102 by stariya

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									                                    Advanced English       Book 1   Lesson 2

                   Lesson Two        Hiroshima—the “Liveliest” City in Japan
      Hiroshima lies on the delta at the head of Hiroshima Bay, an arm of the Inland Sea. It is the capital
of Hiroshima prefecture 管区 and the chief industrial and population center of the Chugoku region.
      Hiroshima began as a settlement around a castle built in 1593 by the feudal lord. The castle took the
name Hiroshima (Broad Island) from its location in the Ota River delta. In time, bridges provided access
to the delta, and today more than 80 of them connect the city’s six delta islands with one another and with
the mainland.
                                                                            By the beginning of World War
                                                                            II, Hiroshima was the 7th largest
                                                                            city in Japan. During the war it
                                                                            was      a     regional     army
                                                                            headquarters as well as a major
                                                                            rail center and producer of war
                                                                            materials.
                                                                            The building of the atomic
                                                                            bomb is called the Manhattan
                                                                            Project.      Developed       by
                                                                            American scientists, the first
                                                                            atomic bomb was detonated 引
                                                                            爆 at the Trinity test site near
                                                                            Alamogordo, New Mexico, on
                                                                            July 16, 1945. Shown here is
                                                                            the atomic bomb nicknamed
                                                                            “Little Boy,” which was
                                                                            dropped on Hiroshima, Japan at
                                                                            8:15 a.m. on August 6, 1945 by
                                                                            the American B-29 bomber
                                                                            Enola Gay. The blast destroyed
                                                                            68 percent of the city and
                                                                            damaged another 24 percent.
                                                                            About 60,000 to 70,000 people
                                                                            were reported killed, injured, or
                                                                            missing, according to U.S.
                                                                            estimates.

                                          Detailed Study of the Text
P 1:§Why is the word “Liveliest ” put in quotation?
It is put in quotation marks to show that this is what the city is said to be and the writer perhaps considers
it ironic to use the word “liveliest” to describe a city that had been atomized.
off: down from
“Hiroshima! Everybody off!”: Everybody should now get off the train.
§What do you think is the possible motivation for the author to begin his essay with words chanted by a
stationmaster?
To words of this stationmaster is to inform the passengers that the train had arrived at its terminal
destination and all passengers were to detrain. So the destination of the author’s visit—Hiroshima is
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                                   Advanced English       Book 1   Lesson 2
conveyed to us through the mouth of a stationmaster.
§What do the word “must” indicate here?
“Must” here expresses strong probability as the author did not understand Japanese and could not have
been sure. Therefore the reader could infer that the author is a foreigner who is to visit Hiroshima.
in: (of dress) wearing sth.
eg. in white; in mourning; in rags; in silk
stationmaster: the official in charge of a railway station
slipped to a stop: came to a stop smoothly and effortlessly, in a gliding manner
﹡slide, slip, glide
slide: implies accelerated motion without loosing contact with the slippery surface
slip: often suggests involuntary rather than voluntary, sometimes even definitely implying a loss of
       footing and a fall
glide: rather close to slide, means to move smoothly, quietly and continuously as is characteristic of
       dances
eg. Plane glided down to the airfield.
    Tom Sawyer slid past the door without anyone noticing.
    Yesterday Jenny slipped on a patch of ice and sprained 扭伤 her ankle.
a lump in one’s throat: a feeling of pressure in one’s throat, caused by repressed emotion
I had a lump in my throat: I was choked with emotion; I was so overcome with emotion that I could not
speak or think clearly.
on one’s mind: occupying one’s thoughts, esp. as a source of worry
a lot of sad thoughts on my mind: I was troubled about some sad events; I was occupied with some sad
thoughts
to have to do with: to be a concern of; to be about; to be connected with
And secondly, because I had a lump in my throat and a lot of sad thoughts on my mind…might say:
My sad thoughts had no connection with what a Japanese stationmaster might say.
very: itself and nothing else
stepping on this soil: putting my feet down on this soil; landing in Hiroshima
far greater: adverbial modifier of adj. or adv. In the comparative degree
far more; even more; still more; a lot more; much more; two-years older; a head taller
adventure: an unusual journey or an exciting or remarkable experience
reportorial assignment: reporting work for a newspaper
The very act of stepping on this soil…any reportorial assignment I’d previously taken: The fact that
I was now in Hiroshima was in itself a much more exciting experience for me than any trip I had taken or
any reporting work I had done in the past.
scene: place of an actual event
the crime: the dropping of the A-bomb on Hiroshima
Was I not at the scene of the crime?: I was now at the place where the first A-bomb was dropped.
§Why does the author end the first para. by a rhetorical question? What effect could be achieved?
No answer is being expected for rhetorical questions. They are usu. asked only for effect, as to emphasize
a point.
§What information could be inferred from the first para.?
Information provided in the first para.
1. The author was here on a reportorial mission.
2. Hiroshima was not the author’s first assignment.
3. He was preoccupied with some sad thoughts—the crime of the A-bomb. He was tortured by a guilty
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                                   Advanced English       Book 1   Lesson 2
   conscience.

P 2: ﹡seem, look, appear
seem: suggests a personal opinion based on evidence that satisfies the judgment
look: implies that the opinion is based on a visual impression
appear: may convey the same implication as look, but it sometimes suggests a distorted impression
produced by an optical illusion, a restricted point of view etc.
eg. The setting sun made the spires 尖塔 appear ablaze.
did not appear to have: did not seem to have
The Japanese crowd…that I had.: Judging by appearances, the author could not have been absolutely
sure that the Japanese crowd did not have the same preoccupations
sidewalk: chiefly used in the U.S.; British: pavement; New Zealand: footpath
seem: is used to indicate that things are actually not so
much the same: about the same; much here tones down rather than emphasizes the word same
elderly: approaching old age, past middle age
rub shoulders with: (informal) meet and mix with (people)
eg. The foreign visitors said that they would like to rub shoulders with the rich.
    This is not the sort of club where the great rub shoulders with the humble.
teenager: boy or girl from 13 to 19
§What does this sentence “Little girls…western dress” indicate?
This sentence gives the impression that in Japan traditional style and western style exist side by side.
to be oblivious of/to: to be unaware of
eg. Oblivious of each other, the two men flashed past on their separate missions.
    We should not be oblivious to the reality that Soviet restraint resulted only from our forcing of the
    issue and determined persistence.
Serious looking men… about them: They were so absorbed in their conversation that they seemed not
to pay any attention to the crowds about them
bob up and down: move up and down automatically (humorous description of the bows)
bob up and down repeatedly in little bows: bow repeatedly
ritual: all the rites or forms connected with a ceremony; part. form of any procedure regularly followed;
here used as an adj. meaning “done as a rite”
formula of gratitude and respect: form of words used regularly such as “How do you do” “Excuse me.”
facade: front or face of building towards a street or open place
grocery store: a store where tea, butter, sugar, tinned food and such household requirements as soap and
soap powder are old

P 3-5: cab driver: (chiefly American) taxi driver.
We might infer from the use of such words as “sidewalk” “store” and “cab driver” that the author is most
likely an American.
pop open: burst open with a short, sharp, slightly explosive sound
at the sight of: on seeing
whose door popped open at the very sight of a traveler: as soon as the taxi driver saw a traveler, he
immediately opened the door
City Hall: a building which houses the offices of a municipal government
He grinned at me in the rear-view mirror:
grin: smile broadly as to show teeth, originally expressing amusement, foolish satisfaction or contempt
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                                    Advanced English       Book 1   Lesson 2
etc., but in current English, tending to imply naïve cheerfulness
rear-view mirror: driving-mirror inside a motor-vehicle for seeing out of the rear window
set off: start (a journey, race etc)
We set off at top speed…: the taxi-driver drove very fast
martyred city: the city that has been made to suffer
flash by: pass swiftly
lurch: roll or sway suddenly forward or to one side
sharp twist: abrupt change of direction
The tall building of the martyred city…in response to the driver’s sharp twists of the wheel: The
high buildings passed swiftly and when the driver made abrupt changes of direction, we sometimes
swung to one side, sometimes to the other side in response to the swaying motion of the car.
ride: a riding, esp. a journey by horse, car, bicycle, etc.
screech: make a harsh, piercing sound (cf. slip to a stop, come to a stop, grind to a stop)
the taxi screeched to a halt: the taxi stopped with a harsh piercing sound as/when the breaks were
suddenly applied
to ask the way: to ask the direction
loss of face: inability to keep up dignity, self-respect, prestige; loss of reputation; humiliation
will accept any destination without concern for…: will agree to go where they are asked to without
caring…
§Intermezzo originally refers to a short, light dramatic, musical or ballet entertainment between the acts
of a play or opera; what does it mean here?
In the essay the word is used figuratively to refer to anything that fills time between two events—the cab
ride that took place between his arrival at Hiroshima and his planned meeting with the mayor.
§Why does the author use the phrase “I found myself”, what is the indicated meaning of this phrase?
This pattern gives the idea of “suddenness” “unexpectedness”; in this sentence it shows that I suddenly
discovered that I was in front of the gigantic City Hall.
usher: an official doorkeeper
heave a…sigh: utter a sigh; the doorkeeper uttered a sigh perhaps because many people had gone there
wrongly before the author and he had to explain once again

P6-10: sketch a map: draw roughly and quickly with outlines but little detail
hanks to: on account of; because of
embankment: a raised bank built to confine a river or canal
a sort of: used to suggest that what is referred to does not fully deserve the name, a kind of, sth. like a…
barge: a large flat-bottomed boat for carrying goods or people on rivers or canals; a large, open pleasure
boat used for parties, pageants, or formal ceremonies 大游艇
moor: secure a boat with cables
arresting: striking, attracting and holding the attention
spectacle: sight, view or scene
the rather arresting spectacle of little old Japan: the rather striking picture of traditional Japan
adrift: afloat without control, at the mercy of wind and sea; floating freely without being steered
beige: brownish grey or grayish yellow (the color of sandstone)
concrete: cement mixed with sand and gravel etc
skyscraper: scrape means “to touch”
incessant: continuing without interruption
§What does Kimono and miniskirt stand for respectively?
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                                   Advanced English       Book 1   Lesson 2
“Kimono” and “miniskirt” here are used symbolically to represent the “old” and the “new” or the East
and the West.
The rather arresting spectacle…the miniskirt: The traditional floating houses among high modern
buildings represent the constant struggle between old tradition, (traditional culture) and new development
(Western style).
stunning: very attractive; delightfully beautiful
porcelain-faced: using the traditional white make-up; a face with a fair delicate complexion
remove: take off
tread:to move on foot; to walk
cautious: careful to avoid danger, harm
treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting: I was not accustomed to walking in my socks so I
walked carefully, fearing that sth. unpleasant or dangerous might happen.
a twinge of embarrassment: a sudden sharp feeling of shame
at the prospect of: at the expectation of
experiencing a twinge of embarrassment…in my socks: suffering from a strong feeling of shame when
I thought of the prospect of meeting the mayor of Hiroshima in my socks
sad-eyed: looking sad
the strange emotion which had overwhelmed me at the station returned: I was again overcome by a
guilty conscience as I had been when I first arrived at the station.
I was again crushed by the thought that…: the thought that…once again overwhelmed me
slay: (literary) kill or murder
linger: be slow in dying
agony: great pain or suffering
lingered on to die in slow agony: died slowly and in great pain
just why we were gathered here: the exact reason for our coming here
just: exactly
inhibited: feeling restrained, having to suppress one’s emotion

P 11-19: spinal column: the backbone
flexible: easily bent; pliant
After three days in Japan…extraordinarily flexible: after three days in Japan one gets quite used to
bowing to people as a ritual to show gratitude
Notice the humorous effect achieved through the use of the formal, learned, scientific terms.
§What do you think could be the possible reasons for it? Why the repeated mentioning of the name
Hiroshima makes the faces grow more and more serious?
    To the author who was suffering from a guilty conscience the repeated mention of the name
Hiroshima created a suspense which he found hard to bear. That was also, perhaps, why the faces of other
foreigners grew more and more serious.
familiar to: well known to (cf. familiar with: having a good knowledge of)
the company: the group of people present
agitated: disturbed, upset
seldom has a city gained such world renown: seldom has a city become so world-famous
Inverted forms are used to emphasize usu. the adv. of a sentence. Other examples are:
eg. Seldom has a man accomplished so much in his lifetime.
    Rarely have I seen such a good movie.
    Never in my life have I heard such a stupid story.
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                                   Advanced English       Book 1   Lesson 2
    Little did he suspect that the shy pretty girl was a spy.
    Not only was he a great statesman, but he was also a great scientist.
    Not until recently did I realize why I was lagging behind others.
    Scarcely (hardly, no sooner) had he finished when people bombarded him with questions.
    Only in this way can we overcome this difficulty.
    So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him without difficulty.
    Under no circumstances should we give up trying.
§What rhetorical device is used here in the phrase: “…a town known throughout the world for
its—oysters”? And why does the mayor want to achieve such an effect?
This is called anti-climax, a common literary device to achieve humor, surprise, satire, etc. The mayor
said this because he did not want to embarrass the foreigners by talking about the disaster and he wanted
people to forget the tragic past and because Hiroshima was famous for its oysters.
about to: on the point of (doing sth.), just going to (do sth.)
assent: an acceptance (of a statement) as true; agreement
sink in: be fully absorbed or understood; penetrate esp. gradually
jolt: shake up or jar, as with a bumpy ride or sharp blow; shock or surprise
reverie: dreamy thinking, esp. of agreeable things; the state of being absorbed in dreamlike
contemplation; day-dreaming
I was just about to…out of my sad reverie: I was on the point of showing my agreement by nodding
when I suddenly realized what he meant. His words shocked me out of my sad dreamy thinking.
heinous: (literary) wicked in a high degree; atrocious
humanity’s most heinous crime: the most wicked crime mankind has ever committed

P 20-27: backed away: move backwards away from the mayor
headed toward the far side of the room: moved toward the other end of the room
you look puzzled: you look bewildered
I must confess that I did not expect a speech about oysters here: I must admit that it never occurred to
me that I would hear the mayor of Hiroshima talk about oysters.
impact: strong effect
cataclysm: a violent and sudden upheaval esp. a serious flood, an earthquake or war; disaster
I thought that Hiroshima still felt the impact of the atomic cataclysm: I thought that people here had
not forgotten the disaster the city had suffered
live through: experience and survive
§What is the undertone when the man said: “I tell you this because I am almost an old man”?
The implication is why I do not care if people should know I was here when the bomb was dropped is that
I’m old now. Other people might try to hide the fact.
school: group of people sharing the same thought
trace: a visible mark or sign of the former presence of thing or event; vestige
to preserve traces of the bomb: to maintain and protect the signs of destruction caused by the bomb
erect: construct; put up
at the point of the impact: at the exact point over where the bomb exploded
demolish: pull down or tear down
the atomic museum: the museum which houses the relics of the holocaust
time marches on: things are changing; history is advancing
gay: pleasure-loving
bear: carry
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                                    Advanced English       Book 1   Lesson 2
burn: an injury produced by fire, heat, or a heat-producing agent
hidden wounds and burns: visible and invisible scars

P 28: smell of: give out a smell of
stretchers and wheelchairs…corridors: stretchers and wheelchairs are put against the walls in the many
corridors
the very sight…any healthy visitor: even healthy visitors would shiver when they see those surgical
instruments
by trade: by occupation; by way of making a living
I thought somehow I had been spared: I thought for some reason or other I had not been affected; I
thought for some reason or other no harm had been done to me
fall out: fall off
my belly turned to water: water began to accumulate in my belly
I felt sick: I felt nauseous; I wanted to vomit
﹡Note: “testing” and “treating” are used here also to achieve musical effect; this is called alliteration.
humiliate: to hurt the pride or dignity of
It is humiliating to survive in this city: It is a disgrace for an atomic victim to remain alive in this city
(or to continue to live in this city)
encounter: meet with; face
on the part of: by somebody
…your children will encounter prejudice on the part of those who do not: your children will be
looked down upon by those who are not atomic victims
genetic: of or relating to genes
People are afraid of genetic damage from the radiation: People fear that the effect of the atomic
radiation may be hereditary (may pass on from parents to children). People suffering from genetic
damage may not be able to produce off-springs or may give birth to deformed or otherwise unhealthy
children.
lucky birds: according to Japanese tradition, if one makes one thousand little paper cranes, one’s wishes
will be realized, hence the lucky birds.
earthly: worldly as opposed to spiritual; (earthly is applied to that which belongs to the earth or the
present life and is chiefly contrasted with heavenly)
care: concern, worry, anxiety
each day of suffering that helps to free me from earthly cares: one more day of suffering would mean
a day nearer my death (would bring me closer to my death)
I have the opportunity to improve my character: I have the chance to raise my moral standard, to
purify my soul.
read: understand the nature, significance or thinking of as if by reading
I could read the answer in every eye: The expression of the people told me what the answer was.

§If you were asked to divide this piece of writing into parts, how many parts do you think it will fall
into?




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