Origins of American Government by zhangyun


									Origins of American

     Our Political Beginnings
     The Coming Independence
     Chapter 2
     Section 1 and 2

   Limited Government – individuals have
    some right that governments cannot
    take away
   Representative Government –
    governments should serve the will of
    the people and people should have a

   Magna Carta – document signed by
    King John in 1215 acknowledging that
    even the king had to share his power.
    At the time this only applied to nobles
    but it planted the seed for a
    constitutional monarchy, not absolute
   Petition of Right – 1628 limited the
    power of the monarchy for individuals

   English Bill of Rights – 1688,
    guaranteed rights such as fair trial and
    no cruel and usual punishment
   Charter – written grant of authority from
    the king involving a land grant
   Bi-cameral – 2 house legislature
    including an upper and lower house
   Unicameral – 1 house legislature

   Proprietary Colony – Land grant giving
    one person the right to organize it
   Royal Colony – a colony ruled directly
    through the king.
    Basic Concepts of
   Our first settlers brought with them the
    customs and laws from England
   The first settlers organized their towns
    based on those common laws using a
    sheriff, coroner, justice of the peace, and
    grand juries.
    Basic Concepts of
   Babylonia – Hammurabi‟s Code
   Greece – direct democracy
   Rome – 12 Tables which spread
    throughout their Empire in Europe
   English Law
   Native American Law
    Basic Concepts of
   Land was divided into
    counties and townships.
   They brought the idea
    of limited government
   They began a
    government in Jamestown
    Basic Concepts of
   The new government was
    based on English law and
    tradition from the Magna
    Carta, Petition of Rights
    and the English Bill of
    Limited Government
   Absolute monarchies had lost
    some of their power in England
    beginning in 1215.
   The idea of limiting the power
    of government was brought
    with the early colonists.
    Magna Carta
   In 1215, English nobles forced
    King John to sign the Magna
    Carta, making the king share
    power with them
   It included a trial by jury and due
    process before taking life, liberty
    or property.
    Petition of Right
   Almost 400 years later, in 1628,
    Charles I signed the Petition of
    Right which gave rights to common
   This document further eroded the
    power of the absolute monarchy
   It challenged the idea of divine right
    saying the king had to obey the law.
    English Bill of Rights
   After the Glorious Revolution in
    1688, William and Mary agreed to
    the English Bill of Rights
   This required the elected
    Parliament to share the power of
    English Bill of Rights
   It gave the right to a fair trial,
    freedom from excessive bail and
    cruel and unusual punishment
    and prohibited a standing army
    unless authorized by Parliament.
   The absolute monarchy was dead
    in England
    Representative Government
   Colonists also brought with
    them the idea of electing
    representatives to serve for
    them in government.
   The first permanent English
    colony was started as a joint-
    stock company, the Virginia
   The first
    inhabitants were

   The Pilgrims settled in
    New England to escape
    religious persecution
   The Puritans believed
    all other faiths were
    damned to hell.
   To relieve overcrowding in
    debtors prisons, Britain
    sent victims of the Poor
    Laws to Georgia
   It was set up as a military
    colony to buffer Spanish
    Florida from the Carolinas
    Royal Colonies
   Of the 13 colonies, 8 were
    under direct control of the
    Crown – NH, MA, NY, NJ,
    VA, NC, SC, GA
   The king named a governor
    but the lower house was
    elected by the people
    Proprietary Colonies
   Three were proprietary
    colonies: PA, MD, DE
   Lord Baltimore – Delaware
   William Penn – PA and MD
   Major decisions were made
    by the king while day to day
    business was controlled by
    elected representatives
    Charter Colonies
   Connecticut and Rhode
    Island were charter colonies
    and largely self-governing
   They had a bi-cameral
    Charter Colonies
   Some historians feel that if
    the other 11 colonies were
    allowed to have the power
    of Connecticut and Rhode
    Island, the Revolution may
    have been avoided.
The Coming of Independence
    Britain‟s Policies
   The 13 colonies were
    separately controlled through
    the king, by means of the Privy
    Council or Board of Trade
   Except for trade, the colonies
    were left to govern themselves
    under the watchful eye of the
Britain‟s Policies

   The Crown hired royal
    governors to oversee policy,
    but colonial taxes paid his
   Usually the governor went with
    the wishes of the town
Britain‟s Policies

   The Crown provided for a
    national currency and made
    foreign policy for the colonies.
   Parliament made few
    regulations regarding trade
    and taxes were low
    Colonial Unity
   For the first years, there was no unity
    among the colonies.
   Trade, transportation, communication,
    etc all went between Britain.
   The first attempts at unity, the New
    England Confederation and one
    devised by William Penn, were
    Albany Plan of Union
   Ben Franklin wanted each colony
    to send delegates to an annual
   They would have the power to
    raise a military, regulate inter-
    colonial trade, and dealings with
    the Indians
   It was rejected
     Stamp Act 1765

   Parliament passed a new
    tax law for the colonists
   It required that a tax be paid on
    almost all paper goods;
    newspapers, legal documents, etc
   A stamp proved the tax was paid
    Stamp Act 1765
   The colonists petitioned the king,
    boycotted British goods and hung
    effigies of tax collectors
   Parliament repealed the tax.
    More Taxes, More Protests
   Colonial boycotts
    continued when
    Britain imposed
    other taxes
   Their claim, “No
    taxation without
                        Tar and feathering
    More Taxes, More Protests
   On Dec. 16, 1773, patriots threw
    chests of tea into Boston Harbor
   King George III imposed the
    Intolerable Acts
   It was time for
    the colonies to
    join forces.
    First Continental Congress
   Delegates from 12 colonies, (not
    GA) met in Philadelphia
   They discussed the worsening
    situation with Britain and looked
    for a way to solve the conflict.
   They planned to meet the
    following summer.
    More Taxes, More Protests
   In April 1775, British soldiers
    headed for a colonial munitions
    stockpile west of Boston
   The “shot heard „round the world”
    was fired and the American
    Revolution had begun
    Second Continental Congress
   By the meeting of this Congress,
    we were at war with Britain.
   All 13 colonies sent delegates,
    which devised America‟s first
    Second Continental Congress
   John Hancock was its president
   George Washington was
    appointed Commander in Chief
   They raised an army, borrowed
    funds, dealt with foreign nations,
    and created a money system
    Declaration of Independence
   A committee of 5 was charged
    with writing a document
    explaining our grievances against
    King George III
   Thomas Jefferson wrote
    the document which was
    approved on July 4, 1776
    Declaration of Independence
   The Declaration of Independence
    lists the numerous acts that King
    George III did to America without
    any representative from the
    colonies in Parliament.
    United States of America
   After 5 years of fighting, America
    was independent
   States began writing their own
    state constitutions, each featuring
    popular sovereignty, something
    the patriots had fought for.
    United States of America

   The state constitutions had many
       Governors had little power
       Most authority was given to the
       Elected offices had short terms
       Landed men had the right to vote
    United States of America

   It was easy to see that America
    would not easy forget the reasons
    they fought for their freedom.
Origins of Our American

     The Critical Period
     Chapter 2
     Section 3
    Articles of Confederation

   The first state and federal
    governments of America were
    reminders of what colonists had
    lived through under King
    George II
   They based these documents
    more on what they did not want
    Articles of Confederation

   The Articles of Confederation is
    a government which gave
    states exactly what they wanted
       Strong state‟s rights
       Weak central government
       Unanimous decisions to change
        the Articles
    Articles of Confederation
   The Articles of Confederation was
    ratified by all 13 states by 1781
   The presiding officer had no
    decision making power
   Congress could declare war but
    not raise troops
   Congress could spend money but
    not raise revenue
    Articles of Confederation

   The states promised to send
    money and troops to the federal
    government when it was needed
   Nothing could force them to do it
    when the time came, however
    Articles of Confederation
   Congress borrowed heavily to pay
    for the war and those debts had not
    been repaid
   Not a single state came close to
    repaying their share of the debt and
    Congress could not mandate it
    Articles of Confederation
   Because 9 of the 13 states had to
    ratify any amendments, it was
    impossible to get them to agree
    so no amendments were done
   States bickered among
    themselves and many acted like
    an independent country when
    dealing with foreign countries
    Critical Period, 1780‟s

   “We are one nation today and 13
    tomorrow, Who will treat us on
    such Terms?” G. Washington
   States taxed one another‟s goods
    and banned trade.
   Debts went unpaid
   Violence broke out
    Shay‟s Rebellion
   Daniel Shays led farmers in
    western Massachusetts
    in violent protests
    against losing their
   There was no army to
    stop them
    Shay‟s Rebellion
   The farmers rampaged
    Massachusetts but no
    one was able to stop
    them without an army
    or trained military.
    Shay‟s Rebellion

   American‟s realized that they
    needed a stronger federal

   States agreed to meet to discuss
    a plan to settle the problems
Constitutional Convention

   Delegates met in Philadelphia
    in the summer of 1787.
Origins of Our American

     Ratifying the
     Section 5

   Federalists – men who favored
    a strong federal government.
    Madison, Washington, J. Adams
    and Hamilton
   Anti-Federalists – men who
    favored state‟s rights over a
    strong central government.
    Jefferson, Lee, Henry and S.

   Quorum – a majority of a
    groups participants necessary
    to vote on items
Fight for Ratification

   Copies of the Constitution were
    sent to each state for their
    legislatures to approve.
   The Constitution states that 9 of
    the 13 states had to ratify the
    document before it went into
Political Cartoon - 1788
Opposing Groups

   Two groups emerged over how
    much power the federal
    government should assume
   The Federalists and anti-
    Federalists will eventually
    become our first political
    parties, an idea that never
    occurred to the framers.
Opposing Groups

   The Federalists highlighted the
    failures/weaknesses of the
    Articles of Confederation.
   The anti-Federalists objected to
    almost the entire document
    because of the power given to a
    central govt.
Opposing Groups

   One of the biggest points of
    contention was that the
    Constitution did not contain a
    Bill of Rights, something that
    Britain had since 1688.
   They wanted freedom of
    speech, press, religion, right to
    a fair trial and protection

   Although ratification only
    required approval of 9 states,
    the framers wanted all the
    states in agreement.
   Delaware was first, New
    Hampshire was ninth.
Opposing Groups

   To make their points more
    public, each side printed letters
    to the newspaper explaining
    their side.
   They would be gathered later,
    bound, and titled The Federalist

   New York and Virginia had long
    battles regarding ratification
   Both ratified the Constitution.
   After the 11th ratification, it was
    decided that NY would be our

   They decided that the States
    would choose electors to vote
    for a president who would
    assume power in March 1789.
   Even today, electors, not
    individuals, elect our president.
    President George
   Once Congress had a
    quorum, they counted
    the votes
   George Washington
    was elected president
   John Adams would
    serve as his vice
      Is Flag-Burning Free

   US v. Eichman – the
    Supreme Court struck down
    a TX state law that forbade
    destruction of the US flag.
    Eichman burned flags on the
    Capital steps to protest
    legislation against burning a
      Is Flag-Burning Free

   Yes – It            No – The flag
    allows               represents
    expression,          the country,
    does not hurt        desecration is
    the US.              too offensive
   It‟s offensive      There are
    to some but          other ways to
    other things         protest

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