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Behavioral And Social Learning

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					                             BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES

                                            OUTLINE



HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY

NEO-HULLIANS AND EARLY SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY



LANGUAGE AND MEDIATION IN DISCRIMINATION LEARNING



CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY (BANDURA)

    1959 - SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT

    1963 - MODELING

    1977 - RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM

    1986 - SELF-REGULATION

          SELF-OBSERVATION

          SELF-REACTIVE INFLUENCES



EVALUATION

    STRENGTHS AND CONTRIBUTIONS

    LIMITATIONS AND CRITICISMS




                                                                       LECTURE 4 - 1
                          HISTORICAL BACKGROUND - INTRODUCTION

- FROM H. STEVENSON IN MUSSEN HANDBOOK


A PERSISTENT ISSUE IN HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY CONCERNS THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF:
    COGNITIVE EXPERIENCE versus OVERT BEHAVIOR (AND SURROUNDING STIMULI)

PRIOR TO THE 20th CENTURY, PHILOSOPHERS AND PSYCHOLOGISTS DEBATED VARYING INTERPRETATIONS
OF EXPERIENCE IN TERMS OF SENSATIONS, PERCEPTIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, FEELINGS, FACULTIES OF THE
MIND

IN THE FIRST HALF OF THIS CENTURY, A NEW VIEW DEVELOPED:
   LOGICAL POSITIVISM: SCIENTISTS SHOULD DEAL ONLY WITH OBSERVABLE EVENTS
   RATIONALE:
   - SCIENCE IS HAMPERED AND CONFUSED BY EFFORTS TO EXPLAIN SUBJECTIVE PHENOMENA
   - CONCEPTS AND VARIABLES HAVE MEANING ONLY AS THEY CAN BE OPERATIONALLY DEFINED
   - SCIENTISTS MUST DEVELOP EXPLICIT METHODS AND PROCEDURES FOR GATHERING DATA
   - NEED A SET OF SYNTACTIC RULES FOR INTERPRETING DATA

IMPLICATIONS:
  POSITIVISM PROVIDED PHILOSOPHICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR BEHAVIORIST LEARNING THEORIES AND
  METHODS, INCLUDING:
  - STUDY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
  - EXPERIMENTAL AND LABORATORY STUDIES

CONSEQUENCES:
  - DEVELOPMENT OF RIGOROUS, EXPLICIT METHODS FOR STUDYING LEARNING
  - A PLETHORA OF THEORIES
  - POWERFUL TOOLS FOR MODIFYING BEHAVIOR




                                                                               LECTURE 4 - 2
                          HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF LEARNING THEORIES

EMPIRICIST ASSOCIATIONIST PHILOSOPHERS: LOCKE, MILL, BAIN, SPENCER (1600-1900)
PAVLOV - RESPONDENT CONDITIONING
  - OPERATIONALIZED ASSOCIATIONIST PRINCIPLES
  - PROVIDED A USEFUL EXPERIMENTAL PARADIGM
  - PROPOSED A TESTABLE ASSOCIATIONIST THEORY

WATSON - BEHAVIORISM
 - POPULARIZED CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES IN U.S.
 - POLEMIC BEHAVIORIST (ANTI-INSTINCT)
 - APPLIED CONDITIONING PARADIGM TO EMOTIONS (ALBERT EXPERIMENT)
 - OFFERED CHILD-REARING ADVICE

THORNDIKE - CONNECTIONISM
 - INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING
 - IMPORTANCE OF REWARD
 - LAW OF EFFECT
   - CAST LEARNER AS ACTIVE
   - FATHER OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

SKINNER - OPERANT CONDITIONING
  - PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT LEARNING
  - CONCEPTS OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT, PUNISHMENT
  - VERSATILE PARADIGM
  - DENIED VALUE OF THEORIES
  - DENIED SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF MENTAL EVENTS
  - DEVELOPED POWERFUL TECHNOLOGY

HULL - MATHEMATICO-DEDUCTIVE THEORY
  - BASED UPON PAVLOV AND THORNDIKE
  - POSTULATED INNER EVENTS AND STATES:
          . DRIVE (D)
       . MEDIATING RESPONSES (rg - sg)

SPENCE AND KUENE LANGUAGE AND MEDIATION (rm)
  ACQUISITION OF S - R ASSOCIATION VS. PERCEPTION OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STIMULI

CRITIQUE:
 - REDUCTIONIST
 - TOOK NO ACCOUNT OF QUALITATIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN:
      ANIMALS AND HUMANS
  CHILDREN AND ADULTS
  MENTALLY HANDICAPPED AND GENIUSES




                                                                                    LECTURE 4 - 3
                           NEO-HULLIANS - SOCIAL LEARNING THEORISTS

J. DOLLARD, L. DOOB, N. MILLER, O. H. MOWRER & R. SEARS - FRUSTRATION AND AGGRESSION (1939)
   - COMPARED PSYCHOANALYTIC AND HULLIAN CONCEPTS
   - FRUSTRATION = DRIVE --> AGGRESSION

N. MILLER & J. DOLLARD - SOCIAL LEARNING AND IMITATION (1941)
 - IMITATION = REINFORCEMENT OF "MATCHING RESPONSES"

J. DOLLARD & N. MILLER - PERSONALITY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY (1950)

O. H. MOWRER - LEARNING THEORY AND PERSONALITY DYNAMICS (1950)
 - SECONDARY SELF-REINFORCEMENT

SEARS, MACCOBY & LEVIN - PATTERNS OF CHILD REARING (1957)
 - ANTECEDENTS OF DEPENDENCY, AGGRESSION, SEX-TYPING, CONSCIENCE




                                                                                    LECTURE 4 - 4
LECTURE 4 - 5
                            CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
A. BANDURA & R. WALTERS - ADOLESCENT AGGRESSION (1959)
 BASIC CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL LEARNING:
  DRIVE
  LEARNED MOTIVES
  DISCRIMINATION
  GENERALIZATION
  INHIBITION
  REINFORCEMENT
  LEARNED REWARDS
  ENVIRONMENTAL EVENT
  EXTINCTION
  HABIT
  INSTRUMENTAL ACT
  GOAL RESPONSE

 THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS CONSISTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HABITUAL RESPONSE PATTERNS
 THAT ARE ACCEPTABLE IN THE SOCIETY IN WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL LIVES. THE LEARNING OF SUCH
 HABITS, OR CUE-RESPONSE ASSOCIATIONS, REQUIRES THE PRESENCE OF SOME KIND OF DRIVE OR
 MOTIVATING PROCESS AND THE OCCURRENCE OF A REWARD OR REINFORCEMENT. ANY ACTION SE-
 QUENCE MAY BE ANALYZED IN TERMS OF INSTRUMENTAL ACTS THAT LEAD TOWARD THE GOAL, AND
 THE FINAL DRIVE-REDUCING GOAL RESPONSE."

BANDURA & WALTERS (1963) SOCIAL LEARNING AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
  REJECTED PSYCHOANALYTIC AND NEO-HULLIAN CONCEPTS (AS TOO VAGUE) IN FAVOR OF
  MICROSCOPIC CONCEPTS SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT, VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT, MODELING, AND
  OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING:
    "THE WEAKNESS OF LEARNING APPROACHES THAT DISCOUNT THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL VARIABLES
    ARE NOWHERE MORE CLEARLY REVEALED THAN IN THEIR TREATMENT OF THE ACQUISITION OF
    NOVEL RESPONSES, A CRUCIAL ISSUE FOR ANY ADEQUATE THEORY OF LEARNING." (p. 1-2).


 EXPERIMENTAL PARADIGM = EFFECTS OF MODELS

  SELF-CONTROL = RESISTANCE TO DEVIATION
   ACQUISITION THROUGH DIRECT REINFORCEMENT
   ACQUISITION THROUGH MODELING




                                                                              LECTURE 4 - 6
BANDURA (1977) SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

COGNITIVE DETERMINANTS OF LEARNING AND PERFORMANCE

     "EXTREME BEHAVIORISM . . . HAS NEGLECTED DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOR ARISING FROM COGNITIVE
     FUNCTIONING" (p. 10).

     "PEOPLE LEARN AND RETAIN BEHAVIOR MUCH BETTER BY USING COGNITIVE AIDS THAT THEY
     GENERATE THAN BY REINFORCED REPETITIVE PERFORMANCE. WITH GROWING EVIDENCE THAT
     COGNITION HAS CAUSAL INFLUENCE ON BEHAVIOR, THE ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE INFLUENCE OF
     INTERNAL DETERMINANTS BEGAN TO LOSE THEIR FORCE" (p. 10).


E.G. EMPHASIZED ATTENTION AND RETENTION PROCESSES IN EFFECTS OF MODELING, OUTCOME

EXPECTANCIES AS DETERMINANTS OF MOTIVATION



RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM:

            B



     P <---------------> E

BEHAVIOR (B), COGNITION AND OTHER PERSONAL FACTORS (P), AND ENVIRONMENT (E) ALL OPERATE

INTERACTIVELY AS DETERMINANTS OF EACH OTHER

- MULTIPLICITY OF INTERACTING INFLUENCES.

- RECIPROCAL = MUTUAL ACTION BETWEEN CAUSAL FACTORS



A1 B1 A2 B2 A3



P1 St--->R---->Sreinf



P2      St--->R---->Sreinf



P1        St--->R---->Sreinf




                                                                                  LECTURE 4 - 7
SAME EVENTS CHANGE THEIR STATUS FROM BEHAVIOR TO ENVIRONMENT AND FROM ENVIRONMENT TO

BEHAVIOR AT DIFFERENT ENTRY POINTS IN THE FLOW OF INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE



BANDURA - SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF THOUGHT AND ACTION: A SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY (1986)

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

MODELS OF HUMAN NATURE AND CAUSALITY
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
ENACTIVE LEARNING
SOCIAL DIFFUSION AND INNOVATION
PREDICTIVE KNOWLEDGE AND FORETHOUGHT
INCENTIVE MOTIVATORS
VICARIOUS MOTIVATORS
SELF-REGULATORY MECHANISMS
SELF-EFFICACY
COGNITIVE REGULATORS


SELF-REGULATION OF BEHAVIOR

  "THE SOCIAL-LEARNING PRINCIPLES PRESENTED IN THIS BOOK LEAD ONE TO EXPECT THAT MOST
  PERSONS WILL ACQUIRE DISCRIMINATIVE SELF-CONTROLLING BEHAVIOR AS A CONSEQUENCE OF
  EXPOSURE TO DIFFERENTIAL MODELING CUES AND DIFFERENTIAL PATTERNS OF REINFORCEMENT ." (p.
  222)

    - BANDURA & WALTERS (1963)

  "IF ACTIONS WERE DETERMINED SOLELY BY EXTERNAL REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS, PEOPLE WOULD
  BEHAVE LIKE WEATHERVANES, CONSTANTLY SHIFTING DIRECTION TO CONFORM TO WHATEVER
  MOMENTARY INFLUENCE HAPPENED TO IMPINGE UPON THEM." (p. 335)

  ". . .PEOPLE DISPLAY CONSIDERABLE SELF-DIRECTION IN THE FACE OF MANY COMPETING INFLUENCES."
  (p. 335)

    - BANDURA (1986)


SUBFUNCTIONS IN SELF-REGULATION OF BEHAVIOR

SELF-OBSERVATION

JUDGEMENT (SELF-EVALUATION)

SELF-REACTION




                                                                                 LECTURE 4 - 8
                        SELF-OBSERVATION FUNCTION AND SUBPROCESSES


FUNCTIONS:
 PROVIDES INFORMATION FOR:
  SETTING PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
  EVALUATING CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR
 SELF-DIAGNOSTIC DEVICE
 SELF-MOTIVATING DEVICE

PERFORMANCE DIMENSIONS:
  REGULARITY
  PROXIMITY
  ACCURACY

JUDGMENTAL PROCESSES

PERSONAL (INTERNAL) STANDARDS
 ACQUISITION
  REFLECTIVE APPRAISALS
  DIRECT TUITION
  MODELING
  GENERALIZATION
 PROPERTIES OF STANDARDS
  CHALLENGE
  EXPLICITNESS
  PROXIMITY

SOCIAL (REFERENTIAL) COMPARISONS
 SOURCE OF STANDARDS
  NORMATIVE COMPARISON
  SOCIAL COMPARISON
  SELF-COMPARISON
  COLLECTIVE (GROUP) COMPARISON

VALUATION OF ACTIVITY

PERFORMANCE ATTRIBUTION
 PERSONAL LOCUS
 EXTERNAL LOCUS




                                                                     LECTURE 4 - 9
                                     SELF-REACTIVE INFLUENCES

CREATION                  POSITIVE
  OF ---> BEHAVIOR --->   SELF-
INCENTIVES                REACTION

STANDARDS ARE TRANSLATED INTO GOALS
INCENTIVES MOTIVATE PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR THAT ACCORDS TO STANDARDS
 TANGIBLE SELF-MOTIVATORS
 SELF-EVALUATIVE MOTIVATORS: (PRIDE, SELF-RESPECT, SELF-SATISFACTION)

DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-REGULATORY SKILLS
  SELF-MONITORING
  MARSHALLING ENVIRONMENTAL SUPPORTS
  COGNITIVE AIDS (VISUALIZING)
  SELF-INCENTIVES

IMPLICATIONS
DYSFUNCTIONAL SELF-EVALUATION SYSTEMS
 DEPRESSION
  SELF-MONITORING
  STANDARD-SETTING

CONCEPTUAL BY-PASS OF THE SELF-SYSTEM
 RENAMING AND EXTERIORIZATION
 SELECTIVE REGRESS OF CAUSES

RECIPROCAL INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS

SELECTIVE ACTIVATION AND DISENGAGEMENT
OF INTERNAL CONTROL
 MORAL JUSTIFICATION
 MINIMIZING, IGNORING CONSEQUENCES
 DEHUMANIZATION, ATTRIBUTION OF BLAME




                                                                         LECTURE 4 - 10
                                 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY:
BROADENED CONCEPT OF REINFORCEMENT
 - REINFORCEMENT CONSTITUTES FEEDBACK
 - VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT
 - SELF REINFORCEMENT

BROADENED CONCEPT OF LEARNING
 - "R" INCLUDES SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATIONS, IMAGES
 EXPLAINED SOCIALIZATION PROCESSES
 - MODELING
 - RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM

CONCEPTUALIZED COGNITIVE PROCESSES
- GOAL SETTING
- OUTCOME EXPECTANCIES
- VERBAL SELF INSTRUCTIONS




                                                           LECTURE 4 - 11
                                STRENGTHS AND CONTRIBUTIONS

BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY

1. CONCEPTS AND METHODS CHALLENGED THEORIES EMPLOYING VAGUE, GLOBAL, REIFIED (INNER-
   ENTITY) EXPLANATIONS. HELPED PSYCHOLOGISTS CIRCUMVENT FRUITLESS DEBATES RE: NATURE OF
   SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE, BUT WAS "TOO SUCCESSFUL"

2. IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO EXPLANATIONS AT SITUATIONAL (MECHANISTIC) AND ADAPTIVE LEVELS
   OF ANALYSIS (AHISTORICAL, SHORT-TERM EXPLANATIONS) (E.G. MODELING)

3. FACILITATED DESCRIPTION AND EXPLANATION OF
   S - R - rf CONTINGENCIES; EXPLAINS SITUATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING.

4. DEVELOPED OBJECTIVE METHODS FOR STUDYING THE DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOR.
    "AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF THE BEHAVIORIST MOVEMENT WAS ITS EMPHASIS ON EXPLICITNESS IN
    EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA. . . . ITS IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS ARE
    METHODOLOGICAL, RATHER THAN THEORETICAL."

          - STEVENSON (1983)

5. CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS AND PRINCIPLES DO EXPLAIN THE SIMPLER FORMS OF LEARNING, E.G. AT
   SENSORI-MOTOR, PREOPERATIONAL LEVELS

6. TECHNOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR CHANGES
    BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
   OPERANT CONDITIONING
   ANALYSIS OF REINFORCEMENTS AND PUNISHMENTS     DESENSITIZATION
    TEACHING MACHINES
    TASK ANALYSIS
    PRACTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR PRACTITIONERS




                                                                                 LECTURE 4 - 12
              EVALUATION: LIMITATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES

BEHAVIORIST THEORIES

1. FAIL TO EXPLAIN PERCEPTION, COGNITION, AFFECT AS ASPECTS OF LEARNING.

2. DOGMATIC

3. REDUCTIONIST - SHUNS DESCRIPTION
  (EXCEPT S - R, R - S CONTINGENCIES)
  S = S = S (EQUIPOTENTIALITY OF STIMULI)
  R = R = R (RESPONSE EQUIVALENCE)
  REDUCTIONISM IS ANTITHETICAL TO THE DESCRIPTIVE AND EXPLANATORY GOALS OF SCIENCE

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY (AND BLT)

4. NO ANALYSIS AT STRUCTURAL OR DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS
   - EXPLAINS SHORT TERM CHANGES, BUT NOT ENDURING CHANGES
   - DOES NOT EXPLAIN ENDURING, PERVASIVE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

5. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY IS INFORMAL, NOT SYSTEMATIC




                                                                               LECTURE 4 - 13
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN LEARNING:
I. THE ROLE OF MEDIATION IN DISCRIMINATION LEARNING
PERSPECTIVES:
HULLIAN VERSUS GESTALT
    EMPIRICIST ("OBJECTIVE") VERSUS RATIONALIST (PHENOMENOLOGICAL)
HULLIAN VIEW:
   LEARNING = ACQUISITION OF NEW S - R ASSOCIATIONS
GESTALT VIEW:
   LEARNING = ACQUISITION OF NEW PERCEPTIONS OF RELATIONSHIPS AMONG STIMULI
CRITICAL EXPERIMENTAL TEST:
                                DISCRIMINATION LEARNING PARADIGM: CHOICE OF "B" IS REINFORCED



                                   A
                                           B
                             TRANSFER TEST (LEARNING OF A
                             NEW "CORRECT" RESPONSE):



                             B                    C
                          FINDINGS:
                  SUBJECTS MORE OFTEN CHOSE (C), THE SMALLER OF THE TWO
TEST STIMULI =
 EVIDENCE OF TRANSPOSITION

INTERPRETATIONS:
DATA WERE PROBLEMATICAL FOR HULLIANS:
  EVIDENCE OF TRANSPOSITION WAS CITED AS SUPPORTIVE OF GESTALT THEORY
K. SPENCE'S (HULLIAN) EXPLANATION: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CURVES
CORRESPOND TO THE "PSYCHOPHYSICAL DIFFERENCES" BETWEEN THE STIMULUS
PAIRS

ALTERNATIVE HULLIAN INTERPRETATION SUGGESTED BY M. KUENNE (1946):
LANGUAGE ABILITY MIGHT EXPLAIN AND PREDICT DIFFERENCES IN RESULTS FOR
ADULT HUMANS AND OLDER CHILDREN
  S-r-s-R
  S --> r (= "SMALL" =) s --> R

COMPARATIVE STUDIES INDICATED THAT ADULTS AND OLDER CHILDREN MORE
OFTEN CHOSE (C), THE SMALLER OF THE TWO TEST STIMULI = EVIDENCE OF
"LANGUAGE MEDIATED RESPONSE"

HOWEVER, ANIMALS AND YOUNGER CHILDREN MORE OFTEN CHOSE (B), THE LARGER
 - EVIDENCE OF SPECIFIC S-R ASSOCIATION


IMPLICATIONS:
  - DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES COULD BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN STUDIES OF
    ANIMALS AND THOSE OF HUMANS.
  - LEARNING ABILITIES OF CHILDREN VERSUS ADULTS ARE QUALITATIVELY
    DIFFERENT.


                                                                                  LECTURE 4 - 14
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN LEARNING: II. MEDIATION IN REVERSAL AND
NONREVERSAL SHIFTS.
   - H. KENDLER & T. KENDLER (1962) (NEO-HULLIANS)

PARADIGM:
 TWO DIMENSIONAL DISCRIMINATION TASK, E.G. SIZE AND COLOR
 SUBJECT LEARNS TO DISTINGUISH ONE PROPERTY AS CORRECT, E.G. "LARGE"

 TEST FOR TRANSFER TO LEARNING OF A NEW RESPONSE:
 - (1) WITHIN A DIMENSION (SIZE), E.G. FROM "LARGE" TO "SMALL" = REVERSAL
        SHIFT
 - (2) ACROSS DIMENSIONS, (SIZE TO COLOR) E.G. FROM "LARGE" TO "BLACK" =
                                NONREVERSAL SHIFT




                              FINDINGS:

 - YOUNG CHILDREN (BELOW 6) SHOW POSITIVE TRANSFER ON NON-REVERSAL SHIFT.

 - OLDER CHILDREN SHOW POSITIVE TRANSFER ON REVERSAL SHIFT AND NEGATIVE TRANSFER ON NON-

  REVERSAL SHIFT.




                                                                             LECTURE 4 - 15
INTERPRETATIONS:

 WITH YOUNG CHILDREN, REINFORCEMENT STRENGTHENS APPROACH TENDENCIES TOWARD SPECIFIC

 STIMULI, E.G. IF "LARGE" IS REINFORCED WHEN CHOSEN, THEN "BLACK" IS ALSO REINFORCED 50%.

 THEREFORE, A REVERSAL SHIFT SHOULD BE DIFFICULT BECAUSE IF "SMALL" WAS NEVER REINFORCED,

 HIGH NEGATIVE TRANSFER WILL OCCUR.



 ON A NONREVERSAL SHIFT (E.G. TO "BLACK") SOME POSITIVE TRANSFER - OR AT LEAST NO NEGATIVE

 TRANSFER - SHOULD BE FOUND BECAUSE "BLACK" WAS REINFORCED 50%



WITH OLDER CHILDREN, REINFORCEMENT STRENGTHENS MEDIATING VERBAL RESPONSES, E.G. "SIZE =

BIG"

 IN A REVERSAL SHIFT, THIS DIMENSION IS STILL RELEVANT SO PART OF THE LEARNED MEDIATING

 RESPONSE ("SIZE") IS STILL FACILITATIVE OF POSITIVE TRANSFER. OLDER CHILDREN HAVE DEVELOPED

 LANGUAGE ABILITIES AND THE CAPACITY TO USE LABELS TO MEDIATE.

IMPLICATIONS

 THE CONCEPT OF MEDIATION COULD EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN COMPLEX HUMAN LEARNING

 AND PROBLEM SOLVING.

THE CONCEPT BECAME UBIQUITOUS IN POST HOC EXPLANATIONS BY LEARNING THEORISTS AND

PROBLEMS WITH SUCH EXPLANATIONS BECAME EVIDENT: THE MEANING OF THE TERM CHANGED:

  MEDIATION = LABELING RESPONSE

versus

 MEDIATION = "A SELF-GENERATED REPRESENTATIONAL RESPONSE THAT ABSTRACTS FEATURES OF THE

 ENVIRONMENT" - KENDLER

STUDIES SHOWED THAT KNOWING A LABEL DOES NOT ALWAYS RESULT ITS USE AS A MEANS OF GUIDING

BEHAVIOR. SOME WORDS DO NOT FUNCTION AS MEDIATORS, EVEN WHEN USED = MEDIATION DEFICIENCY

SOME CHILDREN USE A GIVEN MEDIATOR ON ONE TASK, BUT FAIL TO USE THE SAME MEDIATOR ON

ANOTHER TASK = PRODUCTION DEFICIENCY - FLAVELL


                                                                                 LECTURE 4 - 16
CONCLUSIONS



THE VERBAL MEDIATION HYPOTHESIS TURNED OUT TO BE A GROSS OVERSIMPLIFICATION OF THE

COMPLEX MANNER IN WHICH LANGUAGE INFLUENCES LEARNING.



I.E. VERBALIZATION OF SOLUTION STRATEGIES INVOLVES MORE THAN LABELING: RULES, HEURISTIC

STRATEGIES, METAMEMORY



ABANDONMENT OF THE MEDIATION HYPOTHESIS WAS ACCOMPANIED BY GENERAL DISILLUSIONMENT WITH

THE NEOBEHAVIORIST APPROACH

         - H. STEVENSON (1983)



"NEOBEHAVIORISM AS ORIGINALLY ENVISIONED BY HULL HAS UNDERGONE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES: A

RETREAT FROM THE IDEALS OF RIGOROUSLY DEFINED THEORETICAL DEDUCTIONS, AN ABANDONMENT OF

CONDITIONING AS THE MAJOR SOURCE OF THEORETICAL HYPOTHESES, AND A WITHDRAWAL FROM THE

GOAL OF A GENERAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY TO MORE MODEST CONCEPTIONS."

     - KENDLER & KENDLER (1975)



VESTIGE = "BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS"

      -S. BIJOU & D. BAER IN R. VASTA (1989)




                                                                                LECTURE 4 - 17

				
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