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3g & 4g Technology
                                     3G TECHNOLOGY




                                         ABSTRACT



 From the time of telegraphs the telecom sector has witnessed an immense growth and has
diversified into various segments like, fixed line telephony, mobile telephony, GSM, CDMA
etc. This industry is growing at a faster pace than any other sector for the recent years by
introducing modern technologies which traveled far and wide and genuinely nurtured by the
public. This growth extends up to the network operators and handset providers introducing
newer value added services and latest technology cell phones with advanced multimedia
applications.

It’s high time to induct, acknowledge and learn about the much-awaited 3G Technology.

Whenever you go to buy a mobile phone the sales person says, ”this is latest 3G mobile”,
have we ever wondered what 3G stands for?

3G is the third-generation technology also known as UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System in the context of mobile phone standards. The third generation,
as its name suggests, follows the first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) in wireless
communications. The services associated with 3G provide the ability to transfer
simultaneously both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading
information, exchanging email, and instant messaging). The first country that introduced 3G
on a large commercial scale was Japan. 3G networks are wide area cellular telephone
networks which evolved to incorporate high-speed internet access and video telephony.
Handsets could vary from wrist-watch style 'simple' telephones to palm-pilot type for multi-
media web-browsing usage.
                                     INTRODUCTION



Third generation (3G) services combine high speed mobile access with Internet Protocol (IP)-
based services



The most vital thing to be noted is that when two devices connect or "talk" to each other
without any physical device or cable between them, they use radio frequencies to transmit
information. This is important because different vendors use different frequencies, cover
different areas and have a wide range of signal strengths.
During the first generation (1G) microprocessor and digitization of control links were
invented, digitization of control signals and voice signal were developed during the second
generation which is 2G. This system provided better quality and higher capacity with lower
cost.



The Third generation (3G) systems promise faster communications services which include
voice, fax and Internet with seamless global roaming. This technology enables cell phones to
offer high-speed Internet access, data, video and CD-quality music.
                             EFFECTS OF 3G ON SOCIETY



      Mobile Internet connectivity
      Mobile email
      Mobile Interview
      E-learning & m-learning
      Multimedia services, such as digital photos taken by and shared via wireless handsets
      Wireless application downloading
      Video-on-demand and short-format Clipcast™ content
      Real-time multiplayer gaming
      Enhanced emergency and location-based services
      Low-latency push-to-talk and push-to-video message services



                                      BENEFITS OF 3G



The data are Packet-based which provides several advantages over the existing circuit-
switched techniques. These techniques are used for carrying mobile voice. It allows higher
call volumes and support for multimedia data applications, such as video and photography.

The charges are based on amount of data transmitted and not on time taken to connect to the
network. (Pay for the information you receive)

issue in 3G with regard to providers and users
But several issues continue to hamper its growth.

      High spectrum licensing fees for the 3G services
      Huge capital required to build infrastructure for 3G services.
      Health impact because of electromagnetic waves.
      Prices are very high for 3G mobile services.
      Will 2G users switch to 3G services?
      Takes time to catch up as the service is new.
                ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF 3G

Cellular phone companies are now beginning to develop new technologies that will
help make telecommunications much easier and more appealing to a lot of its
consumers. One particular advancement that these cellular phone companies have
made on their cellular phones is the 3G technology.


3G technology, which is short for third generation mobile telephone communication
systems technology, improves the efficiency of data can be transferred through your
cellular phone. The data transfer rates for third generation mobile telecommunications
is up to 2 Megabits per second. Aside from this feature, 3G cellular phones also have
conventional voice, fax and data services, as well as high-resolution video and
multimedia services which can be used while on the move. It also includes mobile
office services such as virtual banking and online-billing, video conferencing, online
entertainment and access to the Internet.


Such mobile telephone technology would improve the way people will be able to
communicate with each other, as well as develop new uses for their cellular phones.
One particular advantage of using such a technology on your cellular phone would be
your phone’s ability to watch television shows on your phone, and it also allows you
to have video conversations with other people who also use the same 3G technology.


This makes one of the 3G phone’s most essential feature better, which is the ability
for people to conduct video conferencing. However, this only makes up a very small
fraction of use from the 3G phones. Other applications of the 3G technology include
map and positioning services, as well as multiplayer gaming, which is more popular
with the mobile phone’s younger subscribers.


The 3G technology in cellular phones can also benefit you while you are at your home
with its different other applications. 3G can help you simplify everyday tasks such as
shopping, wherein you can order items that you need to restock your supply at home
at your local market so it would be ready for pickup once you are there, giving you
the opportunity to make better use of your time.
You can also pay your bills and balance your checks by logging on to your bank
account using the 3G devices that you have. You also book in advance dinner and
hotel reservations in any city that you are in. Such technology also benefits you by
giving you enough flexibility to function at your best in your workplace.
Teleconferencing is one of the best applications for the 3G technology in your work.


Although 3G technologies offer a lot of new advancements and changes in the world
of telecommunication, there are still a few things that render the use of 3G telephone
communication systems technology as disadvantageous. One thing that makes 3G
cellular phones disadvantageous to its users is the fact that these types of cellular
phones are more expensive as compared to those which do not share the same
technology. Aside from this, people who have 3G can only enjoy the video
conferencing feature of the technology with other 3G subscribers.


If you are thinking about which type of phone to buy, whether 3G or not 3G phones,
the important thing is that you buy the phone that has all the necessary features that
you are looking for in a cellular phone.
                                    THE FUTURE OF 3G



3G technology glues the two fastest growing market sectors - Mobile and Internet. 3G packet
based networks will allow users to be on line all the time. The capabilities of wireless
networks in terms of bandwidth ought to be enhanced.



The TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) has recommended auctioning radio
frequencies for 3G telecom services at a reserve price of Rs 1,050 crore (Rs 10.50 billion) to
companies seeking to offer nationwide high-speed Internet and streaming video.
The base price for spectrum is fixed based on the cities category for cities like Mumbai and
Delhi. For Category A telecom circles it is Rs 80 crore (Rs 800 million); for cities like
Chennai and Kolkata and Category B circles it is Rs 40 crore (Rs 400 million); and in every
other cities Rs 15 crore (Rs 150 million).
                                       CONCLUSION




3G services will add invaluable dimension for the integral part of the modern world. Flexible
working practices can be incorporated in organizations where employees need access to a
wide range of information and services via their corporate intranets, whether they are at their
own desk or anywhere else.




In the near future, mobility will not be considered as an add-on: it will become a fundamental
aspect. As the penetration for using Mobile phones continues to rise the handset
manufacturers divert their attention towards manufacturing new and wide variety of styles
and sizes of handsets to meet the individual needs of users.



Development of 3G networks will continue and pick up pace in the near future, the 2nd
generation networks will keep evolving in terms of continuous enhancements and towards
convergence of existing 2G standards. People will be getting same quality of service from a
next-generation phone as they would get from their PCs today.
                                         4G TECHNOLOGY




                                         ABSTRACT

Information is power, nowhere is this truer than on the battlefield, where the ability to
communicate clearly and rapidly pass on information spells the difference between survival
and death? 4G (4th Generation) is the technology that is going to drive a soldier in the field
in future. The key to empowering the military with tactical broadband voice, video and data
is 4G communications technology. This technology adopts Wireless technology on the
platform of fixed networks, Advanced antennae technologies and More advanced wireless
security technologies. Next thing is about the gear for the future warrior. Our system provides
a enhanced power of vision, which provides Ground Guidance, Unit Detection, Soldier
Status, Target Hand-Off and provides the Soldier Rescue during the battle. The uniform along
with the armor, onboard computer which will monitor soldiers' overall physiological and
psychological picture of how they are performing in the battle zone and enhanced human
performance which weighs 50 pounds from head to toe against 120 pounds of the current day
system present.
                                     INTRODUCTION


The new systems include a weapon, head-to-toe individual protection, onboard computer
network, soldier-worn power sources, and enhanced human performance. "The Future
Warrior will be a responsive and formidable member of an invincible battle space team". The
Future Warrior system will meet the more immediate, short-term demands of our fighting
warriors in the battle space, and will remind you of an ominous creature out of a science
fiction movie.




                                      TECHNOLOGY


The approach will support military operations across a spectrum of environments from
backpacks to ships. The key technology supporting these initiatives is ad hoc peer-to-peer
wireless networking (ad hoc p2p), also known as a mobile mesh network. Ad hoc p2p
operates by taking a collection of mobile terminals (such as handheld devices and
vehicular systems) that communicate directly with each other without the aid of
established infrastructure. Ad hoc networking provides a self-organizing and self-healing
network structure. Multi-hop routing terminals act as routers and relays for each other, and
extend the range and coverage of communications links between individual soldiers, troop
transports and command centers. This is illustrated in Figure 1.




                    Battle field forces without any fixed infrastructure
                                    THE BASIC DESIGN

The military and DARPA have outlined specific capabilities for these devices. At a
minimum, they will need the following setup processes that are essential for a good and
effective communication between the soldier and his troops.


Deploy-ability with little or no fixed- infrastructure :


Military engagements are often spontaneous, and a communications solution needs to be, as
well. 4G Warriors bring their networks with them, and take them away when they leave.
Network setup automatically begins the minute troops exit a transport, helicopter or ship.


Geo-location well beyond the limitations of GPS :


Soldiers cannot afford to expose themselves on a battlefield to acquire GPS coordinates.
GPS is also limited in that satellite signals cannot penetrate caves, underground
bunkers or inside shielded buildings. Ad hoc p2p wireless has built-in geo-location using an
extremely accurate form of triangulation. The 4G Warrior can triangulate his or her
position, or that of another soldier, based on mesh-enabled vehicles or other devices, even
when hiding in caves or otherwise out of harm_s way. Readings are faster than GPS
(under a second) because soldiers don_t have to wait for multiple satellites to acquire a fix.


Security :


The device security must address both communications security (COMSEC) and a way to
protect the network from unauthorized use if the device is captured. Communications are
more secure when mesh networks allow for route diversity. Meshed architectures also allow
devices to transmit at lower output power to neighbours rather than _Shouting_ at a cell
tower. This lowers the probability of detection and increases battery life. Should a device be
captured, the 4G Warrior can blacklist that device to maintain the integrity of the network.
Anti-jamming robustness : .


The 4G Warrior is neither dependent on a single frequency nor constrained to a
military band. These self-forming, self-healing networks will have the ability to instinctively
and proactively reduce the probability of jamming. Communications devices must
operate while vehicles or soldiers are mobile, even at speeds in excess of 100 mph. 4G
Warriors can receive real-time streaming video from aircraft, such as the Predator
Drone flying over a battlefield. Multi-tap rake receivers minimize the effects of Doppler radar
to maximize the impact of theater air assets.


End-to-end IP :


Modern soldiers grew up with computers and will demand the same applications and user
interfaces available to civilians. The 4G Warrior, using instant messaging, can send photos of
enemy positions back to the camp for analysis, and use voice over IP to communicate with
nonmilitary phones in an occupied city.




                                       CONCLUSION




Here we have used the next technology of mobile technology- 4G for creating a fool
proof system that can be used at any place by a military force in the future. This
system can be used to provide intelligent communication cum detection system using which
every soldier can be virtually connected to a network that will be monitored by a
mobile unit. Since the 4G technology is yet to become a reality the system may look very
simple but as the technology will be implemented a more complex and cost
effective system could be designed.
                  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 3G & 4G TECHNOLOGY



Principally, 4G technologies are not much different with 3G technology or 3.5 G (HSDPA).
The difference is the speed of connection and data transfer. The 4G data access speed can
reach 100 Mbps (in a state of motion) up to 1 Gbps (in stationary state). This means 4G tens
times faster than 3G services, or 3.5 G.

With such data access speed, in order to download 100 songs in MP3 format in which the
average 1 MP3 approximately 3 MB, it only takes 2.4 seconds. Or if you want to download
the whole 2 hour movie with a capacity of about 800 MB file, it just takes 5.6 seconds.

The speed of 4G data connection also makes the user able to watch high quality TV
streaming (high definition TV content) without obstacles. When make video calling, users
can also see the other person clearly and smoothly.

The 3G technology is divided into GSM and CDMA. The 3G technology is often called by
mobile broadband, because of its superiority as a modem for the internet that can be taken
anywhere. The development of 3G technology commercially started in October 2001, when
NTT DoCoMo of Japan with the W-CDMA technology sell their products for the first time a
limited basis. Then followed by SK Telecom, South Korea in 2002 with 1xEV-DO
technology, followed by South Korea's KTF EV-DO technology.

The success of 3 G services in both countries is caused by a factor of government support.
The Japanese government does not charge in advance (upfront fee) for the use of spectrum
licenses for 3G operators in Japan (there are three operators: NTT DoCoMo, KDDI and
Vodafone). While the South Korean government, although they charge in advance, providing
incentives and assistance in the development of broadband wireless (South Korea is the
highest country that uses the Cisco Gigabit Switch Router in the world) as part of
infrastructure development strategy.
The development of 3G technology requires a global spectrum of settings, through the
provision of a wider band. The presence of 3G technology as a result of the development of
second generation technologies, namely the result of evolutionary development, which still
uses the 2G network device and the results expanded the revolutionary developments that
require networks and frequency allocation completely new. Evolutionarily, IMT-2000 have
applied two kinds of evolution to 3G, ie from the 2G CDMA standard IS-95 (cdmaOne) to
the IMT-SC (CDMA2000) and the 2G TDMA standars (GSM/IS-136) to the IMT-SC (EDGE
Revolutionary manner, the IMT-2000 build a new spectrum allocations related to the
demands of an increasingly wide channel.

But the 4G technologies has yet to be clearly defined. Until now there has been no
standardization for 4G as agreed by the competent authorities in the field of wireless
communication technology is.

There are several parties that promote WiMAX as 4G network but is not a true 4G
technology, because it represents a new variant of the technology without wires (wireless) as
well as FireWire and Bluetooth. Actually, the features of existing 3G was borne by the 4G,
but it has a data transfer speed that is much higher, can reach 20 MBps (Megabytes per
second) in the field, 10 times more than the 3G with maximum speed of 2 Mbps.

Though on paper the real 4G speeds can reach 100 Mbps in the environment outside the
home (move), while 1GBps on condition of not moving (statisioner). Not only that, the data
capacity through the 4G network will be much bigger than the 3G, so the downloading of
data that reach tens, even hundreds of MB will be easily achieved in a short time. For
example, with 3G phones, we are only able to download video clips and music clips with
short duration.

While with the 4G that will fully IP-based networks, we not only can download a whole
movie onto a single 4G mobile phone while it is moving, also watch television shows with
high quality image (high definition TV content) and watched our opponents clearly and
smoothly, haltingly not like now with the 3G video calling. Not only that, we also can do
video chat with ease. Also features video conferencing could be more than 2 sites that
conducted simultaneously.
In other words, multimedia traffic will be dominant in the use of 4G technology in the future.
Of course, browsing the Internet without wires will be getting faster and more pleasant
without being distracted by the delay time (delay time) due to traffic congestion problems on
the network data in the present will be overcome with 4G technology. The most fun because
of the cost to enjoy the features of 4G is predicted to be much cheaper than now because the
cost for deploying 4G technologies will be cheaper than 3G technology or HDSPA (3.5 G).

Seeing the direction of 4G development undertaken by the parties, both academic and expert
IT and communications technology companies such as Ericcson, Alcatel, Nokia, Siemens
AG, Lucent, Samsung, Nortel, Motorola, LG and so forth, can be said to 4G technology is the
technology that we are ready to be enjoyed in the near future, because the technology
promises to be commercialized between 2010 until 2015 as planned by the Japanese mobile
company NTT DoCoMo.

The difference between 3G and 4G:

On 3G:

Frequency Band : 1.8 - 2.5 GHz
Bandwidth : 5-20 MHz
Data rate : Up to 2Mbps
Access : Wideband CDMA
FEC : Turbo-codes
Switching :Circuit/Packet
Top speeds : 200 kmph


In the 4G:

Frequency Band : 2 - 8 GHz
Bandwidth : 5-20 MHz
Data rate : 20 Mbps or more
Access : Multi-carrier - CDMA or OFDM(TDMA)
FEC : Concatenated codes
Switching : Packet
Top speeds : 200 kmph

				
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posted:9/26/2011
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