People And The Enviroment

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Produced in April 2008 by Corporate PR, IKEA Services AB. Photos: IKEA, UNICEF, Save the Children, David Orr, Hans-Juergen Burkard/STERN Magazine. Printed on non-chlorine paper that meets the criteria of the Nordic Swan mark. Production cost per copy: EUR 0.70
                                                                                    THE IKEA GROuP
                                                                                                         PEOPLE & THE
                                                                          IKEA has been testing its products since 1961. All the materials used must comply with strict safety standards.

                                                                          We don’t compromise
                                                                          on safety
                                                                          IKEA products must be safe, both for the environment and for human
                                                                          health. That’s why, whenever they develop a new product, our designers,
                                                                          product developers and technicians factor safety, quality and environ-
                                                                          mental impact into the equation right from the drawing board.

Low price –
                                                                          THERE ARE NO SHORTCuTS to     safety or environmental
                                                                          adaptation. New materials are subjected to exten-
                                                                          sive risk analysis and tests before being used in a
                                                                          product, and the product itself is tested continuously.

but not at any price
                                                                          External laboratories and institutes complement the
                                                                          work done in our own test lab.

                                                                          THE IKEA RANGE COMPLIES with the strictest appli-                   Customers should always
The IKEA vision is to create a better everyday life for the many people   cable laws and safety standards, and we have                        feel confident when buying
– our customers, co-workers and the people who produce our products.      detailed regulations on the use of chemicals and
                                                                                                                                              and using IKEA products.
                                                                          other substances in the manufacturing process. If one
Consequently, low prices at IKEA must not be achieved at the expense of
                                                                          country tightens its rules, we introduce these new
people or the environment. That is a condition for doing good business.   regulations on all IKEA markets, whenever possible.

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Did you know…
IKEA WANTS TO minimise or totally refrain from the
use of chemicals and substances that can be
harmful to people and the environment, by
choosing better alternatives wherever possible.

• Water-based and UV-based lacquers are
  the norm for IKEA products.
• IKEA has strict limits for formaldehyde.
• IKEA permits the use of PVC only in electric
• Freons (CFCs) have not been used to make our
  products since 1992.
                                                                                                      IKEA toys must not contain harmful substances or present a choking risk. At the slightest suspicion that a product
                                                                                                      may be dangerous, sales are stopped until a full investigation has been carried out.
                                                     No optical brighteners are used in IKEA quilts

                                                                                                      Tough demands
                                                     and pillows.

                                                                                                      on children’s products
                                                                                                      IKEA SETS PARTICuLARLY rigorous standards for               treasures high up in a bookcase. So it has to cope
                                                                                                      the children’s range, testing products to ensure            with much more demanding use than intended
                                                                                                      they withstand the kind of punishment children              – and bookcases need to be firmly secured to
                                                                                                      dish out. IKEA co-workers who develop and                   the wall.
                                                                                                      purchase children’s products learn about chil-
                                                                                                      dren’s development needs, safety and health in              THE PATRuLL RANGE can prevent many accidents
                                                                                                      our Children’s School training programme.                   in the home. A hob guard can protect a child
                                                                                                                                                                  from scalding hot water, window catches can
All drinking glasses sold at IKEA are lead-free.     IKEA children’s products are carefully tested.   A CHILDREN’S CHAIR can  be a pirate ship on a               prevent falls, and safety plugs offer protection
                                                                                                      stormy sea, or a stepladder to forbidden adult              from electric shocks.

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                                                                                                                Wood is an excellent
                                                                                                                environmental choice

LACK has a core of stiff card sandwiched between thin sheets of wood.

IKEA sells energy-saving dishwashers.                    ÖGLA chair contains sawmill waste.

Economising is
part of our nature
ECONOMISING ON RESOuRCES is     part and parcel          ONE GOOD EXAMPLE is     wood, one of our most
of the IKEA approach to product development.             important raw materials. Other renewable

                                                                                                                 We want to be sure that timber comes
It helps to save not only money, but the environ-        resources are cotton, bamboo, banana leaves
ment, too.                                               and the natural fibre, lyocell.

WE uSE NO MORE material  than is necessary. And          IKEA SELF-ASSEMBLY FuRNITuRE is     easy to disman-     from responsibly managed forests.
we try to use as much renewable, reclaimed and           tle, too. That makes it simpler to recycle and reuse
recyclable material as possible.                         materials such as wood, plastic, metal and glass.

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                                                                                                            Making the best use of trees
                                                                                                            WHEN IKEA uSES raw materials, the principle is             constantly searching for new techniques to get the
                                                                                                            always to make use of as much of the material as           best possible return from every tree trunk.
                                                                                                            possible. Designers and product developers are

Forestry know-
how is vital
Wood is one of the most important raw materials for IKEA. It is also an
excellent choice from an environmental point of view, provided that it
comes from responsibly managed forests. Wood is renewable, recyclable
and biodegradable.
IKEA DOES NOT ACCEPT illegally felled wood or           IKEA FOREST SPECIALISTS work   every day to
wood from intact natural forests. This is one of the    increase understanding of the requirements IKEA
basic conditions that IKEA imposes on suppliers of      has and ensure that these are met. They also
solid wood. Suppliers must be able to document          trace batches of timber all the way back to their
the origin of their wood.                               origins to check that they come from the forests
                                                                                                            NORDEN: Knotty birch is excellent for making furniture in classic Scandinavian style.
                                                        the suppliers have stated.
IKEA HAS ITS OWN forest   specialists who work in
the field, close to both suppliers and forests. Their   OuR LONG-TERM GOAL is     to source all wood for
most important task is to promote development           IKEA products from forests certified as responsi-
towards more responsibly managed forests by             bly managed. At present, the Forest Stewardship
spreading information and knowledge.                    Council (FSC) is the only forest certification
                                                        standard supported by IKEA.

     IKEA forest specialists help to source more wood
                                                                                                            IKEA PS EDEN: We have learned how to use birch
     from forests certified as responsibly managed.                                                         heartwood, the spine of the tree that previously went
                                                                                                                                                                       IKEA PS ELLAN: Sawmill waste mixed with recycled
                                                                                                                                                                       plastic produces a strong material that minimises the
                                                                                                            to waste.                                                  use of resources.

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illegal logging
TRuCKS AND TRAINS loaded with thousands of logs
cross the Russian-Chinese border every day on
their way from the vast Siberian forests to various
producers of wooden goods in China. Border
controls are inadequate; there are many middle-
men and huge quantities of illegally felled timber
change hands every day. IKEA is working with
WWF to put a stop to this.

EFFORTS INCLuDE tightening legislation in Russia,

                                                                                                       Saving Borneo’s rainforests
improving cooperation between customs authori-
ties in both countries, and training forest workers
and inspectors. Methods are also being devel-
oped to enable IKEA suppliers to take more                                                             IN THE STATE OF SABAH in the north-eastern        THE PROJECT EMPLOYS 150 people to raise
responsibility themselves for tracing the origin of                                                    corner of Malaysian Borneo the “Sow a Seed”       seeds into plants and then transplant the
the wood they use.                                                                                     project will help to rehabilitate 18,500 hec-     saplings. In the village where they and their
                                                                                                       tares of rainforest depleted by logging and       families live, the project has helped to provide
                                                                                                       damaged by a serious fire in 1983.                accommodation and meeting places, clean
                                                                                                                                                         water, electricity, schooling and free healthcare.

  Partnerships to benefit the forest                                                                   MILLIONS OF TREES are  being planted in an
                                                                                                       area the size of 29,000 football pitches. It is               run in conjunction with the
                                                                                                                                                         SOW A SEED is
  IKEA BELIEVES THAT itis essential to tackle problems such as illegal logging and the lack of FSC-    hoped that a mix of native species will restore   Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  certified raw materials. That’s why IKEA is involved in various projects that focus on forest man-   biological diversity and tempt insects, birds     and the Yayasan Sabah Group.
  agement, research and training. WWF is an important partner, and one that IKEA works with in         and mammals to return. The area is protected
  Russia and China, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.         from logging for a period of 50 years.

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IKEA supports sustain-
able cotton production
MOST COTTON PLANTATIONS use         huge amounts of     able cotton production techniques, and learn how
water, artificial fertilisers and pesticides. At IKEA   to make much more efficient use of water, essen-
we want the cotton in our products to come from         tial pesticides and artificial fertilisers in ways that
more sustainable sources and are working                are safer for both people and the environment.            Certification means that we know where and how the coffee is produced.
actively to promote this.
                                                        REDuCING THE uSE of resources also enables

                                                                                                                  Certified coffee at IKEA
TOGETHER WITH WWF     we are training cotton            farmers to increase their income without increas-
farmers in Pakistan and India in Farmer Field           ing their output. And these new ways of working
Schools. Here farmers are taught more sustain-          inspire other local farmers, too.
                                                                                                                  WE WANT IKEA customers and co-workers to know
                                                                                                                  that the coffee they drink is produced in a respon-
                                                                                                                  sible manner. This is why all coffee sold and served
                                                                                                                  at IKEA will be certified and traceable all the way
                                                                                                                  back to the plantations.

                                                                                                                  uTZ CERTIFIED MEANS, for     example, that plantation
                                                                                                                  workers’ families have access to reasonable
                                                                                                                  housing, healthcare and schooling for the children.
                                                                                                                  Coffee production must minimise the use of water,
                                                                                                                  artificial fertilisers and pesticides. Farmers receive
                                                                                                                  training and support to increase their productivity
                                                                                                                  and cost-effectiveness at the same time as the
                                                                                                                  quality of the coffee is improved.                       UTZ means “good” in a Mayan language in Guatemala.

                                                                                                                                                                           Good, safe food
                                                                                                                                                                           MILLIONS OF PEOPLE eat   in IKEA store restau-
                                                                                                                                                                           rants and buy food products from the in-store
                                                                                                                                                                           Swedish Food Market shops every year. The
                                                                                                                                                                           food must offer good value for money and be
                                                                                                                                                                           tasty, safe to eat and produced with consid-
                                                                                                                                                                           eration for the environment. All food suppliers
                                                                                                                                                                           must comply with the code of conduct require-
                                                                                                                                                                           ments in The IKEA Way on Purchasing Food.
                                                                                                                    Good hygiene is an important aspect of safety.

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     IKEA products must be manufactured under

                                                    IKEA on site
     acceptable working conditions by suppliers
     who take responsibility for the environment.

                                                    in the factories
                                                    The best way of influencing and contributing to positive development is to
                                                    maintain close, long-term relationships with our suppliers. By supporting
                                                    suppliers with know-how we want to motivate them to take more respon-
                                                    sibility for people and the environment.
                                                    THE BASIS FOR IKEA product development is our
                                                    insight into production conditions. That’s why
                                                    designers, product developers and purchasers
                                                    often work on site in factories. Better working
                                                    conditions and more environmentally friendly
                                                    production methods then become a natural part
                                                    of discussions.

                                                    WE WANT IMPROVEMENTS in working conditions and
                                                    environmental performance to be part of suppli-
                                                    ers’ day-to-day operations, independent of IKEA.
                                                    We help them to put their own regular inspections
                                                    and corrective measures in place, instead of
                                                    waiting passively for IKEA audits. Each supplier
                                                    must also establish a committee of managers and
                                                    co-workers to monitor health and safety issues.

                                                        For a supplier, investments in working conditions
                                                        and the environment can lead to more orders,
                                                        better productivity and higher profitability.

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Our code
of conduct
Purchasing Home Furnishing Products (IWAY),
specifies the minimum requirements we place on
suppliers and describes what they can expect
from us in return. IWAY applies to all IKEA sup-
pliers who, in turn, are responsible for informing

                                                                                                           Difficult, but not impossible
their employees and sub-contractors.

IWAY requirements include:
• Compliance with national legislation                                                                     IN CERTAIN AREAS progress in making improve-            IN SOME COuNTRIES it   is difficult to resolve issues
• No forced or child labour                                                                                ments to working conditions and the environment         relating to working hours and wages as existing
• No discrimination                                                                                        is slower than we would like and our inspectors         legislation is not implemented and is inad-
• Payment of at least the minimum wage and                                                                 don’t always get a realistic picture of the situation   equately policed by the authorities. In such
  compensation for overtime                                                                                when they visit a factory. That is why IKEA also        situations the efforts and inspections of IKEA
• A safe and healthy working environment                                                                   makes unannounced visits to suppliers’ premises.        alone are insufficient.
• Responsibility for waste, emissions and the
  handling of chemicals

SPECIALLY TRAINED IKEA auditors make detailed
inspections to ensure compliance with these
requirements. Suppliers are given a deadline for
                                                                                                                   The best way to solve problems is to be there
taking care of any problems that are identified,                                                                   and contribute to the solution.
before a new inspection is carried out.              IKEA introduced its code of conduct, IWAY, in 2000.

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IKEA works actively
to prevent child labour
Child labour does occur in some countries where IKEA purchases products.                                     IKEA Social Initiative
                                                                                                             sides with children
To deal with this, IKEA works with preventive measures among suppliers and
cooperates with various bodies that combat the root causes of child labour.
THERE IS A special code of conduct on child labour,   IN SOME AREAS, where     the risk of child labour is
The IKEA Way on Preventing Child Labour, that         more pronounced, IKEA helps to provide on-the-
all IKEA suppliers and their sub-contractors must     spot educational resources in the form of work-        Every child has the right to a healthy, secure childhood and the oppor-
comply with. But rules alone can not solve this       shops for managers, workers and representatives        tunity of a good education. IKEA Social Initiative works together with
problem. That is why IKEA lays great emphasis         from the sub-contractors. Child labour and             UNICEF and Save the Children on various projects to give children
on preventive measures.                               children’s rights are discussed openly and frankly
                                                      in order to bring about a change in attitude and
                                                                                                             a better start in life.
PuRCHASERS, TECHNICIANS AND product develop-          build a climate of mutual respect.
ers frequently visit suppliers. This gives them an
opportunity not only to observe the conditions, but   AT EVERY SuPPLIER’S factory in India IKEA trains
also to initiate discussions that increase under-     a children’s ombudsman to protect and promote
standing of why children should not be at work.       children’s rights. This ombudsman then trains a
                                                      similar ombudsman for each sub-contractor.

                                                      IKEA INSPECTORS VISIT suppliers    regularly to make
                                                      sure there is no child labour. In addition, external
                                                      auditors make unannounced visits to suppliers
                                                      and sub-contractors.

                                                      IF, DESPITE ALL these efforts, child labour is
                                                      exposed, the supplier must ensure that the child
                                                      receives an education instead. IKEA follows up to
                                                      make sure the child attends school. No new
                                                      orders are placed with the supplier for six months,
                                                      and only when the supplier can point to improved
                                                      routines to prevent child labour is the business
                                                      relationship normalised.

                                                         All actions must be in the
                                                         best interests of the child.                          Together we strengthen children’s rights.

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We want to improve
children’s opportunities in life
Many children in South Asia lack clean water and basic healthcare, and
have little chance of receiving a quality education. We want to change that.
LASTING CHANGE REQuIRES a holistic approach          FIRST AND FOREMOST IKEA Social Initiative sup-
that involves understanding the children’s situa-    ports projects aimed at women and children in
tion and undertaking long-term programmes to         India and Pakistan, where the need is great and
combat poverty, ill health and lack of knowledge.    IKEA has conducted business for many years.
The way forward is often through the children’s
mothers, so IKEA is actively involved in promoting
women’s rights, too.                                                                                   The project covers hundreds of villages in India and millions of people.

                                                                                                       Reaching children
                                                                                                       via mothers
                                                                                                       MANY IKEA RuGS are woven in the northern Indian             event of illness. Fair interest rates mean the women
                                                                                                       state of Uttar Pradesh. Despite a sharp fall in             do not have to turn to loan sharks and force their
                                                                                                       recent years, child labour can still occur here, so         children to work to pay off ever-rising debts.
                                                                                                       IKEA Social Initiative is supporting a major
                                                                                                       UNICEF project to promote children’s rights.                THE WOMEN ARE taught     about health and diet,
                                                                                                                                                                   and about the importance of education for their
                                                                                                       WOMEN AND MOTHERS are      the key to bringing              children – particularly for the girls, who are often
                                                                                                       lasting change to ancient traditions. Much of the           kept at home to help around the house instead of
                                                                                                       work focuses on empowering these women and                  going to school.
                                                                                                       raising awareness about how they can prevent
                                                                                                       their children from being forced into work.                 CHILDREN WHO HAVE not previously attended
                                                                                                                                                                   school are first taught at an Alternative Learning
                                                                                                       THE PROJECT SETS uP women’s self-help groups.               Centre (ALC) before enrolling in the formal educa-
                                                                                                       The women save small sums of money as shared                tion system. ALC teachers are trained in play-
                                                                                                       funds. Loans from this account enable women to              based learning techniques that make learning
                                                                                                       start their own small businesses to contribute to the       basic skills easier and more appealing to pupils.
                                                                                                       family income, or avoid financial distress in the

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The health project will reach more than 10 million children.
                                                                                School instead of work

A healthy start                                                                 IKEA SOCIAL INITIATIVE supports  UNICEF’s work
                                                                                to prevent child labour on the cotton seed farms
IN PARTS OF India many children fall seriously ill or                           in Andhra Pradesh in southern India.
die as a result of worm parasites, infant diarrhoea
and the fact that too few children and women are                                IT IS ESTIMATED that as many as 200,000 children
immunised. Illness also often leads a family into a                             – mostly girls, many as young as six or seven –
spiral of debt, which can subsequently force children                           work in the fields there.
into work.
                                                                                THE PROJECT HELPS parents  to understand the
CHILDREN AND MOTHERS are    immunised against
common illnesses such as measles, polio, diphtheria
                                                               Vaccinations     importance of schooling and gives thousands
                                                                                of children access to education in special or

                                                               improve living
and whooping cough. They also receive preventive                                ordinary schools.
medical treatment, such as deworming medicines
and vitamin supplements, and are given mosquito                                 ONE IMPORTANT ASPECT of    the project is to
nets to protect against malaria. Mothers are encour-
aged to breast-feed their babies, which greatly
                                                               conditions.      establish the contacts with government authori-
                                                                                ties, NGOs and employers that are essential to
reduces child mortality.                                                        change attitudes to child labour.

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                                               IKEA customers                                                 Climate threat
                                               help children at risk
                                               SINCE 2003 IKEA has been making donations from the sale
                                                                                                              demands smart solutions
                                               of teddy bears and soft toys to children’s projects all over
                                               the world. For a number of weeks every year IKEA
                                               donates 1 euro for every soft toy sold – a total of millions
                                               of euros – to projects run by UNICEF and Save the
                                               Children. So far the money has helped fund projects in
                                               around a dozen countries, including Albania, Bangladesh,
                                               Russia, Vietnam, Ivory Coast, Uganda and China.

 Schools and games in China
 MILLIONS OF PEOPLE in China are leaving the
 countryside to seek work in the cities. Save the
 Children works to protect children who are living
 in difficult conditions after migrating, as well as
 those left behind in the rural communities.

 SAVE THE CHILDREN liaises with local authorities
 to ensure that children have access to educa-
 tion and healthcare. The charity also builds
 activity centres and playgrounds so that
                                                          Children need to play and go to school.
 children have an opportunity to play.

 Stop for child exploitation in Romania
                                                          EVERY YEAR THOuSANDS of children are
                                                          abandoned in Romania and later risk being
                                                          exploited as child workers or becoming victims
                                                          of trafficking. UNICEF works to prevent the
                                                          desertion and exploitation of these children.

                                                          NEW-BORN BABIES are registered so they can
                                                          no longer disappear without a trace, and             Stackable products mean less
                                                          social workers and medical staff support new
                                                          mothers. Some of the money is used to fund           transportation and fewer emissions.
 Romanian mothers get help to keep their children.
                                                          homes for mothers and children.

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IKEA will reduce its
impact on the climate
In a bid to stop the accelerating
pace of climate change, IKEA is
working actively to reduce carbon
dioxide emissions resulting from
its operations.
many areas: optimising packaging solutions,
transporting goods with the least possible envi-

                                                                                                                  Transport requirements
ronmental impact, encouraging more customers
and co-workers to leave their cars at home,
cutting our electricity consumption and reducing
our reliance on fossil fuels.                           As early as 1956, IKEA was aware of the benefits of not
                                                        transporting more air than necessary. LÖVET table was
                                                        designed with removable legs so it would pack flat.       IKEA PRODuCTS ARE TRANSPORTED by      road, rail
                                                                                                                  and sea between suppliers, distribution centres
                                                                                                                  and stores. To reduce emissions, IKEA requires
                                                                                                                  distribution centres and transport service provid-

Less air means fewer emissions                                                                                    ers to meet a number of key criteria.

                                                                                                                  ALL TRANSPORT SERVICE providers must use
                                                                                                                  modern vehicles, have specific emission targets
                                                                                                                  and measure their carbon dioxide emissions.
                                                                                                                  The demands are specified in the code of conduct
                                                                                                                  The IKEA Way on Distributing Home Furnishing
                                                                                                                  Products, and performance is monitored by IKEA.

                                                                                                                  CLEANER FuELS AND fuel-efficient driving tech-
                                                                                                                  niques are also important factors in making goods
                                                                                                                  transport better adapted to the environment.

Slimming down KLIPPAN sofa packaging by a few centimetres made room for four more sofas in every truck.

GOODS TRANSPORT ACCOuNTS for a large portion            smart packaging solutions are of key importance                   Flatpacks mean we transport
of carbon dioxide emissions. That’s why it’s
important to pack every container and every
                                                        in keeping prices low and reducing environmental
                                                                                                                          only the minimum amount of air.
truck as full as possible. IKEA flatpacks and other

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                                                                                                                         IKEA tackles climate issues
                                                                                                                         with WWF
Better public transport for
customers and co-workers                                                                                                 IKEA IS COOPERATING with   WWF in a project to
                                                                                                                         reduce impact on the climate. The aim is to cut
IKEA WANTS TO make it easier for customers and                                                                           carbon dioxide emissions from IKEA suppliers and
co-workers alike to leave the car at home and                                                                            from passenger traffic to and from the stores.
instead use public transport to travel to and
from the store.                                                                                                          IKEA, WWF AND selected     suppliers in some coun-
                                                                                                                         tries are creating a casebook of good examples
WHEN PLANNING A new       store, access to good                                                                          and methods for how suppliers can save both
public transport networks is an important part of                                                                        energy and money and reduce their reliance on
the decision-making process. IKEA also works                                                                             fossil fuels, both in the manufacturing process
with local authorities to improve bus and train                                                                          and for heating, cooling and ventilation.
services to existing stores. To make life easier for
customers using public transport, a home delivery                                                                        PILOT STuDIES ON transporting people are being
service is available. In many places, these home                                                                         undertaken in several countries. Better public
delivery companies use environmentally adapted                                                                           transport is being developed in partnership with
vehicles. Some stores offer discounts on the hire of         In many places IKEA offers free shuttle buses between       local authorities, businesses and organisations,
small self-drive biofuel delivery vans for custom-           the city centre and the store, as well as environmentally   which can also help with other innovative ideas      WWF ALSO PROVIDES advice for the internal IKEA
ers who have travelled by bus or train.                      friendly home delivery of goods purchased.                  and encourage a change in behaviour patterns.        energy project, “IKEA goes renewable”.

IKEA has started to replace company cars with “green” alternatives. Vehicles for the home delivery service will also
be “greener”.

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                                                                                                       Low-energy bulbs last longer and use less electricity   Internal communication and activities involve IKEA co-
                                                                                                       than conventional bulbs. When bulbs have burnt out,     workers in environmental issues.
                                                                                                       IKEA stores ensure they are responsibly recycled.

                                                                                                       Simple measures
                                                                                                       save energy and money
 IKEA goes renewable
                                                                                                       SIMPLE EFFORTS CAN save a lot of energy, both in new IKEA buildings and older ones that were not
                                                                                                       initially built to economise on energy and resources. Consumption is continually monitored and all IKEA
                                                                                                       units use energy-saver checklists to compare performance and learn from the good examples of others.
 ECONOMISING ON resources      is part of our      WHAT’S MORE, OuR long-term ambition is that
 corporate culture. So it’s natural that, under    all IKEA stores, distribution centres, factories    • Stores can save a lot of electricity by having        • Effective temperature control systems are big
 the slogan “IKEA goes renewable”, we have         and offices will run entirely on renewable            all lights lit only during opening hours.               energy-savers, as air conditioning is only used
 set ourselves the target of improving our total   energy instead of fossil fuels. All newly built     • All IKEA buildings use energy-saving lighting           when really necessary.
 energy efficiency by 25 percent compared to       facilities are designed to use biofuels, geother-     where possible.                                       • Distribution centres cut electricity consumption
 2005 levels.                                      mal heat, solar or wind power, and all existing     • Solar panels and extra roof insulation make             drastically with motion sensors, keeping areas
                                                   buildings are being adapted where possible.           heating and cooling buildings more energy-              lit only when people are present.

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