Proceeding of the 2nd NICE Symposium July 30-31, 2007, Taipei, TAIWAN. Machine translation for the NICE presentation Masahiro Kamata Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University, JAPAN firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Although machine translation is a very useful tool for grasping the outline of papers or websites written in foreign languages, the translated result is far from perfect because it is difficult for computers to analyze the structure of the sentences we naturally use. In this paper, I would like to introduce several rules that can help machine translation to function more accurately, and give examples of sentences translated using these rules. INTRODUCTION The usefulness of machine translation has been studied and reported by Prof. Takeuchi and Ito1-3), and today many people use it to gain a basic understanding of papers or websites written in foreign languages. However, the translated result is not always accurate and sometimes leads to misunderstanding by the readers. Thus, it cannot be relied on too much and we have not used it for preparing our papers to be presented at the NICE symposium. On the other hand, there must be many school teachers in Korea, Taiwan and Japan who are interested in the NICE symposium and who have valuable information to share with each other. However, since most of them do not have many opportunities to use English in their school and daily lives, English is sometimes a major barrier preventing them from participating in this sort of symposium. In the field of chemistry and chemistry education, there are many expressions that are internationally available, such as chemical symbols and equations. What makes machine translation difficult is the complex structure of the sentences we naturally use. This means that the results of machine translation can be dramatically improved if we use simple and short sentences. From such a viewpoint, I would like to introduce several rules that can help machine translation to function more accurately. METHOD In Japan, free translation services are available on several websites such as; Excite; http://www.excite.co.jp/world/ Proceeding of the 2nd NICE Symposium July 30-31, 2007, Taipei, TAIWAN. Yahoo; http://honyaku.yahoo.co.jp/ Nifty; http://tool.nifty.com/globalgate/ Infoseek; http://translation.infoseek.co.jp/ Most of these websites offer machine translations from/to Japanese to/from English, Korean, and Chinese. These services are limited to private use, which means that the translated results must not be used for commercial purposes. However the distinction between private and commercial use is not so clear. For example, Nifty advised me not to use their service for an international symposium like NICE while “Excite” recommended us to make use of their service (as long as the users were school teachers). In this paper, Excite is used as an example. The “Excite” machine translation website The basic rules for producing an accurate translation are very simple, as follows; 1. Do not put more than one verb in one sentence. Avoid words that could be mistaken as verbs. For example, the Japanese sentence ;“ A B C ” meaning “I mixed A and B, and added C” is translated into “I added C mixing A and B.” in a machine translation. When the sentence is divided into two sentences as “ A B C ”, the correct translation is obtained, namely “I mixed A and B. Next, C was added to it.” 2. Make each sentence as short as possible. This means that itemization should be used more, for example; The purpose of this work is as follows; - Students can observe … - Proceeding of the 2nd NICE Symposium July 30-31, 2007, Taipei, TAIWAN. 3. Do not omit a subject in any sentence. 4. When you use a conjunction such as “and”, you should use quotations to clarify how sentence blocks are related to each other. …prepare A and B heated beforehand. …prepare A and “B heated beforehand.” …prepare “A and B” heated beforehand. 5. Make the most use of expressions that are internationally available such as chemical symbols, formulae, figures, photos, etc EXAMPLES A part of my paper “3D periodic Table”, written in Japanese, is presented below as a format sample. It includes English and Korean sentences translated through the Excite service. Periodic table 3D (development)(trial in class) 1.Introduction. The periodic table shows "Character of the element" and "Composition of an atom". People have used the periodic table for years. The periodic table appears in a school textbook. However, the explanation of the usage of the periodic table is only a little in the textbook of Japan. The reason to learn the periodic table is not being written in the textbook. The periodic table has been hardly used to teach the chemistry. Then, we developed the following periodic tables. ･The periodic table teaches the student the basis of the chemistry. Proceeding of the 2nd NICE Symposium July 30-31, 2007, Taipei, TAIWAN. ･The periodic table increases student's greediness for learning. ･The periodic table is a kind of the papercraft. I will introduce the outline of periodic table 3D as follows. Periodic table 2.3D. 2.1Outline. Periodic table 3D consists of the following two parts. 1)Frame of periodic table (cardboard) 2)Bar chart of parameter of density etc.(overhead projector film) You can make a three-dimensional periodic table from these parts (Figure 1). The student assembles it. Therefore, when assembling it, the student can read various information from the periodic table. After the student assembles it, the student sees the periodic table from various angles, and can read various information. You learn the following from periodic table 3D. Figure. 1 ･The character of the element is periodic. ･How is the size of the parameter different between elements of same belonging (group)? About 30 minutes are necessary for producing periodic table 3D. The price of one periodic table 3D is 80 yen. 3.Making method. You can download periodic table 3D from the following URL. There is no special tool needing when assembling it. I show the explanation of the making procedure below. Please refer to Figure 2. 1Defrost the downloaded ZIP file. 2Print the mount in the folder on white cardboard. Print the bar chart procedure 2 3 in the folder on the overhead projector film. 3Cut the mount with the cutter and the rule. Make the cut in the mount to insert the overhead projector film. 4 5 4Cut out the overhead projector film with Figure. 2 scissors. Proceeding of the 2nd NICE Symposium July 30-31, 2007, Taipei, TAIWAN. 5Insert the overhead projector film in the mount CONCLUSION Although the results of the machine translation (Excite) include primitive and unnatural expressions, the translation is accurate enough if the original sentences are made of short and simple sentences. Japanese to Korean translation seems more accurate than Japanese to English translation but the translation between Japanese and Proceeding of the 2nd NICE Symposium July 30-31, 2007, Taipei, TAIWAN. Chinese is not good enough in the case of the Excite machine translation service. We are looking forward to more presentations from school teachers in the next NICE symposium in 2009. REFERECES Masato M. Ito and Yoshito Takeuchi (2006). Chemical Education International, 7(1). Yoshito TAKEUCHI and Masato M. ITO. (2004). A Feasibility Study of Machine Translations as a Means of Disseminating Information of Chemical Education on the Internet: the Case of Japanese, 18th International Conference on Chemical Education. Masato M. ITO. (2006). A Feasibility Study of Machine Translations as a Means of Disseminating Information of Chemical Education on the Internet. (2) Japanese-English Translation”, 19th International Conference on Chemical Education, Seoul (Korea).
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