are consciously available Episodic memory refers to memory for specific events in time Semantic memory refers to knowledge about the external world, such as the function of a pencil Procedural memory refers to the use of objects or movements of the body, such as how exactly to use a pencil or ride a bicycle Memory and the Brain Short-term (Working) Memory Long-term Memory Perhaps the most fascinating questions about memory have to do with the connection between human consciousness and memory. In other words, the neurobiological process of recollecting an experience is in some ways identical to the process of experiencing it in the first place! Nature Vs. Nurture The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities "nature", versus personal experiences "nurture" in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. Longitudinal study It is a type of research used to discover relationships between variables that are not related to various background variables. This technique involves studying the same group of individuals over an extended period of time. Cross Sectional Research involve observation of some subset of a population of items all at the same time, in which, groups can be compared at different ages with respect of independent variables, such as IQ and memory. Interview research method Personal interviews are a way to get in-depth and comprehensive information. They involve one person interviewing another person for personal or detailed information. Personal interviews are very expensive because of the one-to-one nature of the interview Survey Mail surveys are a cost effective method of gathering information. They are ideal for large sample sizes, or when the sample comes from a wide geographic area. They cost a little less than telephone interviews, however, they take over twice as long to complete (eight to twelve weeks). Because there is no interviewer, there is no possibility of interviewer bias. The main disadvantage is the inability to probe respondents for more detailed information. Case Study Case study research excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue or object and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research. Case studies emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. Scientific Method Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theories of Emotion Schachter’s- Schachter proposed the two factor theory of emotion. He said emotions have two ingredients: physiological arousal and a cognitive label. A person's experience of an emotion stems from the mental awareness of the body's physical arousal. Theories of Emotion James-Lange- The James-Lange theory refers to a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions developed independently by two 19th-century scholars, William James and Carl Lange. The theory states that within human beings, as a response to experiences in the world, the autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of the mouth. Emotions, then, are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather than being their cause. Theories of Emotion Cannon-Bard- The Cannon-Bard theory is a psychological theory developed by physiologists Walter Cannon and , which suggests that people feel emotions first and then act upon them. These actions include changes in muscular tension, perspiration, etc. The theory was formulated following the introduction of the James-Lange theory of Emotion in the late 1800s, which alternately suggested that emotion is the result of one's perception of their reaction, or "bodily change." Visual Cliff Experiment To investigate depth perception in human and animal species, psychologists E.J. Gibson and R.D. Walk created the visual cliff apparatus which allowed them to experimentally adjust the optical and tactical stimuli associated with a simulated cliff while protecting the subjects from injury. They discovered that all species tested can perceive and avoid a sharp drop by the time they take up independent locomotion, be it at day 1 in chicks, 4 weeks in rats, or 6 months in humans. Most rely on visual cues for depth perception. Manipulation Motive and Curiosity Motive manipulation motive- a drive that moves a person to handle and use objects in the environment curiosity motive- a drive that moves a person to seek new and different things Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa The person suffering with Anorexia may be abnormally sensitive about being perceived as fat, or have a massive fear of becoming fat -- though not all people living with Anorexia have this fear. They may be afraid of losing control over the amount of food they eat, accompanied by the desire to control their emotions and reactions to their emotions Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Men and women who live with Bulimia seek out binge and purge episodes -- they will eat a large quantity of food in a relatively short period of time and then use behaviors such as taking laxatives or self-induced vomiting -- because they feel overwhelmed in coping with their emotions, or in order to punish themselves for something they feel they should unrealistically blame themselves for Cognition Cognition is the scientific term for "the process of thought" to knowing. Usage of the term varies in different disciplines; for example in psychology and cognitive science, it usually refers to an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions. Illusions and Closure Perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli refers to a conclusion to a traumatic event or experience in a person's life. The term became popular in the 1990s due to its use in the popular media. The term cognitive closure has been defined as to "a desire for definite knowledge on some issue and the eschewal of confusion and ambiguity Mueller-Lyer Illusion The Müller-Lyer illusion is an optical illusion consisting of nothing more than an arrow. When viewers are asked to place a mark on the figure at the mid-point, they invariably place it more towards the "tail" end. Another variation consists of two arrow- like figures, one with both ends pointing in, and the other with both ends pointing out. When asked to judge the lengths of the two lines, which are equal, viewers will typically claim that the line with outward pointing arrows is longer. Mueller-Lyer Illusion Life Span According to Levinson, each era has its distinct and unifying character of living. Each transition between eras thus requires a basic change in the character of one's life, which may take between three and six years to complete. Within the broad eras are periods of development, each period being characterized by a set of tasks and an attempt to build or modify one's life structure. Empty Nest Syndrome Empty nest syndrome is a general feeling of loneliness that parents or guardians may feel when one or more of their children leave home, being more common in women. Sandwich Generation The Sandwich Generation is a generation of people who care for their aging parents while supporting their own children. For example: Thomas and Liz are a couple in their 40s. They are busy raising a family of three children. They also spend much time each week at their parents' homes doing yard maintenance and running errands for their parents. Thomas and Liz are members of the Sandwich Generation. Cerebral Arteriosclerosis Cerebral arteriosclerosis is the result of thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries in the brain. Everything else needs to be looked up in your Text They are all very easy to find.